Celtic Remains, Lewis Morris (1878)


Abad, an abbot (f. g. abodes, an abbess). This is derived from the Syrian word ahbas, signifying a president of monks. The abbots were originally laymen, and the British monks in former times were no clergymen.
Giraldus Cambrensis tells us the monks in the monastery on Bardsey Island were first governed by a lay abbot, and called Colideos, Probably they were so csJled from their black hoods, t. e., cyliau duon. But it seems they were ecclesiastics when Dyfric, the archbishop, went there from the Synod of Brevi, a.d. 619. (This was the year before the battle of Badon HilL Usher) See EtUU and Myrddin Wyllt
Sometimes the princes, in the beginning of Christianity here, took it in their heads to build monasteries, and to act as abbots over them, whereby they got the title of Saints. "Abbas erat et princeps super Guntianam (GwenUwg) regionem," says the Book ofLlaTidaff, in the Life of St. Cadoc. He was the son of Gwyn- lUw Filwr, the prince of that country.
Ababis, a British druid cotemporary with Pythagoras, who is said to have taught Pythagoras the doctrine of transmigration of souls, etc. He lived about 510 years before Christ, and about the 244th year of Bome. Some fanciful men think his ncune was Ap Eys.
Abeb, recti Abekw, the fall of one water or river into another or into the sea ; and as it was natural to build houses or towns on such convenient places, abundance of towns in Britain, North and South, are to this day called by the names, of the rivers
there dischaiging themselves. So the word aher or aberw is com- pounded of a and herw^ to boil, or the ebullition it makes in its fall. Hence Aberflraw, formerly the seat of the princes of Wales in Anglesey, hath its name from the fall of the river Ffraw into the sea ; and this may suflSice for all the rest. Vide Ffraw.
Places in Scotland that have Aber in their name are the fol- lowing, viz. : Aberdeen, Aherhrothock, Abemethy, Aberdour, Aber- cam, Lochaber, and Aberwic (i. e., Bervnc).
Aberalaw, in Anglesey, the fall of the river Alaw into the sea.
Aberarth, Cardiganshire.
Aberavan : vid. Avan,
Aberbargod, in Bedwellty, Monmouthshire.
[Barged Taf, ger Ilaw Mynwent y Crynwyr. — Walter Patnes.] Aberbekgwm, Glamorganshire.
Bwrw Aber fal nyth Eryr
Bergwm wenn bu'r gwae am w^r. — L, Morgcmwg.
Hafart o Aberbran. — Vafydd Eppynt [Br&n i Dawy uwch Ynys Cedwyn. — W, P.]
Aberbeothock or Arbrothock, a town on the river Tay, in the county of Angus in Scotland^ forty miles north-east of Edin- burgh.
Aberbwthyn, Carmarthenshire.
Aberbythych, Caermarthenshire.
Abercar, in Taf Fawr, Breconshire.
Abercaraf, in Llyfr Coch Hergest, for Abercoraun, and that for Abercaraun. Mynydd yn Abercarav. — Gwasgargerdd Vyrddin^
Aberoaron, the fall of the river Caron into the sea. See-4&er- cumig and Caron.
ABERCioa or Abebkeog, see Ciog river. Aber Cuauc, and Kyog. — Llywarch Hen.
Aberconwy Abbey, on the river Ilechog, called also Mynach- log Lechog and Aberllechog. It was built after the year 1145 (see Ty Gwyn ar Ddf) and before 1157. (See Caradoc, p. ...)
Here Gruflfydd ap Cynan ap 0. Gwynedd was buried in a monk's cowl, AD. 1200. The monks were in such credit among the Welsh in those days, that they believed Heaven was in their gift ; nay.
80 superstitious were they, that they thought if they had but a monk's cowl on, it would give them admittance through
Abergorak or Abercomyn Castle, in Caermarthenshire (Cara^ doc, p. 321) ; recti, Abercowyn. This Castle was kept by the Norman, Bobt. Courtmaine, a.d. 116. . . (Powel's Caradoc, p. 178.)
Abergurnig or Aebergurnig, a monastery mentioned by Bede (I i, c. 12) at a* place called in the Pictish language Peanvahd (or, as the annotator, PenvaeJ) ; but in the English tongue, Pe?t- Tultun ; in the British, Abercaron. It is now called Abercaron Castle, where the Picts' Wall is said to begin at a place called WaUtoun, {Notes on Bede) Probably the name Penneltun, in the language of the natives, was Fen y Wal (i, e., the end of the wall). But the place of this town is disputed by Warburton in his Survey of the WalL
Abercwyddon, in Monmouthshire. [Aberffwyddon ym mhlwyf Maesaleg. — lolo MorganwgJ]
Aber Ctken or Ctnan, in Caermarthenshire. Qu. whether Cenrun ?
Abercynlleth, a gentleman's seat. — J, 2>. [Cynllaith i Dan- ad.— JT. 2>.]
Aberdar, a parish in Glamorgan.
Aberdaron, a church dedicated to StHowyn. {BrovmeWUlis.) (Qu., whether it belonged to Enlli ?) This was a sanctuaiy in Gruffydd ap Cynan's time, A.D. 1113 ; and Gruffydd ap Eys ap Tewdwr took sanctuary there, and from thence he fled to Ystrad Tywy. Vide Daron river.
Aberdau : see Dau.
Aberdeen or Aberdon, a city in the county of Marr in Scot- land, on the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don, about eighty-four miles north-east of Edinburgh. It is divided into two parts, and styled Old and New Aberdeen. The rivers go into the sea about a mile distant, and the new town is built on the Dee. The fish- ing town of Fetty lies on the sea-side.
Aberdulas [in Glamorgan. — L Mi\
Adfydd Pfranc ar ffo fibrdd ni ofyn
Yd Aberdulas gwanhas gwehyn
Cochwedd yn eu cylchwodd yn cu cylchwyn.
Hoianau Myrddin,
Abebdyh, a village in Merionethshire, on . the motith of the river Dyfi- There was a castle built by Rhys ap Gruffydd, King of South Wales, A.D. 1155, at Aberdyfi, over against North Wales, that is, in Cardiganshire ; but now there are not the least marks of it to be seen- See Caradoc in 0. Givynedd,
Aberenion, a castle built by Maelgwn ap Rhys, A.D. 1205.
Abebffos (nomen loci).
DiddoB AberflTos ni bu. — Ekys Pennardd,
Abeeffeaw : vide Ffraw. Cantref Aberflfraw, one of the three cantrefe of Anglesey, containing two commots, Uion and Mall- draeth.
Abebffbtdlan, a gentleman's seat in Merionethshire, on the river Ffiydlan.
Abebgabth Celyn is Aber village and church in Caernarvon- shire, called also Abergwyngregin, at the entrance of the great pass of Bwlch y Ddeufaen. Vid. Oarth Celyn,
Abergavenni or Abergavenny (now Abergenny), a town in Monmouthshire, fourteen miles west of Monmouth. Here Wm. de Bruse treacherously murdered the men of Gwent, ad. 1176.
Abergelau, a church, village, and parish, in the deanery of Rhos, Denbighshire. Vid. Gelau,
Abergorlech, in Carmarthenshire.
A chad Abergwaith a chad laithon. — Hoicmau Myrddin.
Abergwili, near Caermarthen. A battle was fought here between Llywelyn ap Seisyllt and the South Wales men, who set up one Run, a Scot, for a pretender, AD. 1020. The North Wales men got the victory.
Aberhonddu, a town and castle on the fall of Honddu into the Wysg ; in English, Brecknock ; the chief town of Brecknock- shire. It was inhabited in the time of the Romans, as Camden observes, because their coins are found here. Ber. Newmarch, in Wm. Rufus* time, built here a stately castle which the Breosses and Bohuns afterwards repaired; and here was a Collegiate Church of fourteen prebendaries, which Henry VIII translated here from Abergwili, in the Priory of the Dominicans. Vid. Honddu.
Aberllai, if rightly read by Mr. Edward Uwyd, the place where Urien Reged was killed by the Saxons.
Yn Aberllai lladd JJxien.'^Llywarch Hen, If not Aberllew, which see [s. v. Llew\.
Aberllech, a place in South Wales, where the Britains fell upon the Normans, Anno Domini 1094, and destroyed most of them. {Garadoc, p. 154)
Aberllechog : see Llechog. Here was the Abbey of Aberconwy.
Aberllienn Awc, rightly Aberlleiniog, in Anglesey. Caradoc (in Gr. ap Cynan) is mistaken. Built by the Earls of Chester and Salop (p. 155) A.D. 1095.
Abermaw, a village and a good harbour at the mouth of the
river Maw in Meirion. Here a customhouse for coast business
hath been lately set up, and here is a public ferryboat to cross
the river. Now called Bermo.
Talwn fferm porth Abermaw
Ar don drai er ei dwyn draw. — D. ap OwUym,
Abermenai, where the river Menai faUs into the sea near Caernarvon ; but it is properly no river, but an arm of the sea. Here Cadwaladr ap Grufiydd ap Cynan in the year 1142 landed with a great force of Irish and Scots, whom he had hired agaiMt his brother, Owain Gwynedd; but the auxiliaries were defeated, and peace was concluded between the two brothers. {Garadoc, p. 197.) Caradoc says they had no battle ; but if this was that described by Gwalchmai ap Meilir, it was a desperate one. But that seems to me to be a sea-fight with Henry II and all the power of England and Normandy and the hired fleets of Irish and Danes. His first expedition to Wales was in the year 1154 ; and his second in 1157, at Chester.
Abernaint, a gentleman's seat. — J.D, [Near Ilanfyllin, Mont- gomeryshire. — W, D."]
Abernant Bychan, a gentleman's seat, Cardiganshire.
Abernefyetd, or Mefydd, or Newydd, or Nevydd, where Elidir Mwynfawr was killed by Ehun. {MS.)
Abernon : Eglwys Abemon near St. David's. (Llwyd^s N^otes on Gamden.) It seems there is a river here called iVoTi, so named from Non, the mother of St. David. [See Eenton. — W.D,]
Aberporth, Cardiganshire, and Blaenporth.
ABERRfiEiDoL {Garadoc in 0. Gwynedd, p. 220). This is either Aberystwyth or the Dinas by Aberystwyth. [The junction of
Eheidiol and Ystwyth was formerly in a difiTerent place from the present junction. See my Tour. — W. D.]
Abertanat, near Ilansilin : vid. Tanad.
Am Abertaradr yn tremyna
Am Byrth Ysgewin yn goresgynxin.
Owynfardd Brycheiniog, i Arg. Ry8«
Abertarogi : see Tarogi.
Abertawy, Swansey in Glamorgan ; a seaport and town of good trade. [The river Tawy here falls into the Bristol Channel — JV. D.]
Aberteifi, a town and castle built on the river Teivi, near the sea. This place^ in the time of the wars with the Normans, Saxons, Flemings, etc., was the key and lock of all Wales. Rhys, the Prince of South Wales, in the year 1177, being in peace with Henry II, proclaimed through all Britain a great feast to be kept at this castle, where, among deeds of arms and other shows, the poets and musicians of Wales were to try their skill for the honour of their several countries, with great rewards for the over- comers. Here North Wales got the better in poetry, and South Wales in music. (Caradoc in J), op Ovniin,)
Aberthaw or Aberdaon, a seaport in Morganwg. — Dr. Powel, p. 122. [Aberddawon, where the river Dawon falls into the Bristol Channel ; in English, Aberthaw. — I. Jf.]
Abertridwr, Glamorganshire.
Abertrinant, Cardiganshire.
Abertwrch, in Ilangiwg, Glamorgan. [Twrch i Dawy. See Survey of South Waks.— W. D.'\
Aberwig, qu. Berwick ? Vid. y Ferwig.
["Mwnt a'r Ferwig, maent ar fai."— TF. D.]
Aberwiler {B. Willis), part of the parish of Bodflfari, Flint- shire. [Commonly Aberchmler ; " Gwylary," say some. — W. U.]
Aberyw or Aberhiw, now Beriw, a parish and church in Mont- gomeryshire, dedicated to St. Beuno (k aber and yw).
Y barr mwya*n Aberyw,
A'r bel yn aur o'r blaen yw. — 0. ap LI, Moeh
Abloic, was King of Ireland, who landed in Anglesey, burnt
Holyhead, and spoiled Ueyn, about A.D. 958, in the reign of lago and leuaf, sons of Idwal VoeL (Powers Caradoc, p. 61.)
AccwiL, a msoi's name. Perhaps from AquUa ; and hence some think the prophecy of Eryr Caersepton (i «., the Eagle of Caersepton) took its name^ a man called AquUa having prophe- sied those things about his countrymen, the Britains. See Powel's CaradoCy p. 5 ; and see also Leland's Script Brit., c. 5.
AcH and Achau : pedigree, or a table of the descents of persons from their ancestors. Sir Peter Leicester, in his Antiquities^ says in great triumph, that there are only sixty-six descents between Shem and Christ in St. Luke ; but that, according to the British history, the descent from Brute to Cassibelan is seventy, and twenty-two more from Noah to Brute, in all ninety-two. This, he says, is a plain mark of imposture in the British history of Galfrid. But to any impartial man it is a strong proof of its authenticity; for the Scriptursd descents axe of sons from fathers, but the British account is of kings, brothers, and strangers, and some of but short reigns.
AcH, pro Merch. (Dr. Davies, Orammar, p. 161.) . AcHLACH, Glyn Achlach, or (as in one MS.) Glyn Achalch, a place in Ireland where, in a meeting of the British and Trish musicians about the year 1096, the rules of composition of music for Wales and Ireland were settled by order of Murchan, the Irish prince, and of Gruffydd ap Cynan, the Welsh prince. This was Murchartus. (Offygia, p. 438.)
Adakau : vid. Caer Adanau.
Adab (Ynys), the Adros of Pliny, etc. Ynys Adar, the old name of Skerries. (Hum. Llwyd, Brit, JDescript.y
Adda and Addap (n. pr.), Adamus.
Adda Fsas, the poet and pretended prophet of Isconwy about the year 1240.
Adbbon or Gadebon (n. pr. v.). " Gorchan Adebon" by An- euryn.
Adles, verch Dafydd ap Llywarch Goch o DegaingL
Adwy'r Beddau, a pass through Offa's Ditch, where the graves of the Saxons are to be seen to this day, that were killed there in Henry the Second's expedition to Berwyn. See Crogen and Corwm.
Aedan ap Blegored, a prince or king of Wales in the year 1003.
Aedenaw, or Aedenawc, mab Gleisiar o*r Gogledd, un o'r tri •glew. {Tr. 27.)
Aedd ap Clys or Aedd mab Clys : see Afarwy,
Aedd Mawk, father of Prydain, who is said to have conquered this island. Ehys Goch Eryri says this Aedd was son of Anto- nus, son of Ehiwallawn, son of Ehegaw, daughter of Ilyr. See Prydain and Dyfnvxd Mod Mud.
Aedd AN (n. pr. v.), Aidanvs or ^danus; in the Saxon Chro- nicle Aegthan ; in the English of Bede, Edan.
Aeddan Fradawg, father of Gafran, {Triad 34.) This Aeddan was a prince of the Northern Britains^ or British Picts, who had the civil war with Rhydderch Hael. (TV. 46.) Bede calls him a king of the Scots (lib. i, c. 34). This is the Bridevs of Nennius. His great battle with Ethelfrid, King of the Angles of North- umbria, was fought at Daegstane in Cumberland, in the year 603, as Bede says, but the Saxon Chronicle sajs 606. This I take to be that battle the Triades caU "Y DifancoU," i. e,, the total loss. {Triades, 34.) That part of the army commanded by Gaf- ran, his son, being 2,100, in retreating to save their lord, were drove into the sea. " Un o dri diwair deulu" {i. e,, one of the three faithful clans), I suppose, retreated into the Isle of Man. Fordun, Boethius, and Buchanan, are all confusion about his successor.
Aedden ap Cyngen, about eight descents after Biychwel Ys- githrog.
Aeddon, n. pr. v.
Aeddon o Eon, his elegy wrote by Taliesin.
Aeddon (Tref), near Aberflfraw; vulgo Tre Eiddon : Yid. Arch- a^eddon (Llyn).
Aeddren, a place in liangwm, where it is said Bedo Aeddren came from. (MS.)
Aedwy, river in Badnorshire. Aberaedwy, a parish in Badnor- shire. Vid. Edvry.
Aeles, verch Kcart ap Cadw ab Gr. ab Cynan ; probably Alice.
Aeluaiarn (Saint). Llanaelhaiam in Caernarvonshire.
Aelianus: yii. Elian.
Aeron (nom. fluv.), a river in Ceretica.
Ymddifnstlei lew ar Ian Aeron berth Pan borthes eiyron.
Cynddelw, i Howel ap Owain Gwynedd.
HcDce Aberaeron, a village and sea-creek in Cardiganshire ; Uch Aeron, the country to the north of the river Aeron ; and Is Aeron, the country to the south and south-west of it. Aeron (n. pr.) : see Euron.
Aeron galon galed. — Myrddin.
Aeron (Llanerch), a gentleman's seat. — J. D. PerUre Aeron, a gentleman's seat.
-^tna, a fiery mountain in Sicily, which may have got its name from the Celtic tan : so the ancients wrote etan, L e., y tan, the fire.
Aethog ap Iddig ap Cadell Deymllys (in other places Deym-
Afagddu (n. pr. v.).
Afngddn mab Caridwen. — Hanes Talienn.
Afallach (n. pr. v.). (Triad 52.)
Afallon, Ynys Afallon, the Isle of Avalonia ; called also by Latin writers Glasconia. This was a spot of ground encompassed with rivers and marshes, and where anciently stood a monas- tery. It lies in the county of Somerset, and is now called Glas- tonbury. The name is derived from a/al (an apple), as Giraldus Cambrensis says it abounded formerly with apples and orchards ; or from Avallon, once lord of that place, which I take to be Afallach. In this ancient monastery King Arthur, the great British hero, was buried, and his sepulchre was discovered in the time of Henry II ; and a grand monument was erected for him in the new abbey by Henry de Sayle. (Vide Morgain.) But the name seems to be derived from avallcn, the plural of which, among the Loegrian British, might be Afallon, which is the termination of the plural of many nouns, as dyn, dynUm ; (fwas,g^weision; though the Cumbrians and the Northern Britains or Picts would have called it Avallennau, as appears by Mer- dtlin's works, who was a Pict of the forest of Kdyddon, Giraldus
Cambrensis' Avallon, lord of the territory called Avellonia, his British name seems to be Afallach,
Felly 'n Ynys Afallach Efe a aeth yn fjw iach.
Leiois Glyn Cothi, i Arthur.
The island was also called Ynys Wydrin, or the Glass Island, from the colour of the river being like glass. Hence GloAconia,
Afan, a river in Glamorganshire : hence AherafaHy corruptly wrote by Camden Aberafon. Cwmmwd rhwng Nedd ac Afan. (Price's Descript)
Afan (Saint). lianafan.
Afan Neddig, bardd Cadwallon ap Cadvan. (H. Lhoyd.)
Afan Ferddic, a poet mentioned by Cynddelw to Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd. Mian Verdic, bardd Cad. ap Cadvan. {Tr. 17.)
Afaon (n. p. v.), mab Taliesin, one of the three tarw unben (TV. 13), killed by Llawgad Trwm Bargawd. {Tr, 38.)
Afarwy, ap Lludd ap Beli Mawr, un'or tri w;^r gwarth. {Tr. 90.) " He invited lulcessar and the men of Rome to this island, and caused 3000 [pounds] of silver to be paid annually as tribute from this island to the men of Rome." {Triades, 91.)
Afarwy (n. p. v.).
Lleith Ywein llith brain braiddfrys 1 faran Avarwy aedd mab Cl^s.
Cynddelw^ Marwnad Yw. ap Madawc.
Afarwy and Afarddwy. Mr. Ed. Ilwyd thinks Mardubra- tius or Mandubratius was Afarwy Fras.
Afarwy Hir, father of Indeg. {Tr. 60.)
Afawn (n. pr. v.). Hence Bodafawn or Bodafon : vid. Aeddon.
Afaerwy (fl.), in Marwnad Cynddylan. {Lly^oarch Hen)
Affric or Affrwic, the quarter of the globe called Africa. "Ac ar hynny o espeit y deuthant hyd er Affric.*' (Tyssilio.) From whence the Danes or Norwegians came to Ireland and Britain in the reign of Ceredic. " Gotmwnt brenin yr Affric." {Tyssilio,) Vid. PoweFs Caradoc, p. 6, where he is, out of Cas- tor, called Gurmundus, an arch-pirate and captain of the Nor- wegians, A.D. 590. Galfrid calls him Gormundus, king of Africa ; but th^ British copy of Tyssilio has it " brenin yr Affric" (q.
AfiTrwic ?). This termination, ic or vnc, is common in the north : Leipsick, Brunswic, Dantzic, for Leipwick, Dantwick.
Afia or Arafia {D. ap Choilym, D, ap JSdmvmt, etc.), Arabia.
Ag aur Arafia 'n gmg a nfwn.—L. O. Cothi.
AGNEDA,Castell Mynydd Agnes, Edinburgh ; called also Alata
Castra and Castrum Fuellarum, Gastell y Morwynion, i. e., the
Castle of Maidens.
AroAL, Italy.
Myn croes naid o fro Aidal.
AiDAN (St.) : hence Llanidan in Anglesey. {H. Bowlands.) Others say St. Nidan. Aidan was the apostle of the Northum- brians about the year 600, and succeeded by Ffinnan.
AiFFT, Egypt.
AiFFTES, a gipsy or Egyptian woman.
AiFFTWR, an Egyptian.
Alaeth ap Elgrid L&s ap Eilon.
Alaethau ap Cadvan. (MS,) Under him Dyfyn Diarcher claimed the Principality.
Alais, verch Ithel Vychan.
Alan (n. pr. v.), a name very common in Armorica, several of their kings being of that name. In Triadcs, 35, there is one of this name mentioned to have been defeated by his men before the battle of Camlan between Arthur and Medix>d (a.d. 542), and was there killed. He was probably an Armorican auxiliary of King Arthur's.
** Teulu Alan Fyrgan a ymchoelasant y wrth eu harglwydd yn Uedrat ar y flfordd ae ollwng yntau ae weision i Camlan ac yno y lias." {Tr. 35.)
The very surname, Fyrgan, whatever it means, hath been re- tained by the Armoricans to the time of our William the Con- queror ; for I find Alan Fergeant, Count of Bretagne, paid homage to Henry I of England for Britanny. {Vertot, vol. ii, p. 185.)
Alan, a king of Armorica about the year 688, when Cadwaladr deserted Britain ; father of Ifor (i ael and glan, q. d. ael-ldn, fair eyebrow). Camden would have it to be a corruption of Pla- nus. But why ? Is it impossible there nought be Alan as well as Jilian ?
Alasswy. Tir Alasswy, mentioned in the English battle of Llewelyn ap lorwertL " Teymdud Leissawn ac Alasswy dir i deym Dyganwy."
Alaw (fl.), a river in Anglesey, on the banks of which there is the Tomb of Bronwen verch Llyr o Harlech. " Bedd petrual a wnaed i Fronwen ferch lijrr ar Ian Alaw, ag yno y claddwyd hi" {Mahinogif ap. Davies.) There is a cromlech in these parts which is said to be Brouwen's Tomb. (J. D. Uavies's Letter to E. Llwyd.) Hence Olan Alaw, n. L (Llwyd*s Notes on Camden.)
Alban (n. pr. v.). Alban, son of Brutus ; St. Alban, etc.
Alban, father of Diflfwg. (Tr. 72.)
Alban, Lat. Albania, Scotland. So in the Irish tongue, Alba and Alban is Scotland ; and Albanach, Scottish ; and the country called Braidalbain, in Scotland, stiU retains the name Albania.
Albanactus ap Brutus; recti Albanact, neu Albanact ap Prydain : vid. Lloegr.
Albion, one of the ancient names of the Isle of Britain among the Greeks ; so called, as some think, from Albion, the son of Neptune. (Perrot) There is a tradition to this day in Wales, that one Albion Oaivr had once a command or some authority here. This is commonly interpreted Albion the Giant, but means no more than Albion the Prince. This name, Albion, for the island, it seems, never got footing among the natives, for accord?- ing to the Triades the original name of the island was Clas (vide Cla$ Merdin), y Vel Ynys, and Ynys Prydain. Mela says that Albion was killed in Gaul by Hercules. If this was the son of Jupiter, he was six hundred years before Brutus ; but Varro reckons forty-four Hercules's. Vid. Cawr.
Alclud, Alclut, Ue'r oedd llys Ehydderch Hael. Alclwyd, Alcluyt, but properly Aeklwyd, a city on the brow of the river Clwyd (Clyde) in Scotland, which is either Glasgow or Dun- barton. Here was the royal seat of the Strathclwyd Britains. Bede (L i, c. 1) says the Britons call it Alcuith, in another MS, Ahluith or Alcluick; 1. i, c. 12, Ahluith, which in British is, he says, Eock Cluith. As this city aiid several others in the Triades are not in Nennius (Catalogue of Cities), it is plain he had not seen the Triades,
Alduyt, laid Ithel ap Adda.
Aldyt ap Ywain ap Edwin frenin.
Alectus, the eighty-third king of Britain : q. Aleth ?
Aleth frenin am winoedd. — D. ap leuom Du,
He killed Carawn, king of Britain. (Tyssilio,) Selden calls him Cuius Alectus, The English translation of Bede calls himAIlertus (L i, c. 6) ; but the Latin, AUectus.
Aled (n. fl.). DyflFiyn Aled, Denbighshire. Cwm Aled. Uwch Aled and Is Aled, two commots of Rhyfoniog hundred. Vid. Tudur Aled. Aled river falls into Elwy, Denbighshire.
Alet (n. fl.). Dr. Davies translates it Alettvs. Vid. Aled,
Aleth (n. p. r.) : qu. Alectus ? which see.
Aleth, a prince of Dyfed {J, D.), neu Alun.
Aleth, a country in Armorica : vid. Machutus,
Alfryd ap Gronow o Wareddog.
Alffryd, in English Alfred.
Aus, taken by the British poets for the general mother of Englishmen ; as we say, sons of Eve.
O waod teala plant Alia.
P. Llwyd cup LI. ap Gniffydd.
Plant Alls, y Saeson ; PlaTit Alis y biswail, by way of con- tempt.
Almaen, enw gwlad.
Almedha (St.), daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog. (Giraldus Cambrensis, Itin. Camb., p. 826.) Probably Eledei.
Almor (n. L). (Dr. Davies in Allmor.) Vid. Alltmor.
Alne, a river (Bede, 1. iv, 3, 28), probably Alun. It is near the Isle of Fame.
Alo (n. p. v.), a great man in Powys, rhwng Gwy a Hafren,q. ?
O Iwyth Gw^n gwehelyth gynt
Ag Alo ni fygylynt. — L ah Tudur PenUyn.
Gwaed Alo yn goed eilwaith. — Owain ap Llyw. Muel.
Alser, mab Maelgwn. (Trioedd y Meirch, No. 6.) Alser ap Tudwal ap Rodri Mawr. Alswn, verch Howel ap Ehobert.
Alswn wych lysieuyn wawr. Alun (fl.), a river that falls into the Dee below Almore. Ys-
trad Alun. Caer Alun, Haverfordwest {Th, Williams) Coed Alun, Caernarvonshire. Penalun yn Nyfed.
Alwen (fl.), in Denbighshire, falls into the Dee. (Uywarch Hen in Marwnad C3mddylan.) Llewelyn Ddu was lord of Uwch Alwen, and kept his court at a place called CynwyA {J, D.)
Allmon (pL Ellmyn), an Alman or German ; but AlUmon is literally a highland man or High German. All authors agree that the Alemanni were a particular nation of Germans, distinct from them. The Britains distinguished the Nort-myn from the AlU-myn. The Germans are called by the Spaniards and Italians, etQ.,Almain8; but call themselves Twitshmen, and know nothing of the name Oerman. ( Verstegan,)
Allt, a very ancient Celtic word signifying the ascent or side of a mountain ; and from hence the Eomans borrowed their alius by adding vs. It is prefixed to the names of many places in Britain which have that signification, as Allt Faelwc, yng Ngher- edigion ; probably Allt Fadoc (Triades, Meirch, 1) ; yr Allt Kudd ; yr Allt Wen or Allwen ; Allt y Crib ; yr AUt Goch ; AUmor, Alltmor. Almeria, a city and port of Spain, called from hence. Also in compounds in the ends of words, as Pen'r Allt, y Ben- allt, yr Alltben, the Alpes (yr AHpen), y Wenallt, y Felallt, y Faelallt, y GoedaUt, y Hirallt, Allt Gadwallawn. Allt Cwm- bobus, a gentleman's seat in lai.
Allt Meliden (nom. loci). Prebend of Allt Meliden at St. AsapL
Alltgrug, in Uangwig, Glamorgan.
Alltmor, the seventh battle of Llewelyn ap lorwerth, near Pennal. {Gylch, Llewelyn) " Pennal-dir angir angerdd."
Alltran, a rock near Holyhead.
Alltud Eedegog : vid. Gallu, Our books of genealogies make this man to be father of St. Elian, who was the founder of a monastery in Anglesey. Qu., whether he was not the same with Iltvdus, who was head and founder of a famous college in Mor- ganwg at Lantwit ? Vid. Elian and Eilian,
Ambiorix, a commander of the Gauls; first a captain of the Eburones. {Ccesar)
Ambri, Amesbury. Mynydd Ambri, Dinas Ambri, Amesbury.
Ambrones, some nation. Nennius interprets this name by
Ald-Saxonum, or Old Saxons, which Paulinus, Archbishop of York, baptized. (Nennius,c.lxiii.) But Ainsworth says they were a people of Switzerland, whose country being drowned, turned thieves ; from which iU men were called Ambrones.
Amddyfrwys : Ilanamddyfrwys or lianamddy&i, vulgo Lan- dovery.
Amgoed, one of the three commots of Cantref Daugleddeu. (Price's Dcseript.)
Amhafal (fl.). Llyn'arch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan.
Amhiniog, a lordship in Ceretica; or Anhiniog, Anhunoc.
(Price's Descript)
I*nhiniog oludog wledd
Mi af ; yno mae f annedd. — Beio ap leuan Du.
Ami, verch ArgL Herbert.
Amlawdd Wledig [married Gwen, daughter of Cunedda Wledig.— ir.i>.]
Amlwch, a village and church in Anglesey. Qu., whether a llyn or llnHih there ? Llyn Mynydd Trysglw}'n.
Amman : vid. Cvrm Amman, in Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire.
Ammwlch : Cefn Ammwlch, a place in Ileyn ; from an and hwleh, q. d. cyfa,
Ammwyn, defender (Celt.), a title of Jupiter. By the Eomans Latinised Ammon or Hammon« Teml lou Ammwyn, i, e., the Temple of Jupiter Ammon.
Ammwyn Gakthan : qu., whether the name of a place where
Gniffydd ap Cynan ap Owain Gwynedd fought a battle and
burnt it ?
Molais rwyf Cemais camre yngaylan
Yn ammwyn garthan gyrch i dandde.
Prydydd y Mochy i Gr. ap Cynan ap Ow. Qwyncdd.
Amwyn Ednob and Anmiwyn Elfael, in Cynddelw in Marwnad Cadw. ap Madawc.
Amode, verch Howel ap Ivan.
Amrel, an admiral This word seems to be but of modern use in Wales. The British word for an admiral, in King Arthur's time, when the British navy was in its height (about a.d. 520), was llyngesatve, from llynges, a navy, or llyngesdvyr, a navy man. (Vid. Triades, 20.) But the original Celtic word for chief admiral
seems to be penaig, q. d. pen eigion, i. e,, head of the ocean, though used for any principal officer after we had lost our navy.
Amwn Ddu, brenin Groeg [Graweg] : vid. Tewdric,
Amwythig, or Amwyddig, from gwydd, surrounded with woods or shrubs : hence Shrewsbury or Shrubsbury, anciently Pengweni Bowys.
Anan, verch Aneurin* (TV. 74.)
Anan (n. f.). Anan, merch Meic Mygotwas, un o'r tair gohoyw riain. (^r. 74.)
Anarad, id. quod Anarawd,
Anarad, Merfyn, Gad ell, A droed i wr edrjd well ? — Or, ap Llewelyn Vychan,
Anabawd, the name of the sixth prince of Wales in a.d. 877, son of Eodri Mawr. Not corrupted from ffonoratus, as Camden suggests, but derived from a'n or ein, and arawd, q. d. our ora- tor ; as we say ''a'n dwylo" for "ag ein dwylo".
Anarawd ap Gr. ap Rhys, prince of South Wales, a.d. 1142.
Anarawd, arglwydd Emwythig in King Arthur's time.
Anawan. Scr.
Andras, king of Britain ; Androgius.
Andrau or Andrew (but in my copy Andryiv), the fiftieth king of Britain ; from an and derwydd or drv^wydd, a druid.
Aneu. Sct.
Anevrin or Aneuryn (n. pr. v.), a poet of this name, who flourished about A.D. 510. In Nennius, iViw^vm ; Sir Tho. Br., Enerin, Aneuryn or Aneiryn Gwawdrydd, Medeyrn Beirdd; he was killed by Eidyn mab Einygan. Mr. Edward Ilwyd calls him Mychdeym Beirdd. (Triades, 38, 39, 74.)
Angaw (n. 1.), Anjou in GauL
Angell, a river. Aber Angell, Meirion.
Angharad or Angharat (n. f.). Angharat Ton Felen, merch Rhydderch Hael, un o'r tair gohoyw riain- {Tr. 74.)
Angharad leu ad lewych
Ynghaer Duw mae 'Ngharad wych.
Angharad ach Evrog Gadam. Angharad ach Colion. Scr,
Anglesey, the English name of the Isle of AfSn, a county of North Wales, called by the natives Sir Fon, Tir Mdn, and Gwlad
F6n, i. e., Monshire. It was called Anglesey by King on
his conquering it, which signifies the Englishman's Island (this was the battle of lianfaes, q. ?), i, e., Angles-ey, ey being the Saxon word for an island, as Bards-ey, Cald-ey, Rams-ey, Gams- ey, Jers-ey, etc.
This was the Mona of Tacitus, and the Isle of Man is the Mona mentioned by Caesar in his Commentaries, Vid. Mona.
Merfyn Vrych, from the Isle of Man, dispossessed the English ; and his son, Roderick the Great, King of aU Wales, removed the palace from Caer yn Arvon to Aberflfraw. {Mona Antigua, p. 173.)
Anguischel, King of Scotland. (Jo. Major, Hist, Scot, 1. ii, 3, 6.) He was Arawn ap Cynfarch, who was killed with Gwalchmai in the first battle with Medrawt, a.d. 542. . Angyw, Anjou in France.
Anhun. Sc.
ANHUNOCjOne of the three commots of Cantref Canawl. (Price's Descript)
Anlawd Wledig. He married Gwen, daughter of Cunedda Wledig. (Ach Cattwg.) '
Anlhach. Scr.
Anllech Corunawc, King of Ireland, father of Brychan Brych- einiog (vid. Brychan). Corunavjc seems to be the same with Coronawc or Coronog (i. c, crowned), being the chief crowned head or principal king ; from the Celtic corun or coryn, the crown' of the head. The Latin corona and Greek Kopovri are of the same original ; so the Chald. kerontha and the Hebrew keren.
Annell (n. L). Z. G. Cothi {k an and hell).
Annes, AngL Agnes.
Annwfn or Annwn, the deep; hell ; the country of the fairies . antipodes. Duwies Annwn, Goddess of the Deep or bottomless place.
Anoethon. Scr.
Anbheg ach Evrog Gadam.
Anselmus, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1100, temp. Guil. Rufi,
regis Anglise.
Aktigon verch Wmflre, duwc o Gloster. Anun Ddu ap Emyr Uydaw. Anundhwt. &r. Anwig, Enwig (n. L). Anwis^ some city.
A'th fronn wrth fnriau Anwis. — OwcUn ap Uew. Mod.
Anwn. 8c.
Anwyl, AngL dear. Ithel Anwyl ap Bleddyn.
Aran, a mountain in Meirion. Yr Aran Fawr (not Aren).
Lliw eiry cynnar Pen Aran,
Uoer bryd Iwys vryd o Lys Vr&n. — H. ah Einion, i Pefanwy.
Abandr, enw gwr. Rhiwallon ap Arandr o Lwyth Penllyn.
Arawd or Arod (n. pr. v.).
Arawn, King of Alban, now Scotland, in King Arthur's time.
Arawn or Aron (n, pr. v.). Aron ap Cynfarcli, un o'r tri chy- nghoriaid. {Tr. 86.)
Arberth, one of the eight cantrefs of Pembrokeshire ; in Eng- lish, Narberth. There are fairs kept here. Castell Arberth, AD. 1215.
Archaeddon. Uyn Archaeddon, a lake on the top of Bod- afon Mountain in Anglesey, which makes me suspect that Bod- afon should be wrote Bodaeddon.
Dyfitl yngwem Bodafon. — D. ap Edmwnt,
Archenad. Cynan Archenad.
Arderydd or Arderyd (n. L), Tr. 3. Owaiih Arderydd, the battle of Arderydd, on account of two shepherds who quarrelled about a lark's nest : one killed the other. {T. Aled)
£r gwaiih Arderydd mi nim dorbi
Cyn syrthiai awyr i lawr Uyr Enlli. — Hoianau Myrd&in,
See Owaiih Arderydd, Bhodwydd Arderydd, CaerArderyddyAeddan Fradatvg, and Owenddoleu,
Ardudwy, DyflFryn Ardudwy, that part of Merionethshire join- ing to the Irish Sea, where a great tract of ground was swallowed by the sea about a.d. 500. Ardudwy was formerly one of the two commots of Dunodig in Caernarvonshire. Camden thinks he sees some footsteps of the word Ordovicea in Ardudwy, but I con see none. {Camden in Mantg,)
celtic remains. 1 9
Abddebch ap Iddon ap Cadrod Hardd.
Abdhebch Drug. Scr,
Abdde'b Mynych, dan droed Mynydd Tryri; the place of the nativity of Dr. Thomas Williams, the physician, the ingenious author of the Latin-BritiBh part of Dr. Davies' Dictionary, and of several other curious tracts extant in MSS., Achau, Historian, etc. Qu., whether Gerddi'r Mynych ?
Abddon. Ynys Arddon y w Ynys y Moelrhoniaid. {Hist, Or, ap Cynan) Vid. Ynys Hyrddod,
Abddun or Ardun (n. pr. f.) ; hence D6i Arddun. Ardun gwraig Catcor apColwyn orGorolwyn(lV. 5 5), a noted chaste wife.
Arddu (Yr), a steep rock at Llanberis. {E, Llwyd,)
Arddu (Yr), yn Efionydd. Qu., yr ardd ddu ?
Arddyfi, i. e., above the river Dyfi ; Lat. Ordovices^ q. d. Gw^ ar Ddyfi, the North Wales men.
AiU)DYNWYNT, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
Aren Benlltk, a high mountain in PenUjm in Meirion ; per- haps because of the shape of aren, a kidney.
Aren Fowddwt, a mountain in Meirion.
ARENNia {K lAwyd), a mountain in Meirion, or Yr £nnig» wrote by the ancients Aran. Vid. Aran,
Arf-finiog. Howel Arf-finiog.
Arfon, the name of a cantref containing two commots, Uwch and Is Gwirfau, in Caernarvonshire ; but was anciently, it seems, the name of all the coast of the mainland which lay over against M&n, and for that reason called Arfon, compounded of ar and M&n, or on M6n ; hence Caer Arfon in the triades, now Caer yn Arfon, a garrison town and a noble castle. From the name of the town tlie county took its present name.
Arfordir, terra maritima. Dinasoedd arfordir, civitates mari- timse.
Argat, a poet, father of Cynhaval.
Argoed. This seems to be the name of the camps made by the Britains by felling of wood and heaping them up, as is done in all woody countries to this day.
Ni sefis na th^r na bwr bu crain
Nag argoed na choed na chadlys drain. '
EinUm ap Gwgan^ to Llewelyn.
Argoed and Arfynydd, places mentioned by Taliesin in the Battle of Argoed liwyfain.
Argoed, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Vid. Gargoed and Argoed- Wys.
Argoed Llwyfain : vid. Liwyfain.
Argoedwys, the people of Argoed in Powys-land.
Gledr cad calon Argoedwys.
lAywarch Hen, in Marwnad Gynddylan.
Gw^i* Argoed erioed am porthes.
Lhjwarch Hen, i'w Blant. Argonwy, i. e., above Conwy.
Donn Argonwy. — D. ap OwQym.
SoArllechwedd, Arddyfi,Arderydd, Ar y M6r ucha, and Ardudwy, Arfon, etc.
Argyleshire : vid. Ar y Crvryddyl.
Arian. Angliarad Law Arian, verch Dafydd ap Einion.
Arianfagl (n. pr. v.) {Trioedd y Meirch, 1.)
Arianrhod ferch Don, un o'r tair gwenriain. (TV. 34.)
Arianwen ferch Brychan.
Arlegh. Camden says that in the smaU country of Ardudwy stands the Castle of Arlech, which signifies on a rock ; though some call it Harlech qtuisi Harddlech, a rock pleasantly situated. {Camden in Meirion,) He also says it was heretofore called Caer Collwyn, and that the inhabitants report it was built by Edward the First. Mr. Ilwyd, in his notes, says it is never called Ar- lech, but Harlech ; and was once called T^ Bronwen, and after- wards Caer Collwyn, from Collwyn ap Tangno, a.d. 877, [who] was lord of Ardudwy, Evionydd, and part of Ileyn ; but thinks it (or a place near it) was called Caer before his time, Eoman coins having been found there, and an ancient golden torque.
Arlleghwedd (n, 1.), Arllechwedd Uchaf ac Isaf, two conmiots of Caernarvonshire. Menwaed o Arllechwedd, im o'i tri glew. (Tr. 23.) Cantref Arllechwedd in Caernarvonshire. (Stat. Hhvddlan,)
Armon. Uanarmon. Vid. Garmon,
Armoriga, recti Aremorica, which is literally, in the Celtic tongue, Ar y mor iicha ; or, as the ancient Britains wrote, Ar t mor ica^ i, e,, on the upper sea. Tliis was the name of all the
sea-coast of Gaul from Calais to Brest in J. Ceesar's time. '^ Urn- versis Gallise civitatibus quse oceanum attingunt qusequAB eomm consuetudine Armoricse appellantur." {Goes, Com) Of the same sense is the British name Llydaw, which see. But the name Armorica is now attributed only to Little Britain. Aremorici, gw;^ y morfa. {E, Llwyd) Irish, Armhieirich,
Arodion, lands and people oiArawd. {Gwdygorddau P(ywys,)
Akovan, a poet mentioned by Cynddelw to Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd. In Mr. E. liwyd's copy of the Triadea, Arofan bardd Selyf ap Cynan is mentioned.
Akban, an isle in the mouth of the Clyde (Clwyd), in Scot- land, of the same shape as Aren Benllyn, which see.
Abseth ap GwTgi ap Hedd Molwynoc.
Aktro, a river in Meirion, mentioned in Taliesin's works.
Abth (fl.); hence Aberarth, a village and church in Ceretica.
Arthal, the 31st king of Britain.
Arthanat, a place where lieweljrn ap lorwerth encamped his second battle. Vid. Cylch Lkwdyn, [Ar Danat, flu., qu.? — W.D.I
Arthanat (n. pr. v.). Arthanat ab Gwerthmwl Wledig. (TV. y Meirch, 1.)
Arthawg ap Caredig ap Cunedda.
Arthen ap Brychan Brycheiniog.
Artufael, the 62nd king of Britain.
Arthfael (n. pr. v.). a.d. 940, Cadell ab Arthfael, a noble Britain, was taken prisoner by the Danes and Saxons. (Caradac, p. 51.)
Arthmael or Arthnael ap Ehys ap ItheL
Arthne. lianarthne.
Arthog, ursinvs : hence Pwll Arthog, nomen loci«
Arthpoel, the father of Meuric who fought a battle with Llew- elyn ap Sitsyllt, a.d. 1019, for the Principality. {Caradoc, p. 85.)
Arthur (n. pr. v.), commonly Latinized Arcturus and Artu- rius ; by Nennius, Artur ; the 100th king of Britain, and last of Boman blood that held the crown ; son of Uthur Bendragon, who was brother of Aurelius Ambrosius, the sons of Constantino the Armorican. This great and famous prince, among other noble actions, subdued and brought six islands or countries tri- butary to Great Britain; that is, Iwerddon (Ireland), Islont
(Iceland), Goilont (Gothland), Ore (Orkney), liychlyn (Norway), Denmark.
Akthwys or Arthbwys.
AEvnuLGUS {Gal/rid), Gweirydd.
Arw (Yr), sign, rouigh, a river in Radnorshire. Another in Anglesey Mis into Alaw. The river Garonne, in France, is of the same origin, from garw.
Abweirtdd, probably the British name oiArviragus, Vid. Oweirydd.
Arwyneddog : vid, Owevrydd,
Abwystl Gloff ap Owain Danwyn,
Arwystli Uwch and Is Coed, two commots of Cantref Ar- wystli [cancelled by W. D.] ; so named from Arwystli ap Cnn- edda Wledig. (Price's Descrvpt)
Aewystli, a cantref or hundred, part of Powys, borders on Plymlumon Mountain ; one of the three cantrefs of Meirionydd, the other two beiiig Meirion and Penllyn.
Ar y Gwtddyl, that part of Scotland now called Argyle, and Latinized Argathslia ; in Irish, Ardnan GaidheeU {Ogyg., p. 323) ; so called for the same reason as Arvon was called, because over against Mdn. Vid, Polychron^ L i, c. 58, p. 209. Argail, Latinized Margo Scotorum.
Asa (St.) : vid. Hasa,
Asaph (St.), the patron saint of the lower church of Llanelwy, or St Asaph, in Flintshire. The other saint is Cyndeym ; Lat. Keniigem\u8\, In the British, Asaph is Hassa : hence Llanhasa, another church near Mostyn.
Asc: vid. Wysg,
AscAiN ap Gruffydd ap Gynan ; perhaps in memory of Asca- nius.
AscLEPiODOTUS, the 84th king of Britain, captain of the Pre- torian bands {Bede, L i) ; supposed to be Bendigeidvran ap Llyr, i. e., Bendigaid Fr&n ap liyr.
AsGWRN. Gronw Fyr Asgwm ap Tegerin ; in other places, Gronw Fyr Asgwm ap Tegwared ap Griffri ap Carwed.
Asia, that quarter of the world so called.
AssER (n, pr. v.), Archbishop of St. David's. He brought up Asserius Meneveusis, the historian, who was his nephew^ whom
King Alfred made Bishop of Shirebum and tntor to himself (Selden, Mar. Olaus., p. 254) and to his children (Dr. Powel, p. 44). Asser lived about A.D. 885.
Atiscros. This, in Domesday Book, is called a himdred belong- ing to Cheshire, bnt lying over the Dee, and was a part of the country now called Flintshire, and what the Britains called Tegeingl (i. e., Englefield). Rhuddlan Castle was the chief or head of it, as the words there are : " Hugo Comes tenet de rege Soelent> etc., modo habet in dominio medietatem castelli quod Roelent vocatur, & caput est hujus terrae/' etc. Yid. Ehos a Bhyvomog,
AvAERWY : vid. Afarwy.
Augusta^ the Soman name once for London.
AuBELiTJS Ambrosius. Bede (1. i, c. 16) says he was the only one, perhaps, of the Boman nation who had survived the storm of the Saxons' and Picts' joint army, who had overrun the island upon being refused their own demands, all the royal progeny having been slain in the same. He should have said perhaps to that, too. But what had the royal progeny of the Bomans to do in Britain when, by his own confession, Oratian, Constantino, Constans, and Yortigem, had been kings of Britain successively, who were no Bomans ? Why sO anxious about the Bomans ? Doth not this shew he knew nothing of the matter, except what he got firom that blind account given by Gildas ? who could not afford the Brit&ins one good word ; who made them rebels if they fought, and cowards if they did not.
Tyssilio, the British historian, owns that Constantino, brother to the King of Armorica, married a lady of Roman extraction, brought up by Cyhelyn the Bishop ; and that Emrys was one of Gwstennin's sons, who had escaped from Yortigem's hands to Armorica. Qu.,what might be the discord between Cyhelyn and Emrys, mentioned by Nennius, which occasioned the battle of Cot Ouallop f
AvAN, a lordship in Morganwg. Castell Aberavan, taken by Mr. ap Gr., a.d. 1152 (from the river Avan, and not Avon).
AvAN BuELLT (St.). Z. 0, Cothi Hence Llanavan. Yid. A/an.
AvANDRED or AvANDREG (n. f.), daughter to Gweir ap Pyll, wife of lago ap Idwal, Prince of North Wales, a.d. 1037. (Powel's Caradoc, p. 89.)
AVeKa or Afena, an island (mentioned in the Triades) on tbe .Grecian coast. See Clas. In these islands, it is said, a colony of Britains settled in the time of Cadyal mab Eiyr, after their spoiling Macedon and Greece and the Temple at Delphos, when one Urp Luyddawc, a prince of Uychlyn (see Llychlyn), got a supply of 61,000 Britains to go upon an expedition to the Medi- terranean, the second Brennus' and Belgius' expedition. (TV. 40 : vid. (7a&.) It is very extraordinary that this attempt of the Northmen, or Germans, is not mentioned by either Greek or Eoman authors, as it must have happened before the Boman in- vasion of Britain : but see Urp Liiyddawc,
Avon, a river mentioned by Camden in Merionethshire, to run near Dolgelleu ; but there is no such river. The river he means is called Maw, and runs to Abermaw ; and a river called Gelleu runs by Dolgelleu into the Maw.
Avon (fl.), recA Avan : hence Aberavan, ostium Avonis (Lat- inized, Aberavonium), Glamorganshire, a town and harbour. Several rivers of this name {Camden) ; but wrong, for this river is Avan. Vid, Avaru
AwEN. This is the Celtic name of a supposed genius or god- dess, which, according to the doctrine of the British Druids, on the death of any bard, immediately possessed some other living I)erson, who instantly commenced bard. This differs something from their transmigration of souls, which were supposed to enter into new-bom infants or into brutes. Tliis ancient notion is retained in some parts of Wales to this day ; and the Musa of the Greeks and Romans was, no doubt, at first founded on this ground, though afterwards they made nine of them, and perhaps foigot the transmigration.' Taliesin, the British poet, who flourished about A.D. 570, in one of his rhapsodies called his Wanderings, says that he remembers his Muse to have possessed a vast number of people. She was with Noah in the ark, and in abimdance of lestmed men from age to age, which he enumerates,
and he says,
Mi fum gynt Wion Bach,
Taliessin wjfi bellach ;
i. «., " I have been once Gwion Bach (the poet), and now I am Taliesin." So Pythagoras remembered he had been Hermoti- mus, etc., before lie was Pythagoras.
This Awen is by our modems wrongly translated Fv/torPoeti- eus, and supposed to be an enthusiastic fit that takes a man when he is fit to write verses ; which is below the dignity of our ancient Celtic goddesses^ who act regularly and coolly while the poets live, and afterwards remove to new furnished lodgings. It hath not been determined how many of these goddesses there are among the Britains (that is, how many poets can possibly exist at the same time) ; nor whether bad poets are possessed by one of these goddesses at all, or only by some evil spirit that takes pleasure to imitate them, and disturb mankind. It is as firmly believed in Wales that no man can be a poet without he is possessed with the Awen, any more than a man can see with- out eyes ; and it is said no man is able to disobey the impulse of it. These are some of the ancient notions handed down to us by the Druids.
AwR (n. pr. v.). Adda ap Awr of Trevor. {J. D.) In Jesus College MS. Aor. Awr ap leuaf ap Cyhelyn.
AwsTYN, Augustinus. ( W. Lleyn.) Penrhyn Awstyn, Corn- wall, n. L (TV. 30.)
Ayddan Fradawg, a northern prince. Vid. Aeddan,
Bacauda, vel Bachauda, vel Bagauda, certain bands of men in Gaul, in Diocletian's time, that strove against the Eoman power. From the Celtic word hagawd or hagad, a multitude, and not from heichiad, a coined word for meichiad, a swineherd, as some great antiquaries have ridiculously brought it.
Bach, little or small, in the composition of names of men and places. Eglwys Vach, a church and parish in Denbighshire; another in Cardiganshire ; PentreBach; yWaunFach; yTraeth Bach ; Gwilym Bach, GtU. Parvus, called also William of New- borough, an historian ; Gwion Bach, a poet ; Enudd Bach.
Bach ap Kakwyd or Karwed was a warrior of great note in that country called now Denbighshire, in North Wales ; and the church called Eglwys Each, near Tal y Cefn, is said to have been erected by him, and called after his name ; part of whose house they say the present steeple (which is a separate building, close
by the churchyard) was. Mr. Edward Uwyd, in his Itinerary of Wales, hath this account of him :
"Y Bach ap Karwyd yma a laddodd ryw bryf gwyllt oedd yn ormes mawr yma gynt ar Ian afon Karrog yn agos i'r eglwys jrma. Karrog, meddynt hwy, oedd enw'r pryf yma, a math ar faedd gwyllt, meddant hwy, oedd ef. Ac wythnos wedi marw'r prjrf yma y trawe Bach ap Karwyd ben yr ormes yma &'i droed ; ond gan iddo ei daro [ar] im o'i skythr, y clwyfodd ei droed, ac y bu varw o'r gwr o'r briw/' — E, Llwyd.
Bachegrwyd (n. L). Qu. Bacheogrwyd ?
Bachellaeth(ilL). Uanvihangel Bachellaeth Chapel in Lleyn.
Braich i windai Brychandir, Bachelltref garw hendref hir.
Owain op Llewelyn Moeil.
Bacheu, a lordship. Cadwgan Seuthydd, lord of Bacheiu (J,I>.)
Bachwy : vid. Pennant Bachwy.
Bachynbyd, a gentleman's seat. Salisbury's. {J. D.)
Baddesdown Hill {Bede, 1. i, c. 16), a battle fought between the Britains and Saxons the 44th year after their arrival in Britain, as Bede says. He does not mention who was the British general, for he could not tell, but that they made no small slaughter of the invaders. Vertot calls it the Battle of Bangor. He knew there was Ba in it, and that it was in the year 493 ; but our British writers say it was A.D. 519 or 520.
Badi (Y). Llewelyn y Badi o Bennant Edeirnion
Badd (Y), the Bath, a city.
Baddwn or Baddon, Caerfaddon (Triad,) ; another copy, Caer- vadon ; the Bath. {Th, Williams,) Vid. Owaith Faddon and Bladvd,
Bagad, literally a multitude : hence the Bagaudm, Bagadce^ and Bacaudm, of Gaul ; certain bands of men in Diocletian's time that strove against the Boman power, and had their name from hence.
Bagillt, a gentleman's seat, Flintshire.
Baglan (St.). Uanfaglan, Caernarvonshire.
Bala, a town in Penllyn in Meirion, where there was once a castle fortified by Llewelyn ap lorwerth, a.d. 1203. Dr. Thos.
Williams, Dr. Davies, and Mr. Edward Uwyd, agree that the meaning of Bala is a place where any river or brook issues out of a lake. (E. Uwyd, Notes upon Camden in Meirion.)
Bryn y Bala in Cardiganshire, near Aberystwyth. {Thos. WU- liams.) Likewise near the outlet of the river Seiont out of Llyn Peris there is a place called Bryn y Bala. {JS. Llwyd)
" Others say," says Ed. Uwyd, " that Bala, in the old British as well as Irish, signifies a village."
Banawc, Banco, or Banog, n. pr. v. (Tr. 70.) Ellyll Banawc ?
Baner, a banner or standard (Lat. vexillum), from bann, high or top ; and the German paner [panier] may be of the same origin.
I roi i faner ar fynydd.
Marchog banerog, a knight banneret. The Britains, on the decline of the Eoman eagle, wore a golden dragon in their standards, which the Danes and Scythians also in ancient times did. Wit- ness Spelman. Uthur Pendragon had his cognomen given him from his being the first British king that carried a dragon in his standard. (Tyssilio.) Vid. Pendragon,
Bangeibr, n. L (k ban and ceibr, Dr, Davies).
Bangeibr Dydoch, the Inonastery at Llandudoch in Dyfei
Fangor hyd Fangeibr Dydoch.
Cynddelw, i Twain Cyfeiliog.
Bangole (Caradoc, p. 34), a place in Anglesey (but it is Bagl- au ia B. MS. appendix to Tyssilio ; no such name now in An- glesey), where Eoderick the Great had a battle with the Danes who landed there in great numbers a.d. 873 ; another battle the same year at Menegid, which see.
Bangor Fawr, a town and bishop's see in Caernarvonshire. This Bangor is mentioned by Myrddin Wyllt in a dispute between him and the poet Taliesin at this town. Bangor is derived from bann and c&r^ the high or celebrated choir {Dr. Davies) \ "chora pulchra" or " locus chori" {Camden).
Bangor is y Coed, on the river Dee, where there was a famous college of monks, of whom a great slaughter was made by Ethel- fiid, the king of the Angles of Northumbria, at the instigation of Augustine, the apostle of the Saxons. This Bangor was not inferior to either of our Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, the town and colleges taking up about a mile in diameter. There
was here a dyfal gyfangan, i, e., 100 monks singing every hour of the twenty-four ; in all, 2,400. {Tr. 80.) ViA AfaUach.
Here likewise was Gwaith Perllan Bangor, mentioned in the Triades&& and 67, a battle fought between the Saxons and Britains, A.D. 617, where Adeldred and Ethelbert were overthrown by Bletius or Blederic, prince of Cornwall and Devonshire, and other Britains, Cadvan, Morgan, and Brochwel. He and his issue governed North Wales from Cadvan's time to the time of Eodri Molwynog, 750 ; but in Caradoc, p. 23, he is called Ethelfred, king of Northumberland. Tyssilio hath it Edelffled and Ethel- fled, and says the other generals of the Britains were Cadvan ap laco, king of Gwynedd ; Meredydd, king of Dyfet ; and their chief general, Bledrws, king of Cornwall. Bledrig was killed in this battle, and Cadvan crowned king of all Britain.
Bangor, a parish and church in Cardiganshire. Cefn Bangor and Maes Bangor in Melindwr.
Bangob, in Bretany.
Bangor, a monastery in Ireland.
Banhadlwedd, verch Banhadle, gordderchwraig Brychan Brycheiniog. Vid. Peresgri.
Banhenic, in Powysland, near the river Havren, where Beuno Sant was bom. (Beuno's Life by Dr. Fleetwood.)
Bann, used in the composition of the name of places, signifies top or summit, chief, lofty, high. Hence Y Fann, a mountain ; Y Fenni ; Bangor ; Bwlch y Vann ; Pen y Fann ; Bangeibr ; Banuwchdenni ; Mynydd Bannog ; Banbury ; Benna Boirche, a mountain in Ulster in Ireland.
Bannawc. Mynydd Bannawc,a mountain so called. [E.Llwyd.)
Bannesdownb, near Bath (from hann).
Bannog. Elen Fannog.
Bannuchdenni, n. L {J, D. Rhys), a moimtain in Monmouth- shire. [No. It is in Breconshire. /. Jf.]
Bar. Bryn y Bar at Holyhead ; Bryn y Bar near Tal y Cefn.
Barbarwr, i. e., bar-bar- wr, a man of or on mountains. Greek, fiap^apoi; ; Latin, barbams; a barbarian or mountaineer. So the Greeks called the Phrygians.
Barbefflwfi, yn Uydaw. {Tyssilio.) A harbour in Britanny, where Arthur's rendezvous was in his expedition against the
Bomans ; which I take to be the old name of St. Malo's, Barbe Fluir ; unless Llydaw included also Normandy, as probably it did, and then Barflenr it should be.
Ba£CUN, a name on a monument in the parish of HenUan Amgoed, Caermarthenshire, which Mr. Edw. liwyd thinks to have given name to Cefh Varchen. (Llwyd's Notes on Camden.) Vid. Marchan.
Babdd ; pi. Beirdd, bards, Lat. bardi. These Bdrdd were a branch of the ancient druidical institution in Britain and Graul ; their business being poetry and music, and singing the praises of great men (so Festus), not unlike the singers and musicians among the Jewish Levites. Hence a poet is to this day in Wales called hardd ; and Penhardd Cymru signifies the chief poet of the Cambriana The last meeting or convention of the Welsh poets (called Eisteddfod) was held by commission bom Queen Elizabeth at in the year
Places called from this word : Ilanfihangel Tre'r Beirdd, in Anglesey, where I was bom in the year 1701,0. S. ; Tre'r Beirdd, Anglesey ; Beirdd river ; Aberbeirdd.
Mr. Baxter's derivation of it from har is not worth notice. The word har signifies indignation and wrath, which poets have no- thing to do with, except it be against such wretched etymologists.
Babdd Cwsg (Y), a poet of an imcertain age, whose prophecies are extant. Some say he was one of the Myrddins.
Bardd Du (Y), a poet : qu. what age ?
Bakdd Glas (T) o'r Gadair, a poet in King Arthur's time. {J. D. Bhys)
Bardd Llwyd (Y), Urien Eeged's poet in King Arthur's time. {J. D. Rhys)
Basf. Howel y Farf.
Barfawg. Tryflln Farfog.
Babf Vehinawg : vid. Arf-finiog, Howel Varf Vehinawg.
Barmouth, the English name of Abermaw or Abermo, in Merionethshire, which see.
Barry Island, on the coast of Glamorganshire ; from St. Bar-
uch, a Britain. {Camden)
Barwn, a baron.
O farwniaid i Vrenin.
Barwn honwaed brenbinol.
A title of a degree of nobility among the ancient Britains as well as other nations ; probably from bar, a top or eminence. Ed- nyfedVychan,BarwnBrynFfenigl, in Llewelyn ap lorwerth's time.
Basaleg or Btsaleg, a church and parish, suid a gentleman's seat, Monmouthshire. Qu., whether Maesaleg, the seat of Ifor Hael Faesaleg, whom David ap Gwilym, the poet, often men- tions in his works. Yid. Basselek, Bysaleg, and Maesaleg.
Basingwerk, an English name of an abbey near Holywell, built in the year 1312. (Edward Llwyd's Notes on Camdeii.)
Bassa, some great town destroyed by the Saxons, in Shrop- shire or Staffordshire ; in Llywarch Hen's time in Powysland. "Bassa urbs aut oppidum." (JB. Llwyd) "Eglwysau Bassa'' {Llywarch Henxa Marwnad Cynddylan). One of Arthur's twelve battles. {Nennius)
Basselek, a castle and manor of Basselek and Sutton, in Mon- mouthshire. {Powel, p. 139.) This is the Jfoeso/e^ of D. ap Gwil- ym. Ifor Hael o Faesaleg. Vid. Bysaleg,
Bassiak, the 81st king of Britain.
Beaumakis: y\^,Bonover.
Beblig ap Sulwych ap Pebid Penllyn. Vii PMig,
Bed (n. pr. v.), brenhin Cemyw. (TV. 75.)
BEDO,a nickname forMaredydd; asBedoBrwynIlys,thepoet,etc.
Bedo Aeddrbm, Aeddren, or Aurddren, a poet, ad. 1500, o Aeddren yn liangwm. {MS)
Bedo Brwynllys, a poet, ad. 1460.
Bbdo Hafbs or Hafesp, a poet.
Bedo ap Hywel Bach, a poet.
Bedo Philip Bach, a poet, a.d. 1480.
Bedwas, a church and parish in Monmouthshire.
Bedwellty, in Cwm Sjrrewi, Glamorgan [Monmouthshire].
Bedwyr and Betwyr (n. p. v.), PentruUiad Arthur, Prince of Normandy and Flanders. {TyssUio.)
Com Ynyr Fedwyr o faint. — Bion Geri,
Fy ughalon dirion a dyrr
Fud-was fal Cai am Fedwyr.
Llew. Mod y Pantri.
Beddcelert, Bedd Calert, or Berthgelert, the name of a church in Eryri Mountains ; said to have taken its name from
CeUrty 9, dog of some great man buried there, and they show his grave. The common pronunciation is Berthgelart, which seems to be the genuine name. Mr. Edward Ilwyd writes it Bethkelert. (Notes on Camden.) [See the story of Cil-hart, Prince Ilywelyn's greyhound. /. M.]
Bedd Elen, Elen's Grave, on Mynydd Mihangel, in Armorica, where Arthur fought the Cawr, a Spanish usurper ; probably an island called Moimt St. Michael, near St. Male's, or, rather, near Bovillon and Granville, which some Spanish pirate occupied.
Beddau Gwyk Ardudwy, remarkable stone monuments on a mountain called Micneint, near Ehyd yr Halen, within a quarter of a mile of Sam Elen in Meirion. They are about thirty in number, each grave about two yards long ; and each grave has a square stone pillar in each of its four comers, and about three feet high. Mr. Ilwyd (in Notes on Camden) says the tradi- tion is that they are sepulchral monuments of persons of note slain in a battle between the men of Ardudwy and some of Den- bighshire ; but when, or by what persons slain, he says is wholly uncertain. Vid. " Beddau Milwyr Ynys Prydain", by Taliesin.
Beili (n. 1.). The ruins of Eglwys y Beili in Aberflfraw. Pen y Beili Bedw, in llandyfriog, Cardiganshire. Bryn y Beili, a tumulus near Wyddgruc.
Bel ap Tudur ap Adda. Bu iddo dri meib : Geffre Chwitt- ffordd, Dafydd ap Bel, a Hoel ap BeL
[Belan. Belan Ddu, Belan Deg, Belan Argae, in North Wales. "A singular circumstance is said to have taken place at Belan, in the county of Kildare." — Tim^ newspaper, Nov. 3rd, 1798.
Bele. Gmflydd Vele ap Madog ap Idnerth ; oddi wrth Bre'r Bele?
Beli ap Dyfnwal Moel Mud, the 22nd king of Britain. His brother Bran (Brennus) married a princess of the Galli Senones, and was that great Gaulish commander that conquered Home. This is very naturally Latinized Belgius, as Sir Jo. Price observes, and might at first be wrote Beljus ; and it was wrong in our his- torians to turn Beli into Belinus, which occasioned the blunders of our modems, who, out of this coined Belin, would make Melyn,
Beli, mab Benlli Gawr. (Arch, Brit., p. 262.)
Beli Mawr ap Minogan, the 70th king of Britain, fj^ther of Lludd and Caswallon. This Caswallon, after he had killed his brother Lludd in battle, was chosen chief king of the Britains, to oppose Julius CsBsar's invasion. Latin writers ignorantly call this Beli Belinus.
Bellovesus, the Latin name of a Celtic or Gaulish prince, which in the Gaulish was Mel was. Vid. Melwas,
Belyn (n. pr. v.), corruptly wrote Bdin. (Powel's Caradoc.) Belyn o Leyn fought a battle with Edwin, king of the Saxons, at Bryn Ceneu'r Rhos, where the fight was so obstinate that Belyn's men fettered themselves two and two, being resolved to die or keep the field. About a.d. 620. ( JV.49.) Vid, Tudor wpBdyn.
Belyn ap Elphin, a nobleman, a.d. 720. {CaradoCy p. 14.)
Bekbaladr, i. e., pen paladr ach. Gymru ben haladr, i. «., Wales, head or chief stock of British nobility.
Bendew: yi'A^Q Pendew.
Bendigaid. Cyndeym Fendigaid ap Gwrtheym.
Bendigaid Fran ap Llyr, i «., Bran the Blessed, or St. Bran, son of Llyr, called by the Romans Asdepiodotus. This prince's head was buried in the Gwynfryn yn Llundain, which is literally " the White Hill in London"; probably Tower Hill, because in the British tongue the Tower of London is called Y Tibr Choyn, or the White Tower. {Tr. 45.)
The fancy of this valiant prince was such that if his head was buried in that place, no foreign invaders would dare to come into this island while it remained there ; but King Arthur hear- ing of it, dug it up to show he did not want such helps to main- tain the island. {Tr, 45.)
Tin aflonydd yn flaenawr
leuan Bendigeidfraa Gawr. — H. BeinaUt,
Mr. Edward Llwyd mistook this for one word, which he Latin- izes Bendigeidvranvs ; and so translates Mabinogi, "caput Ben- digeidvrani sepelierint." {Arch. Brit., p. 262.) In some MSS. he is called Bendigeidfran Gawr. Vid. Bran.
Bengole, where Roderick the Great gave the Danes a battle. A place in Llanynghenel, Anglesey. Vid. Bangole.
Benlli Gawr, a prince of great power among the Cambro- Britains about the fifth century (a.d, 450), from whose name the
contriver of the legend of St. Cynhafal made Enlli Oavrr to give name to the Isle of Enlli, or Bardsey. Nennius calk him a very wicked king or tyrant of I&l, and gives ua a monkish story how St. Gannon called for fire from heaven to destroy him and his city because he would not receive his doctrine. (Nenn%us,c, xxx.) Vid. Caddl Deyndlyg.
Beli ap Benlli in Arch. BrU.y p. 262.
Benwyn (n. pr. v.). Ben^yn, and not Benw^n.
Gwyrda oedd W6n a Benwyn. — i. 0. Gothi.
Ceidwad llawen o Fen^^tryn
Cor Mair yw'r gwr cywir mwyn.
L, Potmsj i O. P., vicar Aberyw. Vid. OtD^n and Penwyn,
Bebchi (n, pr. v.), father of CoUawn. {Trioedd y Meirch, 8.)
Beren, Beuno's mother. (Beuno's Life,)
Berfeddwlad (Y), Denbighshire and part of Flintshire, con- taining five cantrefs, Ehyfoniog, Ystrad, Ehos, Dyfiryn Clwyd, and TegengL (Price's Description.)
Berged YN, in the parish of Guildsfield^Iontgomery shire. (J. D)
Bergwm, a river in Glamorgan, near Neath. [Pergwm. — L M!\ Vid. Alerhergvmi.
Bwrw Aber fal nyth eryr,
Bergwm wenn bu'r gwae am w^r, — L. Morgwn/wg,
Beris, Caer Boris : vid. Peris, Beriw, or Beryw, or Berriew : vid. Aberyw. Berllan (Y). Gwaith y Berllan, the battle at Perllan Fan- gor is y Coed, where the Britains defeated the Saxona
Ni fo gwaeth no gwaith y Berllan.
CynddehOy to Howel cup O. €rwynedd.
Berres or Berrys (St.), said to be St Brise. Uanverres, a church and parish in the deanery of lU in Denbighshire.
Berson : vid Person.
Berth : vid. Perth.
Berthyn, in Ilanddeidan, Glamorgan. [Aherthin, in Llan- fleiddan. — /. if.]
Berwig, English Berwick, a town : q. d. Aberwic. So from Abermaw, Barmouth, etc. Vid. Y Fermg.
Bebwyn, a mountain in Meirion (i bar, top, and gwyn^ white). Vid. Rhyddwyn, Thus far came Henry II, the King of England, against Owain Gwynedd, and narrowly escaped with life. Vid. Corwen.
Bettws. Several places in Wales of this name. These were the Bede houses demolished by Henry VIII. Bettws Gweyifyl Goch; Bettws Abergeleu; Bettws y Coed; Bettws Gannon; Bettws y Glyn. [Vide Arch. Brit,, p. 214, voce " Bettws", a place between hills. — W, 2>.]
[lenan Bradford o blwyf Bettws ym Morganwg. — W, P.]
Bettws Skebyv, in the Extent of Anglesey, by Edward III, for Bettws Geraint, which is Pentraeth, or Llanvair Bettws Ger- aint.
Betwyb (n. pr. v.). Vid. Btdwyr,
Bethoun, son of Glam Hector, Prince of the Irish Scots, whose sons invaded Britain about the year 440. Bethoun took pos- session of Demetia, G^yr, and Cydweli, ajid kept them tiU he was drove away by the sons of Cimedda Wledig. Vdhan in Gale's edition. In Flaherty, p. 431, Bdozan or Baothan is men- tioned as King of Ireland. (Price's Bescript apud Nennivs.)
Beulan (n. pr. v.) ; Lat. Beulanus, — ^falsely Beularitis in Gale's edition. Hence ULanbeulan in Anglesey. Vid. Samud Britan- nu8. Nennius, the historian, mentions one Beulanus, a presby- ter, to whom he had been a scholar ; but qu. ? See Gale's Nen- niu8, c. Ixiii.
Beulabius, falsely wrote in Nennius for Beulanus, Vid. Samud Britannus,
Beuno Sant ap Hywgi ap Gwjmlliw ap Glywis ap Tegid ap CadeU, a prince or lord of Glewisig. (Vaughan's MS. Notes on Powel's Hist) Another MS. says he was son of Beuvagius or Beugi ap CadeU Deyrnllyg, and that his mother was daughter of Owen ap XJrien, one of King Arthur's generals. In Winifred^s Life, said to be taken from Robert of Salop's, and printed, it is said that Beuno was of noble parents in Montgomery, at the fall of the- river Ehyw into Severn, called Aberhyw. His father, Binsi, descended from CadeU, Prince of Glewisig; and hi^ mother from Anna, sister to King Arthur, who was married to a king of the Picts. That his grandfather was Gundeleius (Gwyn-
Uiw), and cousin german to St. Kentigern, Bishop of Glasgow, ■who, being forced from Scotland^ founded the bishoprick of St Asaph. That he was educated under St. Dangesius ; but does not say where. When he had built a church and monastery he removed to some other part. Then he finished his monastery at Clynnog Vawr in Caernarvonshire ; from thence went to visit his friends in Flintshire. That one Trebwith, or Thewith, or Tyvid, a potent lord of that coimtry, had married the noble lady Wenlo, who was Beuno's sister ; and these were the parents of St. Winifred. She was born in the reign of King Cadwallon ; and Beuno's journey to Flintshire was in the reign of King Eluith the Second. But as Dr. Fleetwood shows that the Jesuit misunderstood Bobert of Salop's words, who says that this Thewith was son of Eluith, and was the next man to the King. JBeuno stayed so long on this visit that he built a monastery there ; and Caradoc ap Alen, King of that country, with his sword cut off the head of Winifred because she refused to lie with him. Beuno clapt it on, and she lived after that about fifteen years ; and Holywell sprung out of the ground where her head fell. Then Beuno returned to Clynnog, and received a present of a cloak which Winifred sent him by the river of Holy- well, which, watching the tides, coasted it along to Clynnog in Caernarvonshire, and landed there dry at Forth y Gasseg, which he says should be called Porth y Gassed, and a Cottonian MS. has it Porth y Saehlen, This is the sum of Eobert's account of Beuno. But this account of Beuno is very different from that in the British MS. at Jesus College, Oxon.
Another account of Beuno runs thus. Beuno Sant ap Bugu, of Banhenic in Powys, near Hafren. His mother was Beren verch Ilawdden. He was brought up by Tangusius, a holy man, at Gwent, and was ordained priest. Ynyr, King of Gwent, became a monk and disciple of Beuno, and gave him lands, also the people and their goods. Beuno's father died, and he suc- ceeded in the estate, and built a church there, and planted an oak which would kill every Saxon that would pass its branches. From thence he went to Mawn, son of Brochwel, who gave him lands for his own and his father's soul. The voice of a Saxon frightened him from thence, and he left his church to one of his
disciples called Rithwlint, and gave him a cross. He went to Meivod to Tyssilio ; thence to King Cynan ap Brochwel, and begged of him lands to build a church ; and he gave him Gwydd- elwem, where Beuno raised ian Irishman from the dead who had been killed by his wife. There Beuno cursed some of Cynan's nephews who affronted him, and they died. Thence he walked along the river Dee, and came to the place called now Holywell, where Temic, son of Elwyd, gave him a town ; and there he built a church, and brought up Gwenfrewi, daughter of Temic. Caradoc, King of Tegeingl, watched an opportunity of her father's being in church, and attempted to lie with her. She refusing, he cut off her head. Beuno clapt it on, and brought her to life, and turned him to a pool of water ; and where her head fell, there sprung up a well called now Holywell, in Flint- shire. And so God and Beuno cured the maid, and many were converted.
Cadvan, King of Wales, gave Beuno lands ; but Cadwallon, his son, gave him lands in Gweredog, in Arvon, which an infant claimed; for which Beuno gave the King a gold sceptre, which the King refused to return when Beimo gave up the land to the child. Beuno cursed him ; but Gwyddaint, the King's cousin, followed him, and gave him the town of Celynnog for his own soul and Cadwallon's, where he built a monastery, etc. One of the work- men of Aberffraw went to Gwent, and the Princess Digiw (Tegiawc), daughter of Ynyr, fell in love with him, and they were married. In his way to see his country, he cut her head off at Pennardd in Arvon, and went to Aberffraw, and bought a place in court. Beuno clapt her head on, and she became a nun with him ; and where her head fell, there sprung Ffynnon Digiw. Idon ap Ynyr Gwent came to see his sister, and prevailed on Beuno to go with him to Aberffraw. There Idon cut off the head of the man that had cut off his sister's head. The King of Aberffraw seized upon Idon, and swore he would destroy him unless Beuno would restore the other to life, which he did without hesitation. And the King repented he had tempted Beuno, and gave liim his palace at Aberffraw, where he now lives in, called Beuno. {Buchedd Beuno, from Bishop Fleetwood's.)
That there was such a man as Beimo, that was abbot and
founder of the monastery of Clynnog, is certain. His grave is shown there to this day, and his name is found in many of our ancient British writers ; but the legends are so full of contradic- tions that we don't know what to believe of them. The miracles ascribed to him are beyond belief. He lived in the seventh cen- tury, an age of confusion and darkness, when the priests said and did what was good in their own eyes.
In the Extent of Anglesey, taken by John de Deloes under Richard Earl of Arundel, Justice of North Wales 26 Edward III, in the year 1352, 1 find there are lands in Anglesey (Alaw 'r Beirdd) held of St. Beuno, and there the abbot of St. Beuno is mentioned. This was the monastery of Clynnog Vawr ja Arvon. Likewise in that ancient poem, " Beddau Milwyr Ynys Prydain", by Taliesin, Uanveuno is mentioned :
Bedd Dylan yn Llanveuno, etc.
It is said that all calves or lambs which were brought forth with a split ear were the inheritance or right of St. Beuno, and were offered to him at his church ; and this was called nodBeuno, or Beuno's mark.
BiGEL (St.) ; Lat. Vigelius ; not Bugail. Llanvigel in Anglesey. Maen Bigel, a rock in the sea there ; another in the Sound of EnlU.
BissAUD, in Doomsday Booh, Cheshire ; corruptly for Disert or Disart, a village in Englefield.
Black Mountains, between Brycheiniog and Tir G^yr, [Mynydd Du.— /. Jf.]
Bladudus : vid. Bhvddud.
Blaen, an ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of places, signifying the upper part of a country ; as YBlaenau, the High- lands ; Gwy-r y Blaenati, Highlanders or mountaineers ; Blaenau Lloegr, the Marches {S, Llwyd) ; Blaenau aforvydd, the sources of rivers {E, Llwyd).
Blaen y Cwm, the upper part of a valley where it begins, as Blaen Cwm Ystwyth; Blaen Cwm Eheidiol; Blaen Cwm Erfin.
Blaen Gwent, a place in Monmouthshire.
Blaen Llyfny, Castell in Brecknockshire, near Ilyn Safathan.
Blaen Llywel (or Lleweny, as Camden).
Blaen Pokth Gwithan, in Iscoed in Cardiganshire ; a town
and castle held by Earl Gilbert and the Flemings, A.D. 1116, where Gruffudd ap Rhys ap Tewdwr fought them, and got the place. (Powel's Caradoc, p. 179.) Blaen y Porth near Cardigan (?).
Blaen Tren (nomen loci).
Blaeniau, a man's surname (k hlaen and iau). Bees Blaen- iau, Owen Blaeniau, Ifan Blaeniau, etc.
Tri mab leuan term bywyd
Blaeniau pen gwybodau byd. — H, Pennant.
Blaenllym. Einion Flaenllym ap Einion.
Blaidd (n. pr. v), literally in Latin Lwp\is. Y Blaidd Ehudd o'r Gest, lord of Gest and Eifionydd (J. D.), grandfather of Haer, the wife of Blethyn ap Cynfyn. Also a cognomen. Vid. Ehiryd Flaidd.
Blathaon (n. pr.). Penrhyn Blathaon ym Mhrydyn, the ex- treme point of Scotland to the north (JV. 2); Caithness. {E.Lhvyd.)
Blas (n. pr. v.), a Norman or Norwegian name probably. Bias, mab ty wysog Llychlyu, i. «., Bias, the son of the Prince of liych- lyn, on the coast of the Baltic. {Tr. 84.)
Bledrws, Prince of Cerny w, general of the Britains in the battle of Perllan Fangor, a.d. 605, when the Saxons were drove beyond the Humber ; but Bledrws was killed, and Cadvan, King of North Wales, crowned King of Britain. (Tyssilio.)
Bleddfach, a gentleman's seat in Powys, qu. ?
O Fleddfach nid glanach glain. — L. P., i 0. P.
Bleddvach. Tomos ap Roger, arglwydd Bleddvach.
Bleddian. Ilanfleddian, Glamorganshire. [Bleiddan. lian- fleiddan. — /. M,]
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.
Bleddyn Ddu, a poet, an. 1090. (»/. D, Rhys,)
Bleddyn Ddu Was y Cwd, an id. ?
Bleddyn Fardd, a poet, an. 1246.
Bleddyn Llwyd, a poet, an. 1260.
Blegored, a Doctor of Laws in Howel Dda's time. {Dr. Pawd, p. 53.)
Blegywryd, the 61st King of Britain, called the God of music. {Tyssilio,)
BLEIDDLA.U. Cerrig y Bleiddiau, Anglesey ; Ffos y Bleiddiau, Cardiganshire.
Bleiddig (n. pr. v.), the father of Hyfeid or Hyfaidd, who, firom a slave or native tenant, advanced himself to be King of Deheuharth, or South Wales. (Jr. 76.)
Bleiddtd ap Caradog ap levanawL
Bleiddyd II, the 57th King of Britain.
Blenwtdd (St) Church dedicated at Coedane, Anglesey.
Blettkus ap Ceynawc Mawr.
Bleuddud, Bleuddyd, or Bleiddyd, the 9th King of Britain, Latinized Bladtultts, son of Bhun Baladr Bras ; but by a coin or medal of his, mentioned by Mr. Wm. Morris of Cefn y Braich, his name is Ylatos, or Blatos, which may be a Greek termina- tion.
Blenddnd a Moel Mud Madog ai ddymod. — Bedo Brwynllys.
Leiand says his great knowledge in natural philosophy got him the name of a magician among the vulgar ; and that by pro- per application of sulphur and alum earths he contrived the hot baths at the city called by the Britains Caer Badwae, mean- ing Caer Badd-dim, which he interprets the Mountain of Baths. And this is the place which Gildas, in his little History, men- tions by the name of Mons Badonicus (where the Britains and the Saxons had a great battle about the time of his birth) ; and not in the Black Mountains over Severn, where Polyd. Virgil madly seeks for it. He says that this town is the ITiermarum of Ptolemy, so called from the British word Badune ; and that Badune doth not come from Badudus, the king ; for that the king's name was Bladvdus, and not Badudus ; and he thinks that there was a town on the same river Avon, at a place where there hath been a Benedictine monastery (which the Saxons, from one Maildaph, called Maildulphshury, now Malmesbury). There was an ancient British city called by the name of Cair Bladune, which comes nigher that prince's name, where there are remedns of great walls and ditches. (Leiand, Script BrU,, c. vi.)
To a Cambro-British antiquary Cair Bladune is as distant from the name of the prince as Badvd ; and neither of them to the purpose, for the prince's name was Bleuddud, which, accord- ing to the English pronunciation, would sound something like BleUhid. So there is very little similitude between Bladune and Badud and this. Antiquaries should always remember that
anciept British letters do not sound like English and Latin. But as Mr. Leland seldom fails of shooting near the mark, I can let his readers into a secret, that the name of the ancient cas- trum which he caUs Cair Bladune was Ccier Bleddyn ; and no name more common among the Britains than Bleddjn, as Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys ; Bleddyn Fardd, etc. Mr. Leland also defends the story of his inventing wings to fly, and shews it is not all an empty story. Vid. Owaith Faddon.
Blodwel. Llan y Blodwel, a church and parish in Shropshire, qu. Uanymlodwel ? Ehiryd Voel of Blodwel. (J, JD.) Aber- tanat ymlodweL (i. G, Cofhi)
Blowty (n, L) q. d. Ty Blawd. Cwm y Blowty, a gentleman's seat. Morris.
BoD, an ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of houses or habitations (chiefly in Anglesey) ; some say from hod, to be (but qu. ?) : as Bodaeddon ; BodafoD ; Bodargolwyn ; Bodarnabwy or RonabwyjBodeUio in Lleyn ; BodeUiog, a gentleman's seat (J,D.) ; Bodelwy ; Bodelwyddan,vulg6 Bodolwiddan ; Bodenwydog in lal, a gentleman's seat ; Bodeuon ; Bodewryd, a chapel in Anglesey, and a gentleman's seat ; Bodfafon ; Bodfeddan, a gentleman's seat; Bodfeirig; Bodfel, a gentleman's seat in Lleyn; Bod- frwyn ; Bodgynda ; Bodidris in ISl ; Bodlew ; Bodlith, a gentle- man's seat (J. 2>.) ; Bodnant, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire ; Bodneithiar ; Bodoffwyr ; Bodegri ; Bodola, Anglesey ; Bodol- gadi ; Bodorgan, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey ; Bodowyr, a gentleman's seat {J.D), Denbighshire (Price) ; Bodrewyn ; Bod- rhyddan, Bodtryddan, or Botryddan, a gentleman's seat near Ehuddlan (see Ekvddlan) ; Bodronyn ; Bodlan ; Bodvach, a gentleman's seat in Llanfyllin ; Bodhalog; Bodhenlli; Bodiar; Bodig, Cefh y Bodig (which see) ; Bodedeym, a parish and church in Anglesey, from Edeyrriy a man's name ; Bodvaen or Bodfan, a gentleman's seat, Caernarvonshire ; Bodvari or Bot- fari, the fioman Varis ; Boduan (see Gam Boduan) ; BodfTordd, a township or villa in the commot of Malltraeth, Anglesey (JEso- tent of Anglesey, Edw. III). This was a free villa containing one carucat and half of land. No rent to the prince ; and only suits to the commots and hundreds, and to go to the wars at -the prince's expense, and pays no relief nor amobr, and has a mill
of its own called Melin Bodffordd. This was right British libei-ty. Bodwrda, a gentleman's seat in Lleyn; Bodwrog or Bodfwrog (vid. MiDTog, St.) ; Bodychain ; Bodyddfan, a gentleman's seat (•/. D.) ; Bodynolwyn or Wenolwyn ; Bodysgallen, a gentleman's seat ; Bodwine, a hamlet in Anglesey mentioned in the Prince's Extent, Edw. Ill, 135?. It was a free hamlet in the commot of MaUtraeth, and yet was liable to pay suits to commots and hundreds, relief, gobr, and amobr, IO5.; and the rent to the Prince yeariy was 16s., and paid quarteriy, 4*.; so that the Prince's chief profits were those accidental ones of gobr, amobr, etc.
BOD ap Pasgen ap Helic.
BoDVAN (St.) {Br, Willis.)
Boni or Boer. Penboir and Rhyd Foir, Carmarthenshire.
BoL. Cora y Bol, a bog in M6n of that name ; and Penbol (n. L), qu. whether in Tal y Bolion ?
Bol Haul, in Ilangwnnwr, Caermarthenshire ; another in Anglesey.
BoLG (Y), Belgica ; that is, Gallia Belgica, i.e., the Netheriands. Gw^r y Bolg, the Belgse. These were Germans that passed the Bhine before Caesar's time. (Qsesar, Comm., ii, 4.) The Irish writers call them Fir Bolg, i, e., the men of the Bolg. Vide BoL
BoNGAM. Deicws Fongam ap Madog ap Llewelyn ap lor- werth.
BoNOVER (q. d. Beaunovmr), one of the ancient names of the town now called Beaumaris or Beaumarish.
Castell gwedi cael castiaid
Bonover hwnt ban fo rhaid. — loan Brwynog.
Camden (in Anglesey) says the town was called Bonover before it was rebuilt by Edward I, and was called by him Beaumarish. It was formerly called Llanvaes ; and it seems to have been, in very ancient times, called Pcrr^A Wygyr, one of the three principal seaports in the Cambrian dominions after the Saxon conquest of Loegria. {Triad 5.) Vid. Caer Fdn.
BoNWM (n. 1.), Anglesey.
BoRT (n. pr. v.), a German name. Bort, mab brenin Bort. (F Greal apud Tr. 61.)
Bosso (n. pr. v.). Caervosso, Ehydychen, Oxenford.
BoTEinjARUL, in Doomsday Book corruptly for Bodffari, a vil- lage in Englefield, belonging to the raanor of Ehuddlan when in the hands of Hugh, Earl of Chester, in William the Conqueror's time.
BowcwN or BoccwN, Caer Vowewn, the ruins of an ancient fort in the turning where Nant Ceiliogyn falls into Trennig river, in the way as you go from Eisteddva Gurig along Llechinwedd Hirgoed in the east end of it. This fort kept not only the pass to Eisteddva Gurig, but also that to Dyf&yn Merin by Pistell Ddu. Vide Trennig,
Brachan, in Ach Cynog, Vide Brychan,
BiiADOG. Aeddan Fradog.
Bradwen ap Unwch ap TJnarchen. Ednowain ap Bradwen. (JPymiheg Llwyth,) Penrhos Bradwen ymhlwyf Caer GybL
Bradwen. Llys Bradwen (BrcUwen in the Gododin), near Dolgelleu {J. D), the seat of Ednowain ap Bradwen in the time of Llewelyn ap lorwerth.
Bradwyn (n. pr. v.).
Moes rhoi 'n gof maes arian gwyn
Mwy par wedi mab Bradwyn. — M. LI. O.
Braigh y Ddinas, a lofty and impregnable hill on the top of Penmaen Mawr, where are the ruinous walls of a fortification encompassed with a treble wall; and within each wall the foundation of at least a hundred towers all round, and of about six yards diameter, each within the walls. The walls of tliis Dinas were about two yards thick, and in some places three. There a himdred men might defend themselves against a legion; and it seems there were lodgings within the walls for twenty thousand men. Within the innermost wall there is a well which gives water in the driest summer. This was the strongest fort in all Snowdon. (E, Llwyd, Notes on Camden in Caernarvon^ shire) Vid. Meini Hirion and Penmaen Mawr,
Braint (n. pr. v.) signifies dignity : hence Briant and Bryan, modem names. Vide Braint Hir,
Braint Hir ap Nevydd, King Cadwallon's nephew, and one of his council, and lord of Uwch-Aled ; bore vert, a cross flowry or, {Pymtheg Llwyth) Qu., from his name, Sam Vraint and
Afon Vraint in Anglesey, mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Marw-
nad Gadwallon ?
Linesfc Gadwallon ar OeitU
Uoegr ardres armes ameint
Llaw ddillwng eUwng oedd Vreint,
Ceint river is also in Anglesey.
Braisg. Twain Fraisg ap Cyndeym Fendigaid.
Bran (n. pr. v.). Bran ap Dyfiawal (Latinized Brmivu8),Qecond son of Dyfiiwal Moelmut, the famous British lawgiver. He mar- ried a princess of the Galli Senones, and by the help of his brother Beli {Belinus, rightly Belgiua), King of Britain, overran Italy, and took the city of Rome, and kept possession of it seven months. (Tysirilio.) This was about 390 years before Ghrist, and 364 years after the building of Bome. Strabo plednly calls him Breriy and Poly bins corroborates the British history in this point. Vid. Brennvs and Urp.
Bran, a river that falls into Towi near Ilanymddyfri (from Bran, a man's name). Hence Aberbran and Glanbran. IfarU Bran falls into the Wysg.
Bran ap Llowarch.
Bran ap Llyr, called Bendigaid Fran. (Tr, 45.) Vid. Ben- digaid Fran.
Bran ap Melhym. He is called Bran ab y Melhym iaArch, Brit., p. 260. Qu., whether Mellteym or Myllteyrn ? In the MS. it is Mdsym. Vide Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Urien Beged
Bran ap Gwerydd. (Arck. Brit., p. 261.)
Bran. Dinas Bran, a castle on the top of a hill near Llan- gollen, which it is said belonged to Brennus. There is a lord- ship adjoining there caUed to this day Dinbran or Dinbren. It was in repair and inhabited by Gruffy dd ap Madog in Edward I's time, who was lord of Dinas Bran.
Camden says the tradition was that it was built and so named by Brennus, general of the Gauls ; and he says some interpret the name " the king's palace"; for that Bren, says he, in British signifies a king. Mr. Camden was here sadly out, as he is gener- ally when he meddles with British etymologies. Bren was never the word in the British for a king, but brenhin and breyenJiyn. Others, he says, would have the name derived from bryn, a hilL
Poor guessing ! for most British castles were upon hills. And how comes king to be a proper name of a king ? An odd fanc7 indeed !
Bran Galed o'r Gogledd, a prince or great man of North Britain, famous for his generosity. Corn Bran Galed oW Oogledd was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain kept at Caerllion ar Wysg in Arthur's time; Bran Galed of the North's horn. Desire any kind of liquor, and that horn would produce it. That is, I suppose, you were to drink in that house what liquor you desired ; unless there was a contrivance to convey liquors through secret pipes into it. Vid. Elurted,
Bran, father of Caradawc. {Tr. 19.)
Branes, a gentleman's seat, — Wynne's. {J, B) Also a sur- name : Hwmffre Branes of Branes Uchaf. (J. D)
Brangor (n. pr. v.). Y Gfreal, quoted Triad 61. Brangor's daughter was Empress at Consiiridbl, i. e., Constantinople.
Braniarth, part of Powys.
Branwen, merch Uyv o Harlech, gwraig Matholwch WyddeL (See the Tr. 51.) Ti&r Branwen oedd Harlech gynt. Hi gladdwyd ar Ian afon Alaw ym Mon, medd Mabinogi Bendigeid- fran. Palfod Branwen verch Uyr Llediaith. (Arch. Brit., p. 258.) [Capel Bronwen in Anglesey. — W. D.]
Bras, thick or big. Caradog Freichfras; Madog Benfras; Gruffydd Fraslwyd, tad Gruffydd Lwyd o Lanbrynmair.
Bre, monSj collis, a mountain, a hill : hence Moelfre ; and the Bre (Bray) of Athol in Scotland ; Peribre in Carmarthenshire.
Brecon. DinUe Vrecon, mentioned by Llowarch Hen in Mar- wnad Cynddylan. Mr. Edward liwyd guesses this to be Urico- nium or Wroxeter, near Salop. If it is, it should be wrote Ureeon, and not Brecon; for the British name of Uriconium is Caer Wrygion \ in the ancient orthography Chirigion; and it is found Ghiirigon in Nennius.
Sylles o Dinlle Vrecon. — Llowarch Hen.
Brechdwn. Gwem y Brechdwn, which see. Brecheiniog. (Price's Descript). Vid. Brycheiniog. Breiddin, Craig Freiddin in Montgomeryshire, a mountain ; corruptly, Craig Wreiddyn. Bre Freiddin. (Gwalchmai ap Meilir.)
O Freiddin freenhin freiddgar. — Qwalchmai ap Meilir.
Breigh Mons, corruptly in John Major (Hist Scot, I. ii, c. 4) for Eryri, where Gwrtheyrn built his castle. [Qu. if not Craig y Ddinas (q. v.) on Penmeien Mawr ? — W, JO.]
Breint (fl.) : hence Aberbreint, afon Praint in Anglesey, an J the rivers Brent in Devon and Middlesex, and the river Brent in the Venetian territory. All have their names from Braint, which see.
Brenhin or Brenhyn, pL Brenhynoedd {k hraint and Jien),
Dybu Brenhin Lloegr yn Unyddawc. — MeUir Brydydd.
Breinioly Breiniau.
Breenhin na frenhin brithfyd dybi. — Myrddin^ Hoianaa.
Breyenhin, Breienh^, q. d. brainh^, the honourable elder.
BRENHiNLLWtTH. Y Pum Brenhinllwyth,i. e., the five princely tribes.
Brevi, a river at Uanddewi Brevi in Cardiganshire. {BrU. Sanct, March 1.) Qu. wh. from Gwenfrewi (see Owdl Dewi); or qu. wh. Brewi, from Gwenvrewi ? Leland is mistaken in the derivation from brefu, Vid. Byfrig and Dfnjoi.
Bricgnau Mere, in Marianus, means the pool or mere by Brecknock called Uyn Safathan, and Castell Dinas by that lake.
Briganted, in Armorica, thieves (qu. wh. k BrigarUes). [Sic in Glamorgan. — /. if.]
Bristol, a city on the river Avon, part in Somersetshire and part in Gloucestershire. It had once the name of Caerodomant, and perhaps Bath was called Caerodor Uchaf. Odor then seems to have been the name of the river Avon ; and I should be apt to think that a smaller river runs into the Odor at Bristol, of such a name as Ysto, from whence Aberysto, and thence Bristow. [No river Ysto there. — L M,] Vid. Brittou.
Britain, the English name of the island containing England, Wales, and Scotland. Vid. Prydain.
Britannia, the Latin name of Britain. Vid. BrtU Ynys.
Britenhuis, or THuiste Briten, the ruins of a tower in the sea, to be seen at low water, near Cattwiick at the mouth of the Ehine. Thus called by the Hollanders that dwell near it. Sue- tonius says that Caligula built a tower in that place ; and
Hadrian Junius, Camden, and Vitus, say that this is the ruins of the same tower ; but Ortelius, Groetzius, and Cluverius, deny it. (Selden, Mar. Clans,, p. 203.) ' Brithdir, in GOsfield, a gentleman's seat.
Brithdib, in Llangollen parish.
Brithon. Co^jBri^A^m, Bristol {U8her)yOT perhaps Dunbritton.
Brithwch. Caer Brithwch {Ystori KUhwch ap Kilydd), per- haps Caer Brython.
Brittou. Caer Brittou (Nen7iiu8) : qu. whether the Caer Brithon of Usher's, which he interprets Bristol ? As Bristol lies on a very commodious spot for trade, it must be supposed there was a town built there in the infancy of the British government ; and though I have no authority for it from either Boman or British writers (neither Anton's Itinerary nor the Triades men- tioning it), yet I cannot help thinking that this town had a British name formerly, whence the name Bi-istow or Bristaw was formed. It is now pronounced by the Welsh Brustaw or Brusto; as the British name of the river is now lost, and nothing remains but Avon, which is the common British name for all rivers ; and who can doubt that Bristow was by the Britains called Aberysto, or some such name, as Aberystwyth is called from the river Ystwy th. Vide Bristol
[Briw (n, 1.). Cefn y Briw; Uyn y Briw; Ehyd y Briw. Vid. Caer.— W. J9.]
Bro, country, region ; different from Gwlad.
A*ch gw^ oil wlad Fro Ghidell. — Rhys Nanmor. Henw 'ngwlad yw Bro Gadell. — D. ap Qwihjm, Swyddan yngwlad Bro Gadell. — D. ff. H,
Bro Alun, where Llewelyn ap lorwerth fought with the Nor- mans, about the river Alun.
Un am Fro Alun elfydd Cann a Ffrainc.
Frydydd y Moch; i LI. ap lorwerth.
Brochuael Hir (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan).
Brochwel, Bbychwel, or Brychfael (n. pr. v.).
Brochwel, sumamed Ysgythrog (from a place of that name in Brecknockshire), ap Cyngan ap Cadell Deyrnlluc, Prince of Powys and Earl of Chester, was one of the generals of the Britains
in the great battle fought a.d. 617 between the Britains and Ethelfrid and his Saxons near the City of Legions (West Chester). Brochwel was stationed with a party of men to cover the monks of Bangor is y Coed, who were there in great numbers praying for the battle ; but Ethelfrid prevailed, and destroyed some hun- dreds of the monks. Several of them fled to Ynys Enlli (Isle of Bardsey); but the college or university was not touched, for Ethelfrid was defeated at Bangor. See Gwaith Ferllan Fan- gar; and also see Nennius. Camden, in his Remains, p. 108, writes this name BrochvaU Schiirauc, and explains it "gagg- toothed", but without reason or skill in the language ; and Price (Descript.) calls him Brochwel Ysgithrog, that is, " long-toothed". He had three sons, viz., Mawn, Tyssilio Sant at Meivod, and Cynan the Prince. {Biichedd Be^cno.)
Brig gw;^dd Syr Gruffydd a'i sel Breichiaa Gwenwys a Brochwel. — Sion Geri.
Ni bo dyn y' myw y M6n
0*r Brychfaeliaid Brychfoelion.
Englynion Saith Mob Cadifor, a.d. 11?0 \M. A. i, 418]. Brodir.
M6r yw, tu hwnt y maeV tir,
Meredydd tros fy mrodir. — J. Bafydd Ddu. Vid. Owlad,
Bbodorddyn, Brodorddin, or Brordorddun (q. d. Bro Dorddy n,
tarn quaere). Syr EogerVychan, arglwydd Brodorddyn a'r Cwm.
Mawr o dwrdd ym Mrodorddun Mawr poen cant marw pen can.
letmn wp Hywel Swrdwdl, i W. Vychan o Hergest.
Ni bu drwoh wyneb y drin
Heb wrid nrddas Brodorddin.
leucM ap Stbw Oae Llwyd, Brodoryn, qu, Brodorddyn ?
Cyfrwng Brodoryn brad o Wynedd.
Hoiancm Myrddin. Bro Dtwi. (Z. 0. Cothl)
Bro Gapell, Dafydd ap Gwilym's country.
Brogior wrth Wenni, a village in Glamorgansliire. Fairs are
kept here. [Aberogiar (never called otherwise) has an ancient
castle, and is a seaport in the Duchy of Lancaster, like other places in Glamorgan. — I, Jf.]
Broginin or Brogynin, a valley and some houses above Gog- erthan in Cardiganshire, where the common report is that Davydd ap Gwilym, the poet, was bom ; but quaere.
Bro Gwent.
Brogeintun and Broguntun, the name of a place. Ywain Brogeintyn was a base son of Madog ap Meredydd ap Bleddyn.
Bron, a breast; also fem. of ftryw, a hill (from 6re, 6ry, ot fry, above). Brongarth ; Bronheilin ; Y Fronwen ; Y Fronfraith ; Bron y Mwyn ; Bron Danwg ; Bron Feirig ; Broniarth ; Bron Heulog ; Brongwyn, a parish in Cardiganshire. Bron Gain, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.)
Bron yr Erw, a place in Arfon, North Wales, where a battle was fought by Gruffydd ap Cynan and Trahaearn ap Caradoc, the reigning Prince of North Wales ; but Gruffydd was defeated, and fled into Anglesey, a.d. 1073. {Caradoc in Trahaearn.)
Bromfield, part of Powys Vadog.
Bron y Voel.
Brothen (St.). Uanfrothen, Meirion.
Brotre, a town, a village, or place belonging to Cynddylan Powys ; perhaps an appellative to Pengwern,
Owae ieaaingc a eiddaant Brotre. — Llowarch Hen.
Vid. Brodir and Bro.
Bro Wyr. {Lewis Glynn Cothi.)
Brulhai (n. 1.). {L. G, Cothi.)
Brun Alb an, the same with Braid Alban in Scotland (Fla- herty, Ogygia, p. 323) ; called also Brunhere, perhaps Bryn Hir, i. e., Long Hill. Vid. Drum Alban.
Brut or Brutus, son of Silius (Julius), not Silvius, founder of the British empire, who is said by our ancient traditions and his- torians to have been the first King of Britain of the Trojan race, who conquered this island, or settled a colony of Trojans in it, about 1200 years after the Flood, and 1100 before the birth of Christ, and to have given it the name of Tnys BnU, and by foreigners, called Britannia, q. d. Brut Ynys. But the British Triades say that the island of Britain had its name from Prydain ap Aedd Mawr, who conquered it. Both might give it their
names at different times. Camden says that the greatest part of learned authors, as Boccetins, Vives, Hadrianus Junius, Poly- dore, Buchanan, Vignier, Grenebrardus, Molinseus, Bodinus, and other persons of great judgment, do unanimously affirm that there never was such a person as Brutus ; and that many of our learned countiymen reject him as a mere impostor, as John of Wheathampsted, abbot of St. Alban's, a man of excellent judg- ment; and William of Newborough, a much more ancient writer, who fixed the charge of forgery upon Geofirey, the com- piler of the British History, as soon as ever he had published it ; and that Giraldus Cambrensis, who wrote in the same age, calls it the fabulous history of Geoffrey ; that the author who takes upon him the name and title of Gildas, and briefly glosseth upon Nennius, in the first place imagineth this our Brutus to have been a Soman consul ; secondly, a son of one Silvius ; at last, of one Hessicion. Here are all Mr. Camden's learned men's objections against Brutus.
Gorpo teymfawr tywysogaeth Brut Ar Brydain diriogaeth.
Cynddelw, i Twain Cyfeiliog.
Vid. Prydain, Britannia, Brut y Brenhinoedd, Brutan and Brytaen, the isle of Britain.
O Frutan Fawr ei attun. — L. Morganwg, Brytaen fal og&en i lawr. — lar. Fynglwyd.
Brutaniaid, Britains. Not of the same origin with Brython.
Brutus Darianlas, or Brutus with the blue shield, the sixth King of Britain.
Brutwn, a Britain.
Brut y Brenionoedd, the title of the British history which goes by the name of Tyssilio, a bishop, son of Brochwel Ysgithrog, Prince of Powys, who was either the author or continuer of it from the Koman conquest to his own time, which was about the year 660, and was continued by another hand to the end of the reign of Cadwaladr. It was translated out of British into Latin by Galfridus, Bishop of St. Asaph, who, by adding some things of his own, to please the taste of the age, hath hurt the credit of the history among the modern critics. But as the
translation of any author should not, among people of common sense, be the standard to commend it or condiemn it, such critics would do well, before they too hastily condemn the authority of the British history, to learn to read it in the original The trans- lator, Galfrid, hath not done the author justice, as abundance of British copies all over Wales and England will make appear. Vid. Galfridus and Tyssilio,
Brwyn (n. pr. v.). Brwyn, father of Madog, one of the " tair aurgelein'\ Brwyn mab Cynadaf. (Tr. y Meirch, No. 7.)
Bkwyneu Hen ap CorthL
Brwynllys, one of the three commots of Cantref Canol in Brecknockshire (Price's Description) ; called also Eglwys Yail. Hence Bedo Brwynllys, a smooth poet of the 15th century.
Bkwynog (n. 1.), in Anglesey, signifying a place of rushes : hence Sion Brwynog, a poet.
Brych. Heilyn Frych.
Brychan Brycheiniog, son of Anllech Corunawc, Xing of Ire- land, according to the Triades; but in Ach Cynog it is read by Mr. Edward Ilwyd, " Cynog sant ap Brychan ap Cormur ab Eurbe Wyddel." Cormur is a corruption of Corunawc. He settled in that part of Wales which after him is called Brych- einiauc or Brecheiniog, in English Brecknockshire. He made himself master of this country either by marriage or conquest (when all the kingdom went to wreck and ruin) in the very beginning of the 5th century, and was cotemporary with Uthur Bendragon. His daughter Nefjoi was wife of Cynfarch Hen, and mother of Urien and Ilew ap C3mfarch. He is by the poets called Brychan Yrlh.
Brychan Yrth breichian nerthawg. — B, ap OwUym.
He had 30 sons and 30 daughters (Camden says but 24 daughters), all saints (Camden in Brecknockshire), most of whom were sainted. His sons are : Cynog Sant, Drem Dremrudd, Alychini,
Clydawc Sant, Uan, Pan, Kynodi, Euvan yn Manaw,
Marcharuchun yn Nghyfeiliog, Dingad yn Ilanymddyfri, Berwin yn Nghemiw, Eeidoc yn Ffrainc, yn Cwmbreidoc, &c. His daughters: Arianwen, Ceindrych, Clotvaith, Cenedlon, Clydai Ceinwen, lleian, Meichell, Nevyn, Nefydd, Gwawr, Gwi^n, Goleuddydd yn Llanhasgin, Gwanddydd or Gwawrddydd yn
Nhowyn Meirionydd, Dwynwen yn Llanddwyn ym Mon, &c. Yid. Anllech Gomnawe,Cormur; and Giraldus CambrensiSj/rtn., L i, c. 2.
Brychan {Bracanus, Flaherty, Offygia,^, 372), about the year 357, is said to be son of Coelbad and one Cathan, who was son of Muedan (vid. Llangathan) ; and about A.D. 327 another Brecan and Comech, Boman saints.
Brych Cadarn (Y),a elwid Einion ap Meredydd Hen ap Uew- elyn. (Llyifir Achau, fol. 117.)
Brychgoch. Angharad verch Dafydd Frychgoch ; in another MS. verch Dafydd Fyrgoch.
Brycheiniog, Brecknockshire ; called in Price's Description Brecheinoc. Vid. Brychan,
Brychtyr, son of Howel ap leuaf.
Brymbo or Brynbo, a gentleman's seat, Most)m's. («/. D.)
Bryn, in the composition of places, as Bryn Hafod (i. O. Cothi) ; Bryn Gwyn, a gentleman's seat («/". D) ; y Bryn Glas ; y Bryn Du ; Bryn Llwyd ; Bryn Euryn ; Bryn y Vuches ; Bryn y Bar ; Bryn Bras ; Biyn Dreiniog ; y Bryn Mawr ; Bryn y Moelddu ; y Bryn Moel; Bryn Brenin (n. 1.); Bryn Buga, one of the com- mots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent ; also a town and castle, by Latin writers called corruptly Buren Begi, now XJsk, on the river Wysc, about the midway between Caerllion and Abeigavenni ; Bryn Caredig(n.l.); Bryn Caw; Bryn Cain Caw (GV. aft Jfr.); Bryn Ceneu'nBhos(vid.Be/y?i); Bryn Cunallt, a gentleman's seat, Trevor (J.D.); Bryn Cur,vulgoBrynkir,aplace in Caernarvonshire; Bryn- kir of Brynkir, a family ; Brynddin, Lat. Brannodunum ; but I should rather take Brannodunum to be Branddin, or Dinbran, or Dinas Bran ; Bryndewyn, Dafydd ap Gronwy ap Bryndewyn ; Bryn Eglwys, a church and parish in I&l, Denbighshire ; Bryn Ffanogl near Menai, Anglesey ; Bryn Ffenigl, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire (J.D.). Ednyfed Vychan, baron of Bryn Ffenigl. Bryn lorcyn, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire {J, D,) ; Brjm Lluarth, a gentleman's seat {J.D.), Iloyd ; Brynllys (n. L) ; Bryn- llysg^ the name of a tumulus or barrow about half a mile from Bala. The name seems to me to imply the original use of it, — the burning mount, where they burnt the bodies of their dead, and consequently a place of urn burial, though Mr. Edward Llwyd
{Notes on Camden) thought it was one of the Bomaii watch-mounts. There is another of them at the outlet of liyn Tegid : vid Towr- men y Bala, Bryn Tangor, a gentleman's seat {J, 2>.). Bryn y Bala, near Aberystwyth in Cardiganshire, signifies the outlet of a lake (Th. Williams). Bryn y Beili, a tumulus near Wyddgruc ; Bryn y Pin, a camp and entrenchment of Owen Gwynedd, A.D. 1157.
Brynach (n. pr. v.). Brynach Wyddel o'r Gogledd (Jr. 30) ; i. e., Brynach, the Scot, from the North.
Brtnaich and BunnYCEyBemicii, the people of Bemicia, north of Britain, to the north of the Tweed (TV. 16). Dei/r a Brynaich, Deira and Bemicia.
Pan dyffont g^wyr Brynaich ir gwarth laydd.
jBbumau Myrddin, Rhag gelyn Brynaich branhes dychre.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Gr. ap Gyuan ap O. Gwynedd.
Brynaich (from brynniau, hills), Hill-men. Dei/r (from dwfr, water), men of the watery country.
Bryt, a contraction of Brutus. Ynys Bryt, one of the three ancient names of Britain in some copies of the Triades.
Bbython, Britons or Britains, q. d. Brithion, painted men. So the Armoricans bslj Breton ; li.Breathruich, Mjrddin Wyllt, who was himself a Pictish Briton, gives this derivation of it firom hrOh:
Brython dros Saeson,
Brithwyr ai medh.^-Hauinai« Myrddin,
Perhaps the northern Britains were at first only called Brython,
from the colony of Picts among them, and the southern called
Fy nhafawd yn frawd ar Frython,
O Fdr Udd hyd F6r Iwerddon.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Bodii ap O, Gwynedd.
Brythoneg, lingua Britannica. Brythwn or Bbytwn, a Britain.
Gorea Brytwn hwn a henwir. — W, Lhyn.
Brythyn or Brithyn, a Britain ; q. d. brUh-ddyn (JR Lhwyd) ;
Ir. Breathnach, The plural is Brithon or Brython, Vid. Brython,
£i henw ymlaen Fryttaen fry,
Un o'th hynaif wnaeth hyQny. — H. SuordwaU
Brttbus. Ednywain ap Bleddjm ap Brytrus. In another place Brutus.
BuARTH Arthur, or Meini Gw^r, on the mountain near Kil y Maen Llwyd; a circular monument of stones, such as those ascribed to the Danes. {E. Llwyd)
BuARTH Gadvan (n. L). Vid. Oadvan.
Buccus, in the Salique Law, is a Celtic word (bwch) signify- ing a he-goat and a buck, which hath puzzled our glossaries.
BuDDAi or BUDDEI. Cacr Fuddai (Triades), Vid. Fuddei.
BuDDUGRE (n. 1.). Bach Buddugre. Ilys Buddugre. (Prydydd y Mochf i Gr. ap C. ap 0. Gwynedd.)
BuELLT or BuALLT {k hi and dUt), Ooceliff {E. Llwyd), a town and castle in Brecknockshire, on the river Gwy. This is the Bvilasum SUurwm of Ptolomy, says Mr. Camden ; and he says the neighbouring rocky country is from this town called Buallt, where Yortigem retired from the incursions of the Saxons. But he retired to Gwrtheymion, which is not in Buallt. Near tins place likewJBe Llewelyn ap Grufifydd was betrayed by Madog Min, and kiUed a.d. 1282, in the reign of Edward I. Here Pas- centius, son of Yortigem, by permission of Aurelius Ambrosius, governed, as Nennius says ; and in his chapter of wonders he has an odd story about the print of the feet of King Arthur's hound in the stones to be found here.
Mr. Edward Llwyd questions whether Bullmum was not at a place called Caerau^ hard by BueUt, if at all in this country ; and there is a place called Castellan hard by, and Buellt was the name of a small country here, from whence the ancient Bullaeum might be denominated. {E, Llwyd)
Rhys ap Grufiyth demolished the old castle of Buellt, and the Breoses and Mortimers built there a castle since. {Camden) Gil- bert Earl of Gloucester fortified this castle a.d. 1210. {Caradoc)
It contains Swydd y Fam, Y Drevlys, and Isyrwon. (Price's Descr) Yid. Caer FJUi.
BuGU, the nsmie of Beuno's father. Yid. Byvyi and BiTid. {Bewru>'8 Life)
BuiLKE, one of the sons of Glam Hector^ who took the Isle of Man from Tibion, son of Cunedda Wledig, and killed him there. (Nennius apud Price.) Yid. Glam Hector,
Bun (n. pr. f.). Bun,* the daughter of Culfynawyd Prydain, wife of Fflamddwyn, notorious for her lasciviousness. (TV. 56.) Vid. Fflamddwyn in Nennius and in the Grododin.)
BuRGEDiNG, ymhlwy Cegidfa. ( Yat March.)
BuRGWYN, or Byrgwyn, or Byrgwin, Burgundy in France. ByrgwynioTiy Burgundians.
Ar win Byrgwin bob ergyd. — Hywel Da/ydd.
Burn (fl.) : viA Y Fumwy.
BwA, a bow to shoot with, or a bending. Several places take their names from this word, as T Bwa Drain, Cwm Bwa, PentreV BwAau. [Rhos Bryn Bwa.— W. 2>.]
BwcH, a buck. Places named from it ; as Hafod y Bwch, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire, Boberts ; Dinbych, i. e,, Dinas y Bychod ; Castell Bwch in Henllys, Monmouthshire ; Bychryd.
BwLAN (n. L), k bw and llan.
BwLGH, literally a gap, passage, or strait. This word is pre- fixed to several names of places in Wales that are passes through mountains. Bulgium in Antoninus' Itinerary {Blatum BtUgium) is, I doubt not, one of these bwlchs or passages in the Great Wall. Bwlch y Groes; Bwlch Tresame; Bwlch Meibion Dafydd; Bwlch Caneinog ; Bwlch y Rhiwfelen ; Bwlch Ffrainc ; Bwlch y Caleb ; Bwlch Coed y Mynydd ; Bwlch Rosser ; Bwlch yr Adwy Wynt ; Y Bwlch Glas ; Bwlch Carreg y Fran ; Bwlch yr Esgair Hir ; Bwlch Ilorien (Llyivarch Hen), qu. whether Iloren, Montgomeryshire [Denbighshire, W, 2>.] ; Bwlch y Ddinas, a castle in South Wales ; Bwlch y Saeth Lydan, a place on Wyddfa Mountain. [Bwlch y Cibau ; Bwlch y Ddar. — W. D.]
BwLEN, Bulloign in France.
Y mae wylaw ym Mwlen Yn ol ei wyr a'i law wen.
Dafydd Ejppynt^ i Wm. Herbert.
BwRDD Arthur : vid. Owal y Viliast,
BwYDEG ap Khun Rhuddbaladr.
Bychan, little or small ; a surname of men. Cantref Bychan, one of the four cantrefSs of Carmarthenshire, signifying the Little Cantref, there being another called Cantref Mawr, the Great Cantref. And who is so blind as not to see that the division of the shire of Aberdeen, in Scotland, into Buchen, Mar, and Strath-
bogy, is the ancient British division of Bychan, Mawr, and Ystrad Bogwy ?
Byddar. Llan y Byddar, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here. Vid. Byddavr,
Btddaib. llan y Byddair, a church in Carmarthenshire, near
the Teifi.
Bwyd a gwin i'r byd a gair
Heb weddn'n Llan y Byddair. — QuUoW Olyn,
Byddig (n. pr. f.). Lat. Boadicea. {K Lhoyd)
Bydno, a river which runs fi*oin the North to Uangurig : hence Aberbydno.
Bybddin, a river which falls into Wysc at Bryn Buga, the Bur- rium of Antoninus ; named, no doubt, from that river. In Mor- den's map Brithin, Vid. Bryn Btiga [s. v. Bryn],
Bysaleg : vid. Basmlech
Bywyn ap Gorddwfyn or lorddwfn.
Cadafael (n. pr. v.), a hostage. Cadavael mab Cjoifedw yng- wynedd (Tr.76),one who advanced himself from a native tenant or slave, to a king in Gwynedd. (Tr)
Cadafael Ynfyd (n. pr. v.). [Cadafael is still a name of oppro- brium ; but why I know not. It cannot be from the Lat. coda- ver.— W.B.]
Cadaib. Tudur ap Gronw ap Howel y Gadair.
Cadair Arthur, on the southern hills in Brecknockshire, men- tioned by Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary, From the puissant King Arthur. [Also a clifT near Edinburgh : vide His- tory of the Rebellion in 1745. — W, jD.]
Cadarn, strong. Ynys Gadam, an island near Anglesey. It is likewise the surname of several persons, as Efroc Gadam, Der- fel Gadam, Hawys Gadarn, etc., etc.
Cadawc, Cadoc, or Cadog (n. pr. v.) : hence Ilangadog, Car- marthenshire ; Hendre Gadog, Anglesey.
Cadawc, mab Gwynlliw Filwr, un o'r tri chyfion farchog. (TV. 84.) Vid. Cattwg Sant.
Cadog ap Gwlyddien.
Cad Coed Llwyfain : vid. Llwyfain.
Cadean (n. pr. v.), father of Stradweul.
Cadeir, a poet, father of Elmur. (TV. 13.)
Cadell (n. pr. v.). Cadellns {Dr, Davies). Bra Oadell, Dafydd ap Gwilym's country.
Henw 'ngwlad yw Bro Gadell. — D. ap Owihfm.
Cadell, one of the sons of Bodri, among whom he foolishly divided the government of Wales, a.d. 877.
Cadell Deyrnllyg, a poor man in I&l, who entertained St. Grannon ((rermanus) when Benlli Gawr, the Prince, refused to let him enter his city to preach against the Pelagian heresy about the year 450. Vid. Benlli Gawr.
St. Grarmon went to this poor man's cottage with all his fol- lowers, who had nothing to entertain them but one calf which followed Ids cow. This calf he killed and dressed, and they eat it up ; but Garmon ordered that not one bone of it should be broke or lost ; and next morning the calf was by a miracle re- turned alive to the cow again. So Cadell and all the region came to be baptized by St. Garmon, and to receive his doctrine ; and as a recompense for the calf, St. Garmon gave Cadell his blessing ; and that day made him King of Powys, and promised that of his progeny there should be a prince {du£) there for ever; and Kennius says the kings of Powys in his days were of his seed. {NenmuBy c. xxx-xxxiv.) I think this was no extraordi- nary compliment to the kings of Powys ; but Nennius delivered it as he found it in some author of the life of St. Germanus, perhaps Constantine.
Cadell ap Geraint, the 44th King of Britain. This is he whom the Triades call Gaydyal ab Eryn, in whose time an army of 65,000 were hired here to assist the Gauls and Germans against the Romans. This was about the time of
Cadelling, the country of Cadell. — Cynddelw.
Cader and Mynydd Cader signify a fortified mountain. Cader Idris; Cader Dinmael; Cader Ferwyn ; Cader yr Ychen; Cader Arthur ; Cader Sidi ; y Gader Ynghomwy. In the Irish, eathair is a fort (from eau, to enclose ; and hence cadam, strong).
Cader Arthur, a fort on a mountain near Edinborough, Arthur's northern palace being kept at Edinborough. (Jo. Major, HUt. Scot, L ii, c. 6. So say the Triades also.)
Cader Benllyn, Gader Ddinmael, etc., were ancient British forte.
Cadeb Facsen, on Frenni Vawr mountain, Pembrokeshire.
Gader Idris, near Dolgelleu.
Gader Vyrddin, i, e., Myrddin's Fort or Gastle. Hence a cock which has a double comb is called ceUiog cader Fyrddin, from the comb's resemblance to a castle.
Nennius says that Gwrtheym gave Myrddin Emrys a castle and all the provinces of the west of Britain. " Time rex dedit iUi arcem cum omnibus provinciis plagse Occidentalis Britanniae": i. e., he made him chief bard in those countries.
Gadfach : qu. an id. Cadfarch ?
Gadfael ap Gadell.
Gadvael : see Dincadvael, an ancient strong fort.
Gadvan (n. pr. v.), Latinized Catamamis. Gadvan, the 106tli King of Britain, father of Gadwallon, who was father of Gad- waladr, the last King of the Britains. This Gadvan was Prince of North Wales, and lived in Anglesey, when the famous battle was fought at Bangor is y Goed between the Saxons and Britains, after the massacre of the monks of Bangor at Gaerlleon (West Chester) by Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria. This battle is called, in the Triades, Gwaith Perllan Fangor. On the side of the Britains there were Bledrws, Prince of Gornwall and Devon, their chief leader ; Brychwel, Prince of Powys ; Gadvan, King of North Wales ; and Meredydd, King of Dyfet. On the Saxons' side were Ethelfrid, King of Northumbria ; and Ethelbert, King of Kent ; with all the other petty princes of the Saxons. This being a religious war made them all mad ; for the Britains refus- ing to agree with the tenets of the Ghurch of Borne, brought over with Austin, were cursed by him ; and the enthusiastic Saxon kings thought it was a meritorious act to destroy such obstinate heretics. But the issue of this battle was that the Saxons EtheMrid and Ethelbert were overthrown with a great loss, as Tyssilio (who was son of Brychwel, one of the generals) says, of about ten thousand men. (Tyssilio; Caradoc*8 Chronicle; Triades,) Gadvan, upon this defeat of the Saxons, for his be- haviour in this battle, was by general consent, at West Ghester, created King of the Britains ; Bledrws, their chief, being killed
in the field. From hence the Britains followed their conquest, and drove Ethelfrid over the Humber ; and, coming to an agree- ment to let the Humber be the boundary, peace was made, and great friendship ensued. Ethelfrid's queen being iU used by him, she, big with child, ran for shelter to Cadvan's court in Anglesey^ and there her son Edwin was bom and brought up, who was afterwards King of the Korthiunbrians and of the Britains for some time. Vid. Edvrm. The Saxon Anncds place this battle in A.D. 607; the Ulster Annals in 613; Dr. Powel, from Castor, in 617. Cadvan was buried at the church of Eg- Iwysael in Anglesey, now called Uangadwaladr, and his grave- stone is there with an inscription.
Ilangadvan in the deanery of Pool ; Buarth Gadvan ; Dol- gadvan.
Cadvan Sant o Lydaw. Uangadvan.
Cadvan, Abbot of Bardsey.
Cadfarch (St.). Church at Penegoes.
Cad Gamlan, the great battle fought at Camlan in Cornwall, in the civil war between King Arthur and Medrawd his nephew, which ruined the Britains. Vid. Medrod.
Cad Goddeu : vid. Goddeu,
Cadgyffro (n. pr. v.), the father of Gilbert. {Tr, 29.)
Cadhayarn ap Gwerydd ap Ehys Goch.
Cadivor (n. pr. v.). Cadivor Wyddel, or the Irishman, lived at the Pant uch Pentraeth in Anglesey, and was cotemporary with Owain Gwynedd about the year 1160, and probably one of Gruffudd ap Cynan's followers from Dublin, and a relation. It seems, by the dark accounts we have of this affair, that Ffinog, by whom Owain Gwynedd got Hywel ap Ywain Gwynedd, was a sister of Cadivor Wyddel ; for it is certain that he was brought up in Cadivor's family, and that four of the seven valiant sons of Cadivor died in defending his cause, and in following his wars.
Baant brwysgion braisg arfaetb, Bnant briw ger ei brawd faeth.
See "Englynion i Saith Mab Cadifor Wyddel."
Tra fnam yn saith, tri saith ni'n beiddiai, Ni'n ciliai cyn an llaith.
Cadifor ap Gwaithfoedd.
Cadlys, a king's temporaiy canip or palace.
Gras Arthur a'i groes wrihyd A'i lys a'i gadlys i gyd.
Cadlys drain. Y Gadlys, near Dulas, Anglesey. Y Gadlys in Aberdar, Glamorgan. Vid. Y Gadlys.
Cadmor : qu. whether it is a family; or name of a place ?
Cado, tad Gwrei ; q. d. Cato (?) and Cattw.
Cadretth, son of Porthfawr Gadw ; one of tri unben IJys Arthur. (Tr. 15.)
Cadrod (n. pr. v.). Cadrod Calchfynydd, son of Cynwyd Cyn- wydion.
Cadw (n. pr. v.) : qu. whether Cato. Cadw gadr Swysson, un o'r tair colofn celfyddodion (one of the three pillars of arts and sciences). Prydydd y Moch, i Eodri ap Owain Gwynedd.
Cadwal Gryshalawg.
Cadwaladr (n. pr. v., k cad and gwaladr, q. d. a lord of the battle). Cadwaladr, the 108th and last Loegrian King of the Britains, son of Cadwallon. There are several churches in Wales dedicated to him, which is a strong proof of his being sainted by the Church of Eome, as our British history mentions. But Bede's Catwalda wants this authority of being sainted. Uan- gadwaladr in Anglesey ; Llangadwaladr Chapel in the parish of Uanrhaiadr, Denbighshire. Vid. Cadvan,
Cadwallon (n. pr. v., a cad and gwallaw, — Dr, Barnes), Cad- wallon ap Cadvan, the 107th King of Britain. He was father of Cadwaladr, the last King of the Britains. This is he that Bede, L ii, c. 20 (in the English translation from Dr. Smith), calls Ca^dwal and Ceadwall ; and in the Heidelberg Latin edition (L iii,c. l),Carduella and GeduaUa; and by WiUiam of Malmes- bury, Cadwallin,
Teulu Cadwallawn ap Cadvan, un o'r tri diwair deulu, followed him in Ireland seven years, and never asked a recompense, for fear of being obliged to leave him. (Triades, 34.)
Cadwgawn (n. pr. v., k cad and gwgavni, — Dr, Dames), Cadw- gan Buffudd, a Demetian poet of the 14th century, author of Araith Wgon.
Da o Ddyfed ced Cadwgawn Bnffudd, Da o'r iaith ddigadd Araith Wgawn.
Marwnad Trahaeam.
Cadwk Wenwyn ap Idnerth.
Cadwynfan (Y), enw lie.
Cadyal, mab Eryn. (TV. 40.) This was Cadell mab Geraint, the 43rd Bang after Brutus, who gave that great supply of men to Urp Luyddog. Vid. Urp.
Cad y Coedanau, a battle fought by Llewelyn ap lorwerth : qu. whether against Davydd ap Owen Gwynedd, or Rhodri, and the Manks men.
Gad y Coedanau cadr anant borthi Bnrthiaist wyr yn ddifant. — Prydydd y Moeh.
Brwydr y Coettaneu. {Aer: Camb. a.d. 1195.) Cadyr Urdden. (Breiniau Powys.)
Cadyryeith Saidi (n. pr. v.), or Cadeirj'-eith Saidi {Tr. 89), one of King Arthur's hospitable knights. Caeawc or Caeog (n. pr. v.).
Cadwyr foddawg Elfan, Cynddylan, Caeawg. — Llywarch Hen.
Cae Du, in Llansannan, Denbighshire. William Salisbury, gentleman, author of a 12mo Gram. Brit., 1593 (published, I sup- pose, after his death), was of this place. What W. Salisbury was author of the Welsh-English Dictionary, 4to, 1547 ? Sometime member of Lincoln's Inn. (Nicolson's £ngl. Hist, Libr.)
Caenan Hal, enw lie yn Sir Henfifordd.
Caeo. Dafydd Fongam o Gaeo.
Caer. This is a most ancient Celtic word from the beginning of times, and signifies an enclosed town, or fort, or stronghold. It is derived from cau,to shut orenclose; firom hence also comes (rosier, a fort ; as Cader Idris, Cader Benlljm, Cader Facsen, Cader Arthur, Cader Vyrddin, etc., etc. ; and the word cadam, strong ; cademid, strength. Other ancient nations had words of the same or like sounds, to signify the same thing, as Kir, Kiriah, Kiriath, a town ; Ca7ia and Carthago ; and Grand Cairo in Egypt. In the Sarmatic or Scythian, car and carm ; in the Parthian, certa, as Badocerta, Tigranocerta, etc., signify a town.
Caer is prefixed, in the British, to the names of most of the ancient British cities, as Ca^r Ludd, London ; CaerUion, the City of Legions, etc. ; and very often, where the British hath caer, the
Saxons have put Oeter, Oaster, Gester, or Ohester ; as for Oaer Esc, Exeter or Exceter ; for Goer Davm, Doncaster ; Gaerwynt, Win- chester, recti Windcheater ; Goer Loyw, Gloucester. Therefore, for GaerLvdd in this Dictionary, see the letter L ; and so of the rest
Caer Adanau or Adanaw {Lli^warch Hen in Marwnad Cyn- ddylan), perhaps a fort belonging to one Aedenau. See Aedenau febGleisiar. (Tr,)
Caeb Akdreb.
Caek Akderydd : vid. Arderydd.
Caer Ardudwy, Harlech in Meirion. See Llech Ardvdwy,
Caer tn Arpon, a town from which the county of Caernarvon or Caernarvonshire (so called in Llewelyn ap lorwerth's time, 1200) takes its name. The county is called by the natives Sir Gaer*7iaTfon. Before the division of Wales into counties it was called, says Camden, Snaiodon Forest ; and in Latin historians it is called Snattdonia, as also Arvonia,
Camden, out of Matthew of Westminster, says that the body of Constantius, father of Constantino the Great, was found here in the year 1283, and buried in the church of the new town by command of Edward I, who at that time built the town of Caernarvon at the sea-side, out of the ruins of the old city, which lies higher. In Nennius it is called Caer Gtcstenit; by Camden, out of Nennius, corruptly Cystenydd ; in the Triades, Goer Arfon,
In the Life of Gruflfydd ap Cynan it is said that Hu, Earl of
Chester, built a castle at Hen Gaer Cystennin. Vid. Arfon and
A Chaer yn Arfon a charant yngnif
YngnaWB coll am peidiant.
Prydydd y Mochy i Lew. ap lorwerth.
Caer Baladin, Shaftsbuiy.
Caer Biblin.
Caer BLADDON,Mabnesbury. (Humph. Llwyd,BnV.i>e5cr.,p.24.)
Caer Bro.
Caer Caradoc, Salisbury {Th. Williams) ; in Nennius, Gair Ga/radauc; in the Triades, Gaer Garadoc and Garadawc (tm o'r tri dyfal gyfangan).
Mr. Camden (in Shropshire) says : " Where the river Colunwy meets the river Teme ariseth a hill of great antiquity, called Cojer CaradocJiy because about the year of our Lord 53, Carata- cus, a renowned British king, environed it with a bulwark of stone, and defended it gallantly against Ostorius and the Eoman legions till they^ by making a breach in so sUght a stone work (some ruins of which are yet to be seen), forced the disarmed Britains to betake themselves to the tops of the mountains." And so he proceeds with a story out of Tacitus, how Garatacus behaved at Bome, etc.
A story thus confidently told by an author so admired as Camden, and in so pompous a book as the Britannia^ one would have expected to be unexceptionably true, especially when such authors as Tacitus and that excellent antiquaiy, Humphrey Iloyd, are quoted in the margin ; but if you please to look into H. Lloyd's Breviary of Britain, you will find Mr. Camden gives the Britains no fair play. H. Llwyd says that he, travelling in Shropshire about the Earl of Arunders affairs, saw an ancient fort which answers the description of that passage in Tacitus about Caratacus, which he doth not doubt is the real place where Caradoc fought, and fortified by art and nature. Mr. Camden's environing this hill (of great antiquity) about the year 53, and his slight stone work, and the ruins to be yet seen, don't come up to H. Llwyd's description. And the ancient book of Triades will teU you that at Caer Caradoc there was a monastery con- taining 2,400 monks ; which will not very weU agree with this fortified hill ; and yet Mr. Camden hath quoted these l^riades twice in his Britannia. After this grand description of the battle he says : " Tho' our sorry historian" [meaning Galfrid] ''hath omitted both this battle and this gallant Britain, the country people tell us that a king was beaten ux)on this hilL" This last is out of H. Llwyd.
Caer Cori or Ceri, Cicester in Gloucestershire ; i. e., Ciren- cester. (H. Llwyd, Brit. Descr., p. 24.)
Caer Chyrnwy, Corinium (B, Llwyd) ; probably Ohwymwy, rapid water. But there is a place in Anglesey called Comwy (a river runs by Caere), which sounds more like Corinium. Also Llanvair Ynghomwy, and Y Gam Ynghomwy.
Caer Dathal.
Am ardal Caer Dathal doethant.
Cynddelwy i Owain Owynedd. Caeb Degog, Mod.
Caer Drewin [near Corwen] in Meirion ; from the Druids, as E. Llwyd thinks. See Tre'r Driw,
Caer Dro : see Tro.
Caer Dyf (wrote also Caerdydd), Cardiff, a town and castle in the east of Morganwg. {Pawd, 123.) See JDyf.
Ni chair y dwr uwch Caerdyf Eisian arian i'r siryf. — letcan Tew,
Sir a gawn sy aer gennyf
Eisiau 'r gwr daeth sir Gaerdyf. — Lewya Morganwg,
Caer Dduwarbawl.
Caer Eillion, in Powys {Owdygorddau Powys), See EiUion.
Caer Ennarawd (Triades,) Another copy, Caer Guarad.
Caereneon or Caereinion Yrth, in Montgomeryshire ; part of Powys Wenwynwyn, near Cymmer ; one of the two commots of Cantref Llyswynaf. (Price's Rescript)
Caer Fallwch, a gentleman's seat. {J. D)
Caer Ferwig, Berwick.
Curo k blif ddylif ddelw
Cerrig Caerferwig fyrwelw. — lolo GocJi, i Edward III.
Vid. Y Ferwig and Aberung.
Caer Fon, qu. whether Beaumaris. (Jeuan ap Huw Oae Lhtyyd)
Caervyrddin, now called in English Caermarthen, a seaport
town and chief of the county of Caermarthen in South Wales.
Jo. Major {HisL Scot, 1. ii) calls it Oarmadyne and Oarmaiin,
Since a neighbouring author of no greater antiquity than a.d.
1521 can thus blunder^ and murder names of places, what can
we expect in Ptolomy, Antoninus, etc. ? What are we to trust
I to, then, but our own ancient authors, poets, etc. ? In one copy
I of the Triadea, Goer Verdin.
Caer Gai, a gentleman's seat in Meirion, not far from liyn Tegid. Camden calls it Cuius* Castle, built by one Caius, a Roman ; but he doth not say when, and only says the common people of that neighbourhood report great things of him, and scarce credible. {Camden in Merionetlishire.) The common
people never heard of " Caius, a Roman", nor any other "Roman" there ; but the ancient tradition is, as well as the written his- tory and works of the poets, that Cai Hir, penswyddwr yn Ilys Arthur (i e., Cai the Long, chief officer in "Arthur's palace), had a seat here ; probably his family seat.
Caer Gangen, Canterbiuy.
Caer Gidwm, yn Eryri, uwch ben Ilyn Tarddenni.
Caer Gleddyf, Tenby. {Th, Williams)
Caer Golink. P, V.
Caergreig, a castle on an island in Scotland (Flaherty, p. 1), which he takes to be the Urhs Guidi of Bede ; in Lat., Victoria. (Bede, L i, c. 12, p. 36, EngL) This island is in the middle of the arm of the sea called Edenborough Frith or Forth Frith.
Caergreu. {Tr, 35.) See Greu.
Caergwrleu or Gwrle, a village in Flintshire.
Caergyffin, Conwy. (Price's Description.)
Caer Hawystl.
Caer Hen {Oamden in Carnarvonshire) ; corruptly for Caer Bhun, i. e,y Rhun's Castle, and not old city, as Mr. Camden would have it; and after him E. Llwyd, who was not well enough versed in our history to know that Rhun ap Maelgwn lived at this place ; which, notwithstanding, might have been before a Roman station by the name of Conovium, as it is plain it was by a Roman hypocaust discovered near the church of Caer Rhun ; imless we allow that Rhim, who was near the time of the Romans, might make a hypocaust there. Mr. Llwyd imagines this place was called by the Britains Ca£r Lleion ar Gynwi/y because a hill near it is called Mynydd Caer Lleion. Tliis shews a fertile fancy, but we have no authority of writers for it.
Caerleil: see Carlisle,
Caerlleon Gawr, a city now called Westchester and Chester. It was called by the Saxons Legeacester; by Antoninus, in his Itinerary, called Deva; by Ptolomy, Deunana; Bede (1. ii, c. 2) says the Britains called it Carlegion, meaning some Britain that had wrote in Latin ; by the Triades, Caer Lleon ; by Tyssilio, Goer Ueon, because built by Ileon, King of Britain ; by Nen- nius, Oair Legion Gaur vsvr, which by the blundering of tran- scribers is unintelligible ; in the Saxon Annals, Legerciestere and
Legncetirt ; by the British poets and native Britains, CaerUean Oawr.
Gaerlleon Oawr i fawr i faoh.-^2i. 0. Ooihi,
But sometimes, when it is to be distinguished from Caerllion ar Wysg, it is called Gaerlleon arDdyfrdun/, i. e., Caerlleon on the river Dee; and not Oaer Leon ar dujyrlhvy, as Mr. Camden is pleased to name it. The Britains never call it Caer Legion ; nor is such a name to be found in any of their writings, except in that ill wrote Latin catalogue of cities in Nennius, done by ignorant transcribers, who trimmed it to agree with Bede. Mr. Camden hath taken a good deal of pains to deprive the Britains of the honour of being the first founders of this city ; as if his own honour had been at stake if he could not give it the Bomans, to whom he is very liberal at the cost of the poor Britains. These are his words : " Tho' I know some do aver it to be older than the moon; to have been built many thousands of years ago by the Giant Leon Vaur/' According to Mr. Camden, the Giant Leon Yaur was older than the moon. But who are these some that aver so ? No British author hath any such words, though Mr. Burton, in his Notes on ArUoninus, makes use of the very same phrase with Mr. Camden, pointing at the British history and tradition. Galfrid, who was as ignorant ajs Camden of this aficdr, hath in his Latin translation turned the name Leon into LeU; and this because he found a city called OaerleU in the north of the island, which he thought agreed better with his author's description. But these are the words of Tyssilio, the original British author, which Galfrid maimed in the translation : " £f a adeilawdd ddinas yngogledd yn ynys hon ac ai gelwis oi enw ei hun Caerlleon"; {. «., he built a city on the north side of this island, and called after his own name, Caerlleon.
Mr. Camden says '' the Britains called this city Caerlegion, Caer Leon Vaur, and Caer Leon ar dufyr Dwy." No writers among the Britains, except the maimed Nennius, call it Caer Legion, nor did the native Britains ever make use of such a name in their own tongue. And as for " Caer Leon Vaur", it is a fictitious name of Mr. Camden's own creation ; either confound- ing Oawr and Vavrr through his ignorance of the language, or else setting up a shadow of a king or a giant to be demolished
"by himself The Britains never heard of Lleon VauTy 1. 1, Leon the Great, in the writings of their nation, or anywhere else but in Camden ; and they do Tiot deny but that the words "lleon Vawr" in the British may signify a great legion, as Mr. Camden would have it, by only changing the letter e into i, and so make it Llion, which is the way they write Caerllion ar Wysg, which they allow might take its name from a legion quartered there, the old name being Caerwysg.
A mi ynliref Ghierllion. — L. 0. ColJvL Mawr yw'r cri ynghaerllion.
But why should letters be changed to please the fancy of a modem writer, against the ancient national history and universal consent of the people, who always called it Caerlleon Gawr, and not Vawr. Mr. Camden had some notion that there was a Caivr (which he translates a giant) in some part of the story; for, says he, " whether it is not more natural to derive the name of this city from a great legion, or the Giant Leon, let the world judge." But whether he did not, on purpose, confound Cawr and Vawr^ let the world again judga
"There are young antiquaries", says Mr. Camden in great triumph, "who make this city older than the moon, and to have been built by the Giant Leon Vaur ; and the name itself may convince them of the greatness of this error." After all this flourish of the moon and of the "Giant Leon Vaur'^ a creature of his own head, the character of a young antiquary will fall upon Mr. Camden himself when the world (who, according to his own proposal, is to be judge) sees that Lleon Gawr in the British doth not signify Leon the Giant, but lleon the Prince or King ; and in that sense all the ancient writers understood the word cavrr; and he was never by the Britains called Lleon Vaior, nor by any writer but Mr. Camden^ that I have met with. Cawr, in the dialect of the Cambrians, was an epithet given to the most warlike of their princes, as was Gwledig among the Loe- grian Britains, and Priodawr among the Albanian Britains.
Gamp cawr yw cwympo caerydd,
says lorwerth Fynglwyd ; i, e., the quality of a caipr is to over- throw walls of cities. Benlli Gawr, Phili Gawr, Idris Gawr,
Othrwm Gawr, Ehitta Gawr, Ehuddlwm Gawr, Ileon Gawr, etc., were valiant princes who got their surnames for their valour and wisdom ; and Nimrod is called *' Nemrwth Gawr" {Sion Cert) ; so Henry VIII is called by one of our poets,
Oator pann M6n carw Pen Mynydd. — Sion Brwynog.
Tman fu'r cyfrdan ddwyn Cator y Gedyrn A'a ceidwad a'u blaenawr. — Bhys Brychan,
" Cawr y Cedym" is the prince of the strong men.
But to close this argument. I have seen in Hengwrt Library a MS. in the handwriting of Dr. Thomas Willianis, author of the Latin-British part of Dr. Davies' Dictionary, which gave an account of all the ancient forts on the mountains of Wales, with the names of the princes that bmlt them : such as Cawr Idris, Cawr Othrwm,etc., etc., who were no more giants than Mr. Camden was ; and in the ancient book called the British Triades (which I copied in that library, A.D. 1738, out of the handwriting of the great antiquary Mr. Robert Vaughan, compared with four ancient MSS. on vellum), I find King Arthur's third wife was Gwen- hwyvar, the daughter of Ogyrfan Gawr; the same Queen that was dethroned by his nephew, Medrawd, when Arthur followed hia wars in GauL
Now I ask, in my turn, as Mr. Camden did about Caerlleon, whether it is more natural to say that Arthur, a King of Britain, married the daughter of Pririce Ogyrfan, or of the Oiant Ogy^-fan^ and let the world judge. See Leonis Castnim, Holt, and Lleon.
Caerlewon : see Llewon.
Caebuweltdd : see Lliwelydd.
Caer Lyn (^Triades) : see Llyn,
Caeemalet, or Camalet, or Camalot, lAys Camalot {Llyfr y Great, apud Arch. Brit, p. 262), one of the palaces of King Arthur in Somersetshire (Humphrey Uwyd, Brit, Descr,, p. 24, ed. 1731) ; rightly Cwm Aled. See Aled, Gamalodunum, and Oambodunum, in Antoninus' Itinerary, of the same original
Caeb Mblwr, a place near Llanrwst ; not Cae'r Milwr, as some think.
Caernbddog, ym Mon. {MS) Maethlu Sant ynghaerneddog ym Mon.
Gaer Offa. Offa's Ditch^ between England and Walea
Geidwad ar j ddwywlad dda
Tw Qraffadd dan Ghier Offa.— fiyweZ OUan.
Q. d. Oflfa's Fortification, See OlaiDdd Offa.
Caer Phily: vid FJUi The Bulkeum SUurum of the Eomans, as Mr. Ed. Ilwyd thinks. (Notes on Glamorgan.) See Oaer VwL
Caeb Eeged, the old name of AberystwytL
A chastell cafell y cawn
Caer Beged nwch owrr eigiawn.
Moths Llwyd WiLianiy i yrraV Oleisiad i Aberystwyth.
Caer Sallawc.
Pan fon gorforyon meibion Eidawc Y bydd bore taer awch Caer Sallawc.
Hoianau Myrddin.
Caer Segont, Caernarvon. (Price's Descr.) Caer Swys, a town once in Montgomeryshire ; destroyed in war, now in ruins.
Dwy Bowys a Chaer Swys wen.— L. 0. GoOU,
So it was distinct from the two Powyses. See Sivy9. Caer Tre Baris, Paris in FrancQ.
Tor a bwrw Gaer Tre Baris
Trwy warr Ffrainc fal torri ffris. — lorwerth Fynghoyd.
Caervarchell, Pembrokeshire (from Marchell, n. p, v.).
Caer Vorran, a place on the Boman WaU, near Kirkwall and Ashler ; of which Mr. Camden could give no account. (Camden in Northumberland.) The Wall is here thicker than elsewhere. See Warburton.
Caervwl, Caervul,Caervyl, and Caervyli; Mr. Edward Ilwyd's guesses at the British name of Caer Phili, which he makes to be the BtUlcevm Silurvmi of the Bomans, and not Buallt^ which Mr. Camden guessed to be the BtUlcmm ; and yet Mr. Llwyd owns, in his Notes on Oamden, that no Boman coins, inscriptions, statues, bricks, or arms, have been found at Caer Phili.
Caerwedros, a castle mentioned by Cynddelw to Howel ap Owain Gwynedd, a.d. 1150. Qu. Gwaedros ?
Caerwedros cafas y ganthaw
Cadarn dan gwan try wan trwy dda w. — Cynddelw.
Also a lordship in Cardiganshire, one of the three conmiots of Cantref GasteU.
Agos 7 w GaerwedroB ym. ^^Deio ap leuan Du,
Caer Went, the Venta Silurum of Antoninus,- a village four miles from Chepstow. {Camden) See Owent ; not so called from Venta {E, Llwyd), but Venta from Gwent.
Caer Werydd, Lancaster; made by Gwrgan Farfdrwch. {MS), Caerwys, a town and castle in Englefield, now Flintshire, called by Camden " Caerwysk".
Rhwyfwyr cad rhyfawr en c^ys
Rhychorion Bhiw a Ghaer^ys. — B, wp EdmwnJt,
Caerwysg, the Castrum Oskee of Giraldus ; the Burrium of Antoninus ; and Bryn Buga, from Burem hegi, (Oamden in Man- mwUhshire)
Caeb Wythelin, Vitellinus.
Caer t Berllan, Meirion ; a gentleman's seat, and an old fort in ruins, whose lime was made with cockle-shells burnt There were no limestones till of late discovered in Merionethshire.
Caer Ynwch, a gentleman's seat, Meirion.
Caer Ystwyth, the garrison town of Aberystwyth.
Caer Ystwyth oil Grist a'tibi ad. — C I. Llwyd*
Caeth: qu. a river? Uwch Caeth and Is Caeth,two commots in Cantref Brenhinol, Morganwg.
Caffo (St.). UangafiFo Chapel, Anglesey. They used to offer young cocks to St. Caffo.
Cai (n. pr. v.); Lat. Cains f Cai mab Cynyr, tywysog Amgyw neu Angyw, xmo'r tri thaleithiog Cad Ynys Prydain. {Tr, 26.) Cai, penswyddwr Arthur; to him he gave Peitw and Angyw. {TyssfUio)
Cai ap Ithel, in King Arthur's time.
Cai Hir ap Edwyn.
Cai Hir ap Sefin (Ymddiddan Arthur a Gwenhwyvair), See Oa^ergai.
Caian (St.) : hence Tregaian, a church and parish, Anglesey. See Gibyr, This and several other churches in Anglesey are called chapels, though they have parishes belonging to them. But they are called chapels because there are two or three of them included
in a rectoiy, being singly too poor to maintain a minister, which seems to be the original reason of joining two or three parishes in one cure. See Geiamts,
Cain, fl. (hence Abercain), faUs into the Maw below Dolgelleu.
Cain ach Evrog Gadam.
Cainradh ach Evrog Gadam.
Caint (fl.), mentioned in Uywarch Hen (Marwnad Cadwallon
ap Cadvan) :
Llnest Cadwallon ar Ghiint.
Caint, Kent, the county of Kent ; called also Ceint, Cent, or Cynt ; derived of cyntaf, or the first inhabited part of Britain.
Oder GairU, Canterbury ; q. d. the City of Kent.
Kentish men, Cyntiaid or Oynniaid. See OeirU,
Caio or Caeo, one of the three commots of Cantref Bychan, Caermarthenshire. (Price's Description,)
Caioros, in Doomsday Book (Cheshire) ; corruptly for Caerwys, a village in Englefield, now Flintshire.
Caissar, Caessar, and Caisar, Julius Caesar.
Caled. Iddon Galed ap Trehayam.
Calatyr, Caledonia. (JE, Llwyd)
Calchfynydd (n. L), q. d. the chalky mountain ; perhaps the Boman Calcaria. Cadrod Calchfynydd, Earl of Dunstable, about AJD. 560.
Caldecote (Doomsday Boole), Calcoed, in Flintshire.
Caledfwlch, Anglic^ Hardnotch, the name of King Arthur's sword in TyBsilio's British History. This word old English writers, after their usual ignorance or negligence, have turned into Oalibum, which hath very little affinity with the original See Spelman's Glossary in the word OalUbwrn; and Hoveden in Bichard I, in whose time this famous sword of King Arthur was in being, and surrendered or delivered by Richard I to Tancred.
It was the custom among other warlike nations to give names to their swords ; but the ancient Britains took a particular pride in adorning their swords, and making them polished handles of the teeth of sea-animals (see Solinus, Polyhistor^ c. xxv) ; and their warlike disposition and love of the sword was such, that it was the custom for the mother of every male child to put the first victuals into the child's mouth on the point of his father's
Bword, and with the food to give her first blessing or wish to him, that he might die no other death but in war and arms. (Solinus, Polyhistor; Selden, Mar, Claus., 1. ii, 3, 2.) Nay, this nation, by long struggling in defence of their country, had got to such an enthusiastic pitch of warlike madness, that I have read in an ancient British MS. now at Hengwrt, that it was cus- tomary, when a man grew old and infirm among them, to desire his children or next relations to pull him out of bed and kiU him, lest the enemy might have the pleasure of that office, or that he should die cowardly and sordidly, and not by the sword. See Prydwen.
Caletwr, a river in Cardiganshire, q. d. dwr caled. Hence Dol y Clettwr, near Tre'r Ddol ; i. e., Tre Dol y Clettwr. Castell Humphrey, in the valley of Calettwr, fortified A.D. 1150 by Howel ap Owain Gwynedd.
Callestr. Caer y Gallestr, Flint. {Tho8, Williams.) See Fflint.
Cam. Llwyth y Cam, a family in Anglesey, anciently in great note. Elian, the founder of Llan Elian Church about A.D. 500 or sooner, had the surname of Cdmiad. Elian was the son of All- tud Eedegog, and the expression in Mabinogi favours this.
Cvmmorth g^n Elian Ceimiad.
Y Prydydd Bychan, in the 13th century, mentions Llwyth y Cam and Ceimiad. EHan Ceimiad, Beimo Geimiad, etc. Some think they had this appellative because they were swift of foot, or great travellers.
See Marwnad Madog Mon; also Prydydd y Moch to Eodri ap Ywain Gwynedd, lord of Anglesey.
Ef gogawn glyw Gammawn Ceimiad.
See 0am and Elian (St.).
Camafan (n. L) ; perhaps Cwmavan.
Camalac, a British Bishop carried away captive by the Danes from Irchenfeld (Erging), which they laid waste with fire and sword, A.D. 715. {Oamden in Herefordshire,) Probably Cyfelach (Ilangyfelach).
Camber ap Brutus, neu Camber ap Prydain.
Camddin, Lat. Cambodunum. (E, Llvjyd)
Camddwr and Camdwr (fl.) in Cardiganshire. Y Camddwr
Mawr, Camdwr Bach, rivers that run into RheidioL Aber Cam- ddwr. Ehyd y Camddwr, Pont ar Qamddwr, the ford and bridge on a river Camddwr, which falls into Teivi in Cardiganshire. Here a battle was fought between Gronwy and Llewelyn, sons of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, etc., against Ehys ap Owen, to revenge their grandfather's death, where Bhys and Bhjrtherch ap Caradog were defeated, a.d, 1072.
Camelon (pronounced Camlan), near Falkirk in Scotland, on the river Alaun, hath its name from hence, t. e., Cwm Alawn.
Camlas (fl.) falls into the Wysg in Brecknockshire : hence Aber Camlas.
CiiHMARCH, a river that falls into the Irwon. Llangammarch in the diocese of St. David's.
Camryd ; Lat. Camboritum. {K Llwyd) Hence Camryd near Conwy, vulgo Cymryd. The river fordable there.
Canawl, one of the four cantrefe of Ceredigion. (Price's De- script^
Cangellwb, a chancellor ; Lat cancdlarius, Cangel, a chancel (from ccm and cell), originally the singing-room in a monastery, etc. But see about twenty derivations of this word in Spelman.
Canologion, one of the three commots of Cantref Lleyn. (Price's Deseript.)
Canon CvNLLArrH. Gwenddydd, in Cyfoesau Myrddin, caDs her brother Merddin "Cydymaith a Chanon Cynllaith." See Machynlleth and Cynllaith. Qu., whether he was a canon of Some cathedral of that name ?
Gan wyt Cydymaith a Chanon Cynllaith. — Kyf, M. a G,
Cantref, a cantred or hundred, from carU and tref, a himdred townships or villas.
Cantref a chan Eidionydd. — Llywarch Hen,
Spelman, therefore, is mistaken when he supposes the Cambro- Britains had not this division of countries from their ancestors, but &om Alfred and the Saxons. If Llywarch Hen had not said it, the very word carUref, being British and Irish, shews it.
Cantref Bychan : see Bychan.
Cantref Castell, one of the four cantrefs of Cardiganshire, anciently contained Mabwynion and Caerwedros. (Price's De- script,)
Cantref Cemhaks, one of the three cantrefs of Anglesey, con- taming the commots of Talybolion and Twrcelyn.
Cantref Coch (Y), th^ Forest of Dean.
Cantref CYNAN,one of the five cantrefs of Powys Wenwynwyn, containing anciently the commots of Cyfeiliog and Mowddwy. (Price's Bescr.)
Cantref Gwaelod. The great bay between Ueyn and Aber- ystwyth, called by sailors Cardigan Bay, was a tract of level ground belonging to Gwyddno Garanhir. It was overflowed by the sea about the year 500. There is some account of this acci- dent in Llyfr Du Caerjyrddin, — " Caniad pan aeth y M6r dros Gantref Gwaelod." [A. B., ii, 59.]
Ardal dwfyn boewal Dinmilwy, Eissytyn gwylein.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Lew. ap lorwerih.
The boundary to the north seems to have been Sam Badrig, Tradition has it that there were several towns there which were swallowed up or overflowed. It seems there were dams between it and the sea, and that by drunkenness the floodgates were left oi)en, as that ancient poem hints. Moms Uwyd Wiliam, A.D. 1560 (i'r Gleisiad) sajrs :
Oyfeiria acw foroedd
Lie bu'r tir, Uwybr it' oedd.
Mr. Vaughan, in his British Antiquities Revived, mentions it. — Trees in the bay ; a stone with an inscription.
Caper ap Puder.
Caph, the 58th King of Britain,
Capoir, the 68th King of Britain, which one copy calls Pabo.
Cappel Coch in Brecknockshire. Fairs kept here.
Caractacus, Caradog ; but doth not signify warrior, as Ains- worth makes him.
Caradoc (n. pr. v.), also Caradog, beloved {k car) ; latinized
Caradoeus and Oaractacus. Hence Caer Caradoc in the catalogue
of cities in the Triades; in Nennius' catalogue, Caer Garada^iic;
and in a MS., Caer Qradaiic, (Tr. 19, 23.) " Un o'r tri dyfal
gyfangan." A prince of Gwynedd of this name was taken by
the Bomans, whose behaviour was admired by them ; and as out
countryman hath described it,
Boma catenatum tremait Spectare Britannum. — E, W,
[Nage, Tywysog y Gwenhwyson (Siltires) ydoedd Caradoc ab Bran. Gwel Achau lestin ab Gwrgan. — L M.]
Gakadoc o Langarvan, Caradocus Lancarovanenais (Zeland), author of the Histoiy of the Kings and Princes of Wales from Cad- waladr, the last King of Britain, to A.D. 1157. He was a monk of the Abbey of Llangarvan, and was cotemporary with Galfrid the translator of the British History from Brutus to Cadwaladr. Le- land says he could not find whether the History was first wrote in British or Latin ; but that he beUeved Caradoc first wrote it in Latin, and not in Cambro-British. (Leland, Script Brit, c. 162.) If so, how happens it that no Latin copy of it can be met with, and that Humphrey Llwyd made his English translation from the Cambro-British, which Dr. Powel afterwards published with his learned annotations ? The name of that history among the Canibro-Britains is BnU y Tyivysogion. There are several British copies in Wales, and one in Llyfr Coch o Eergest in Jesus Col- lege, Oxford.
CAEADOC (St.). Llangradog. His life was written by Giral- dus Cambrensis, who lived near his time, and is in Capgrave. He was first in great favour with Rhys, Prince of South Wales ; but falling out with the Prince, he entered himself monk in the church of St. Teilo in Llandaf ; from thence retired to the deso- late church of St. Kined ; thence to St. David's, and there was made priest ; from thence to the isle of Ary. Here he was car- ried off by Norway pirates, and released, and had the Monastery of St. Hismael, in Boss, assigned him. {Brit. Sanct,) Died A.D. 1124.
Caradawc Fbeichfras was penhynaif in Cemyw when Arthur was chief king there (TV. 7) ; father of Cawrdaf (IV. 19); Cad- farchog {Tr. 23). See Bedwyr,
Caradawc ap Bran (TV. 19), one of the Cynweisiaid.
Caradok, an id. Caradoc ?
Caranir, q. d. Garan hir vel Corun hir. Gwyddno Garanir.
Caranval, son of Cynddylan. (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan.)
Carcludwys ap Cyngen ap Ysbwys ap Cadrod Calchfynydd ap Cynwyd Cynwydion.
Caredio, the 105th King [of the Britons] ; Lat. Oareticus, kind, loving.
Caredigion, Cardiganshire ; so named from Caredig, son of Cunedda "Wledig, about the year 440.
Carentius (Jo. Major, ffist, Scot, L i, c. 15). This is the Caravm of Tyssilio, and the Carausius of the coins. He made peace between the Scots and Picts about the battle of the Dog, and they all turned their arms against the Bomans. See Cad Chddau [s. V. Ooddau\
Carfan. Ilangarfan (from carw in the Life of Dewi).
Carlegion. Bede says the Britains in his time called Lega- cester by the name of Carlegion. Some Britains might, but a Saxon could know nothing of that. See Caerlleon Gator.
Carlisle, the English name of a city in the north of Britain, about the ancient name of which there is great contention among antiquaries. Camden, in his BrUannia, who treats the rest with contempt, says that the Bomans and Britains called it Lugvhal- lum and Luguvallium or Lagybalia ; that the Saxons called it (as Bede witnesses) Liial; Ptolomy (as some think), ZeiwJopiWa; Nennius, Oaerlualid ; the ridiculous "Welsh prophecies, the city oiBvballus; we,0aa'li8le ; and the Latin, from the more modem name, OaerUolum ; and that Luguballia and Carlisle are the same, is universally agreed upon ; and that Leland had taken pains to no purpose about it. Afterwards he says he will pro- duce his "own conjecture that the Military WaU of the Bomans gave it the name, for that Antoninus calls it '' Luguvallum ad Vallum". Is not this "Vallum ad Vallum" tautology, if that be the case ? Further on he says that Pomponius Mela has told us that *^lAigvA or lAiCiis signified in the Celtic a tower ; for that what Antoninus calls iMgo Atigusti, Pomponius calls Turris Augvsti ; so that Luguvallum is really a tower or fort upon the waU or vallum". But take notice, that if Lugus is a tower, and vallum a wall, the " Luguvallum ad Vallum" of Antoninus is a Fort on the Wall at the WalL Qu. whether this is common sense?
As the antiquities of the Britains are concerned in these asser- tions of Mr. Camden, give us leave to examine them. First, he says the Bomans and Britains called it Lugu-ballum. The latter
we deny, for such a name is not to be found in all the writings of the Britains. That the Cambridge copy of Nennius calls some city, the 17th in his catalogue, Lualid, we allow ; but Mr. Cam- den ought to have been so candid as to let the worid know that the Cottonian copy has no Caer Lualid, but hath Zigualid, the third city in the catalogue ; though neither of the copies says it is either Lugu-ballium, Carlisle, or anything else. As for the ridiculous Welsh prophecies, Mr. Camden should not have made a general charge against them aU, but have told us in what authors he had found the city Carlisle called the city of Duballus. But this we may gather from Mr. Camden's extensive knowledge in the affairs of the ancient Britains, that he never saw any of their prophecies except that Latin translation of Prophwydoliaeth Myrddin Emrys in Galfrid, where I find this passage : " The fox of Caerdvhalum shall take revenge on the Hon, and destroy him entirely with her teeth." This is all that is said in any "Welsh prophecies of Caerdvhalum ; and this, too, in Latin. And is not he a very ridiculous antiquary that positively makes this Caer- dubalum to be Carlisle ? A prophet, indeed ! Is not this more likely to be Cjter Dubai, i. e,, Tubal's Castrum, — some feigned name made use of in that pretended prophecy, if Galfrid dealt fair in his translation ? This prophecy is not in the British copy of Tyssilio, it being added to the history by Gralfrid when he turned it into Latin.
It doth not follow that Lucus in the Gaulish and British sig- nifies a tower, because P. Mela calls Antoninus' Lugo Augusti by the name of Turris Augusti, Lucus was a Latin word signi- fying a chapel or temple, which might give name to places as well as the supposed Lucus or Lugus of the Gauls. As for the Britains, they have no name for this city as ever I could meet with ; so that I suspect it to be entirely of Roman original, and of the same age with the Roman Wall, unless it be Caer Ewer- ydd, which is mentioned in an ancient MS. to have been the place where Rhun ap Maelgwn landed when he carried the war to Scotland. See Rhun and Morwerydd,
Carn and Carnedd, an ancient Celtic word signifying a heap of stones, prefixed to the names of several places, as,
Gam Aret in Medrigia in Ireland.
Y 0am in Flintshire.
\Y Oam, a high hiU near KstyU Khaiadr.— fT. 2>.]
Y 0am Wen, in Trefeirig, Cardiganshire, South Wales. YOam ynghom/wy, Mon.
Hence also Gamau or Oameddau PlymJymon, etc. Prodigious heaps of stones on the tops of mountains ; sometimes as tombs ; sometimes,! apprehend, to make fires on their tops, to give notice of the approach of an enemy.
Cabn Boduak, a moimtain in IIe3m, Caernarvonshire ; from Bodftan, a gentleman's seat, just by.
Carn Ddyddgu, Cardiganshire.
Carn Fyitydd.
Men yd las Trahaeam yngham Fynydd.
Meilir Brydydd, in Marwnad Gr. ap Cynan.
Called by Caradoc Mynydd Camo, and by Marwnad Trahaeam Mynydd Cam.
Carn Hendwll, Cardiganshire.
Carn Llechart [Cam Zlecharth. — J. Jf.], in the parish of Uangyfelach, a monument on a mountain-top of that name in Glamorganshire. (K Zlwyd.)
Carn Madrin, in Ueyn, a high mountain on the top of which there are the ruins of a British fort. Qu. whether mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary t
Carn t Naid, in Momomia, Ireland.
Carn y Bhod, in the county of Wexford.
Carnedd Ddaftdd, a mountain in Eryri. {E, Llwyd)
Carnedd Elidir, a mountain near Llanberis.
Carnedd EEigin, in Caernarvonshire.
Carnedd Llewelyn, a mountain near Llanberis. {E, Llwyd.)
Carnbwillon, one of the three commots of Cantref Eginog, Caermarthenshire.
Carnguwch, a parish in Caernarvonshire.
Carno (n. 1.), near Abergavenny. On the mountains called Mynydd Camo a battle was fought, in the year 728, between Ethelbald Bling of Mercia and the Britains. {Caradoc, p. 15.) On Camo mountains was also fought that memorable battle between Grufiludd ap Cynan and Trahaeam ap Caradoc, the reigning Prince of North Wales in the year 1079. Gruflfydd ap
Cynan (being half-brother to Encumalhon^ King of Ulster in Ireland) had a strong power of Irishmen, which he landed at St. David's Head, and joining with Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr, Prince of South Wales, who claimed the crown of South Wales, they encamped on Mynydd Camo, where they were met by Trahaeam ap Caradog and his cousins of Powys, the sons of Ehiwallon ap Gwyn ap Bleddyn, viz., Caradog, Grufifudd, and Meilyr, who were aU slain in battle, and Gruff, ap Cynan had the government of Wales. See Meilir Brydydd's poem, who calls it Mynydd Cam. See Cam,
Cabok and Cabawn, Lai. Oarausiua, a king of the Britains, who about the year [300] threw off the Roman yoke, and kept the island from them for about seven years, being an entire master of the sea.
Caron, in Ceretica.
Caron, a river in Scotland. {Nennius,)
Carnwennan, the name of Arthur's dagger. (Dr. Davies.)
Carreg (pL Cerbig), a stone, in the composition of several names of places, as Carreg Hova, Carreg Fergus in Ireland, Car- reg Tstum Ilaeth, CasteU Carreg near Caerfyrddin, Cerrig y Drudion, Cerrig y Gwyddyl ym Mon {Tr, 49), Carreg Cynnen Castle, about ad. 1240. (Caradoc)
Carreg Ddiwin, in the parish of Beddcelert, where about 50 brass spear-heads of the ancient Britains were found in the year 1688 by removing a great stone. They were sdmost in sight. (E. Ilwyd, Notes on Camden,)
Carreg Hova, a castle by Oswestry, taken by Owen Cyfeiliog AD. 1162.
Carreg Hudwtdd, which Mr. Edward Uwyd thinks to be Berry, which is not far from Wroxeter in Shropshire, where he imagines Cynddylan's seat was.
Carrog or Carrawg, a place in Cardiganshire.
Gh)rea ceraint gw^ Carrawg, Cyttyn fydd rhyngtbyn* y rhawg;
Dew cUf leuan Du,
Carrog, in Mon, q. d. Carregog, stony ; and I suppose a river in Dol Garrog, Caernarvonshire. Carthan : vid. Ammivyn Carthan,
Cabun^ a river in Scotland (hence Abercaron, contracted Aber- com), is called after the name of Garausius, King of Britain. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 343.) Jo. Major (L i, f. 19) calls it Oaron. See Oaron, Oaravm, and Abercv/mig.
Carwed Fynydd, in Isaled, a gentleman's seat. (J, D.)
Garwed, near Beaumaris.
Gaseg Falltraeth, a rock in the entrance of Malltraeth har- bour. It bears the name to this day. {Moras Llvryd WUiam, AD. 1560.)
Gasgwent or Gastell Gwent, Ghepstow; anciently Gaer Went. [N"ag6, lie arall yw Gaerwent. — I, M.]
Gabnab Wledig ap Iludd ap Beli Mawr, father of Pwyll Pen- defig Dyfed. (Maiinoffion.)
Gasnodyn Fardd, a poet a.d. 1240. [lived at Llangyfelach in Morganwg. — /. Jf.]
Gasswallawn and Gaswallon (n, p. v.). Gaswallon ap Beli Mawr was the Prince that headed the Britains when Julius Gaesar invaded Britain, He had killed his brother Iludd in a battle fought for the dominion of Britain^ which caused Afarwy, the son of Ludd, to go over to Gaul to Gaesar to desire his assist- ance. Gaesar calls him Oaasibellatmus or Gassivellaunus in the Latin ; and it is probable the Oassii, a people of Britain (Gas- walliait), were his own patrimony. He went to Bome for Fflur, the daughter of Mugnach Gorr (Tr. 77) ; so that it seems he was in peace with the Bomans then, and took pride in their alliance, or else he went incognito,
Gasswallon Law Hir, or the generous, a Prince in the Isle of Anglesey, and was one of the northern Britains that took refuge there. He was son of Einion Yrth ap Gunedda Wledig, and was the &ther of Maelgwn Gwynedd, wbo was- afterwards King of Britain. The legend of St. Elian, who hath a church in Anglesey, says that the man of God struck Gasswallon, lord of Anglesey, blind for some misdemeanors against the Ghurch. Some call him GatwaUon Law Hir, un o'r tri eurgryd, as in Triad 49.
Gastell, properly a caBtle,castellum. Perhaps an ancient Geltic word from ca/n and astdl, to inclose with boards or piles.
Gastell, a river between Greuddyn and Perfedd,Gardiganshire.
Castell Bwch, Monmouthshire.
Oastell Caissar, Salisbury.
Castell Carbeg, in Cantref Bychan near Caerfyrddin^ a castle on the top of an inaccessible rock with vast caverns. {Carnden in CaermartheTisJi/ire.)
Castell Coch ym Mhowys, or Castell Gwenwynwyn at the Pool, A.D. 1195, taken by the Archbishop of Canterbury. (Oar- adog in Un. ap lorwerth.)
Castell Crogen, the old name of Chirk Castle. See Chirk.
Castell Cynfel. Huw Ilwyd Cynfel, a poet.
Castell Dinas Bran, Biennus' Castle, a castle on the top of a round hill near Llangollen, anciently called Dinas Bran, Llys Bran, Brenhinblas Bran, EurUys Yran, Ucheldir Bran; and Howel ap Einion calls it Dinbrain.
Ym nend glyd dy hnd hydr riain
Wanlledd or wenllys ger Dinbrain.— 'J7. ap Eimon*
It is in the commot of Nanheudwy.
Castell (tOLLWYN is between Wysg and Gwy in Brecknock- shire:
Pan eistedo Saeson yn ei sarffryn
A chjrchu o bell Gkistell GoU^yn. — Hoianau Myrddm.
Castell Gwalchmai, one of the three commots of Bhos (now Boose) in Pembrokeshire. See OwalcJimai ap Gwyar^ nai Arthur.
Castell Gwys, Guise Castle. See Owys.
Castell Maen, a village in Badnorshire, where fairs are kept ; in English, Huntington Castle. (Price's Deacript)
Castell Mai Mannor, Caernarvonshire.
Castell March (n. L). See March Amheirehion.
Castell Moch ym Mochnant.
Castell Moel. (i. 0, Cothi,) [An old castle and village in the parish of Ilangarfan in Glamorgan. — I, M,]
Castell Newydd Bach yng Nghemmaes, Pembrokeshire. There are fairs kept here.
Castell Newydd yn Emlyn, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here. See Emlyn.
Castell Newydd yn Rhos, Caermarthenshire. There are fairs kept here.
Castell Paun (from Pain, a Norman) a village in Radnor-
shire, where fairs are kept ; also a commot there. Near this was the fight of Machawy.
Caswennan. Gorffrydau CanoenTian (i. e., the streams of Cas- wennan), a great overfall of the sea near the Isle of EnUi, where King Arthur's favourite ship, Gwennan, was cast away. This, it seems, was a ship of war called after the name of his daughter, Ann. The place bears the name to tliis day.
Os anodd ar Gaswennan
Droi ar lif o'r dwfr i'r Ian. — Boheri Leiaf,
Deuliw berw Caswennan, Golwg dedd amlwg diddan. — Hywel a/p EiniotL See Gwennan.
Cathen or Cathan. Llangathen parish in Caermarthenshire. See Caiheiniog,
CA.TENEYS, corruptly for Caithness. See Caiheiniog, Catguallon, wrote anciently for Cadwallon. {E, Llwyd.) Catguogan, wrote anciently for Cadwgan. {E, Llwyd) Catgwaladyr, wrote anciently for Cadwaladr. {E. Llwyd) Cathgoed ym M6n. Dona ynghathgoed ym Mon. Hence Uangoed, a parish there.
Cathness, the most N". E. comer of Scotland ; probably from an island of that name formerly called Gathynys, i. e.. Cat Island; or OaethynySy the Prison Island. The ancient Britains wrote enes for what we now write ynys, an island ; and this makes me suspect that Totness in Devonshire (which is said in Tyssilio to be the place where Brutus first landed, and wrote in the British copy Totenys) was anciently an island of the name of Tot Ynys; and that all other places of the same termination in Britain, such as Dungness, Sheerness, Eastonness, Inverness, etc., do not signify n^se, as oui' English antiquaries imagine, but are the same with British names of islands of the like sounds in Wales used to this day, as Mon Ynys, Anglesey ; Y Voel Ynys ; Y Las Ynys ; Y Wen Ynys and Y Fel Ynys, the ancient names of Britain ; and every island, in the British, is to this day called ynys, Weik of Cathness. (Major, Hist Scot)
Cattbaeth, or Cad Traeth, some place in Scotland where a battle was fought by Mynyddawc Eydyn. " Gosgordd Mynydd-
awe Eiddun yn Nghadtraeth". (Tr. 86.) One of the 3 gosgordd adwy Ynys Prydain.
Kiglen am dal medd mjned draig Cattraeth Gy wir i harfaeth arfan llifaid. — Eirlas Owain.
See the Gododin.
Cattw ap Geraint ap Erbin ; q. d. Cato,
Cajtwg (Sant Llangattwg),or CADOC,or Cadawc, son of Gund- Iseufl (Gwynlliw Filwr) ; and his mother was Gwladus, daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog. (Oapgrave,) He was instructed by St. Tathai, who was an Irish doctor at Gwent in Monmouthshire, brought there by Garadog ab Ynjrr the King. From thence Gadog went to Uangarvan, where he built a church and monas- tery, and there opened a school, where Illdud and Gildas were his disciples (at Gwenllwg near Pontvaen). He was succeeded at Uangarvan by his disciple Ellenius. {Brit. Sanct) [catvc inscribed on a monumental stone in the parish of Llandeveiliog, two miles north of Brecknock. — W. D,]
Gattwn Hen o Eufain, Gato the elder.
Gaw (n. pr. v.). Gaw o Dwrcelyn.
Gaw, a poet mentioned by Gynddelw.
Gathlau clan cerddan Gaw.
Gaw, father of GUdas, Huail, &c. (Triades,) See Glides.
Gaw : see Bryn Caw.
Gaw ap Gowrda, lord of Gwm Gowlwyd in Arthur's time.
Gawr was an appellative or title given some warlike princes, especially in Gambria, signifying a warlike prince, which an- swered to Wledig in Loegria, and Priodawr in North Britain. Gogyrfan Gawr was father-in-law of King Arthur ; Ysbyddadden Pen Gawr o'r Gogledd ; Benlli Gawr ; BeU Gawr ; Albion Gawr ; Idris Gawr; Othrwm Gawr; Rhitta Gawr; Nemrwth Gawr; Llocrin Gawr.
Gamp Gawr yw cwympo caerydd.— lor. Fynglwyd,
Truan fa*r cyfrdan ddwyn Gawr y Cedym A*n ceidwad a'a blaenawr. — Rhys Brychcm,
Gawr pen Mon carw Pen Mynydd.
Sion Brwynog^ i Harri viii.
Mr. Baxter will have the word to come from cau and ur, which
he makes to be a cave-man, or a wild man living in caves ; but cav, is not a cave in the British : and this derivation is whimsi- cal, and a mere conceit, like too many of his. See Caerlleon Gawr,
Cawrdaf, son of Cariadog Freichfras. {Tr. 19.)
Cawknwy, a place.
O Wy hyd Ghiwmwy. — Mar. Trahaem,
Qu. whether Oomwy in Anglesey ?
Cat AN. . Llangayan. Tregaian.
Ceccye, river. Aber y Ceccyr.
Cecil, a modem name in England from SeiaylU or Seidll, an old British name of the 16th King of Britain. Seisyll ap Grwat.
Cbdewain or Cydbwen, a cantref of Powys Wenwynwyn. Y Drefnewydd ynghedewain. See Cydewain.
Cedic ap Caredic ap Cunedda.
Cedol Sant (n. pr. v.). Cappel Pentir. Cors y GedoL
Cedweli (n. L). Z. O. Cothi, See Cydweli
Cedwyn (St.) Uangedwyn, a chapel in the parish of lian- rhaiadr, Denbighshire. Also Uangedwyn in Meirion. [Ynya Cechvyn in the Vale of Tawy, on the confines of Glamorgan and Brecknockshire. — W, D.]
Cedyrn (Y). Ynys y CedyrUy the isle of strong men or heroes. Great Britain.
Cefenni ; Lat. Oobanhium. (E, Llwyd in Monmouthshire)
Cefn and Cefen, anciently wrote GebheUy is a Celtic word used in the composition of names of places in Britain and Gaul, sig- nifying the back of anything, and applied to mountains and high lands ; hence the Gehenna and Gebennae, a mountain in Gfiul, which should be wrote Cebhenna.
Cefn yr Aelwyd (n. 1.), where a battle was fought by Cadwallon ap Madog. {Cynddelw, in Marwnad Cad. ap Madog.)
Cefn yr Ais (n. 1.).
Cefn Ammwlch (n. ].).
Cefn Bodig, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) Vaughan's.
Cefn Bryn, the most noted hill in Gower Land. Here is a vast cromlech called Arthur's Stone. (Ed. Llwyd, Notes on Cam- den.) See Gijbyr.
Cefn Cerwyni, wrote by Mr. Edward Llwyd Cefn Gonoyni.
Cefn Cocu (Y), uomen loci.
Pen y Cefn.
Cefn Cribwr, in Llandugwg, Glamorganshire. Qu. whether Cibwr ? [NeLgBfCrihor. Y mae Cibwr yn agos i 30 milltir tua'r dwyrain oddiyno.— J. M.]
Cefn Cynwarchen, a place in Dyfed, where the Flemings sent to Ileweljna ap lorwerth for peace. [Garadoc)
Cefn Deuddwr, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) Nanney.
Cefn Digoll, the Long Mountain between Newtown and Salop, where Cadwallon fought Edwin. Here a battle was fought, after the death of Llewelyn ap Grufiydd, between Ehys Am- redydd and the Marchers, 1284 (qu. ?).
Cefn Du (Y), nomen loci [Gefn Du in lal. — W. 2>.]
Cefnffigen, or, in English, Kynfigs, a town and castle in Mor- ganwg near Aberavan. {PmoeL) CynflSg. {Mr. E, Llwyd) In the highway between Margam and Cynffig is a stone with the inscription, Pompeius Carantgrius. {E. Llwyd,) [Cynffig is the Welsh name. It is not found anywhere but in Powel written Cefnffigen. — I. Jf.]
Cefn y Garlleg, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.)
Cefn Gwyn, nomen loci.
Cefn Hafod, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
Cefn Hir, a gentleman's seat. {J, D)
Cefn Llwyd, nomen loci.
Cefn Llys, a castle in Maelienydd. (Camden's Britannia) Castell Cefn llys.
Cefn y Maes, nomen loci [in Glamorgan. — /. 2f.].
Cefn Mabli, nomen loci.
Cefn Melgoed (n. 1.), a gentleman's seat in Cardiganshire.
Cefn Nithgroen, nomen loci.
Cefn yr Odfa, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,)
Cefn Rester, mountains not far from Caermarthen, where Rhys, Prince of Wales, encamped, 1160.
Cefn Trefehsi, nomen loci.
Cefn Trefeilir, nomen loci.
Cefni or Cefenni, a river in Anglesey. Nant Cefni, the valley of the river Cefni, in Anglesey, is mentioned in ^Qnmvi^^ History of the Britons, where there was one of the wonders of Anglesey, a stone which wandered about in the night, and always returned
home by morning. {Nennins, c Ixxxiv.) Here is a church called Llangefni, dedicated to St. Cyngor. See Chenin.
Cegid (qu. a river ?) Ystum Cegid, a gentleman's seat. (J. D)
Cechdfa, a parish in Montgomeryshire. Y Garth ynghegidfa.
Cegidog, a church and parish (rectory) in the deanery of Ehos, Denbighshire.
Cei or Cai. Caergei in the Triades, i, e., Caergai. There is a place in Meirion called Caergai ; but I think it cannot be that meant in the Triades for one of the 28 cities, but the house of Cai Hir. (Price's DescHpt), See Cai Hit,
Ceianus or Keianus, a Scot mentioned by Camden out of Nennius, in Glamorgan and Caermarthenshire, whose sons are said to have possessed Kydweli and G^yr till drove out by Cunedda. Not in Gale's NenniiLS,
Ceidiaw, tad Gwenddolau. (Tr. 12.)
Ceidio (n. L) in Anglesey. Cappel Ceidio, Anglesey. Ehod y Geidio. Ceidio, a church in Lleyn.
Ceidio Sant ap Coryf ap Caynawc Mawr.
Ceindrech Penasgell, daughter of EliferGosgorddfawr. (rr.52.)
Ceindkych Santes verch Brychan ynghaer Godolawr.
Ceinmeirgh, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Ceinmyrch and DyflF- rjTi Clwyd were two cantrefs belonging to Davydd ap Gruffydd, A.D. 1256.
Ceint, a river in Anglesey.
Ceint, the ancient British name of Kent, as if wrote in Eng- lish Keint or Kynt ; by the Eomans, Cantium ; the people, Oan- tii. Caergeint is one of the 28 cities in the Triades ; in another copy it is Caergent; by Thomas Williams, C^oergfam^, and by him Englished Canterbury, Usher has it Caer Cent The name seems to have been formed from cyntaf, first or primitive inha^ bitants. The Iceni also were the same people, but were distin- guished by the name of Uwchcyniaid, or upper Cyniaid, i.e., the upper first men. They inhabited the land called now Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, and Huntingdonshire. The Trinobantes were the same primitive inhabitants, called so horn their town .Tro Newydd.
Ceinwen Santes, daughter of Brychan. Her churches in Anglesey, Llangeinwen, and Cerrig Ceinwen. She is called by the Latin legendaries Keina, See Brit. Sanct, Oct. 8.
Ceinydr Sant o Feilionydd ap Rhiengar Santes.
Cp:iuchiog, a chapel and parish in Anglesey.
Ceiriog, a river. Hence Glyn Ceiriog or Dyffryn Ceiriog in Denbighshire. Here is a pass through the mountains, where Henry II with his vast army had warm work with the Britains in the year 1165 ; pan dalwyd y gwystlon. (Caradoc, p. 169.)
Ceirionnydd (n. 1.). Llyn Ceirionnydd. {Taliesin,)
Ceirit. Caer Ceirit (Nennucs) ; qu. Ceiut ? See Seri.
Ceirw, a river in Wales (E.Llwyd), in Llywarch Hen's Marw- nad Cynddylan. Ceiro, or perhaps Ceirw, is a river near Plym- lumon, that falls into Kheidiol at Aberceiro. \Geirwy falls into Alwen near Bettws Gwerful Goch. — W. D.]
Ceiswyn, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) Lloyd.
Celemon. Caer Celemon. {Nennius) See Sdemion.
Celer. liangeler, a parish in Carmarthenshire. Qu., the same with Celert? See Bedd Celert,
Cellan Sant.
Cellan, a parish church in Cardiganshire. Also Rhos Cellan, Cardiganshire.
Cellan y Gog, in Brecknockshire (qu. ?)
Celleu: see Gelleu,
Celli, a hazle wood ; Lat coryletum. Hence the names of places in Wales, etc. Y Gelli Gandryll ; Celli'r Ffrydau ; GeUi Fadog ; Celli'r Eirin ; Gelli Gogau ; Gelli Fabwen ; Gelli Lyfdy ; y Gelli Dywyll ; Gelli Goch ; Pen y Gelli : hence a surname, PengeUy.
Celliwig (n. 1.), King Arthur's palace in Cornwall. {Tr. 46.) Here King Arthur was chief king, Betwini head of bishops (i c, penesgyb), and Caradawc Vreichfras chief elder (i.e., prince). See Dexci,
Celyddon. Coed Celyddon, the Forest of Caledonia in Scot- land. {Hoianau Myrddin), See Myrddin WylU.
Celynin Sant. Llangelynin in Meirion.
Celynnog or Clynnog Fawr yn Arfon (from celyn, i, e., a place of holly), a village with a large church, where was an abbey which had formerly great privileges. It was foimded by the famous Beuno,who is said to have i*eplaced the head of St. Wini- fred, which Caradog had cut off. See Bcioio.
Cemlyn ap Meirion Goch o L^.
Oemmaes, a church and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog, Powys. Oemmaes comes from ce/n and metes. It is wrote also Cemmes and Cemais.
LI an dwr yw a llanw di wres
Llewjg ami drwy hoU Gemmes. — 8xon Mawddwy,
Oemmaes, a lordship and sea-port in Anglesey.
Cemais, one of the eight cantrefs of Dyfed. (Price's Descript) Gwrwared ap GwUym o Gemais.
Cemoyth, King of the Picts. (Caradoc, A.D. 856, p. 29.) In Irish Cionaod, {Ogygia, p. 481.)
Cenaf or Cynau, verch Tewdwr Mawr.
Cenakth, a parish in Carmarthenshire.
Cenau ap Coel Godebog ap Tegfan ap Deheufraint ap Did-
bwyll ap ap Grudd ap Buadel Frych ap Eydeym ap En-
digaid ap Endeym ap Enid ap Endos ap Endolau ap Afallach ap Aflech ap Beli Mawr ap Manogan.
Cenedlon verch Brychan.
CENHENFA,enw lie. [Cynhinfa, nom. loci, in Ilangyniw parish. — W.R]
Cenin, a river : hence Cwm Cenin in Llandeilo Fawr, Carmar- thenshire.
Cennant (fl.), Cardiganshire.
Cennen, a river in Carmarthenshire.
Dwy wlad a Chedweli wenn Dwy oes cwyned Is Cennen.
L. Morganwg, i H. Penri.
Cynnydd y Drefoewydd nenn
Gynnor gw;^ deutn Cennen. — Bedo Thylip Bach.
In Morden's Map Cunrum,
Ceneig {k een and rig, rex. See Baxter). Cerdieselment : see Blved. Ceedin, a river.
Ucha' cardod nwch Cerdin Isa'r fost sy ar ei fin.
leuan Detdwynj i Dafydd Llwyd ap Llewelyn o Gastell Hy wel. [Cerdiny a rivulet in Ilandyssnl on the Teivy. Uwch Cerdin and
Is Gerdin, two divisions of the parish. It is in Cwmwd Gwin- ionydd.— W. 2>.]
Ceredic ap Cunedda Wledig ap Edeyrn.
Ceredigion, Ceretica, the county of Cardigan ; from Ceredig ap Cunedda Wledig, about the year 440 drove out, with his father, from North Britain by the Irish Scots.
Ceretica, Ceredigion.
Ceri, a commot in Cantref Melienydd ; now a village and church near Newtown, Montgomeryshire.
Hawdd imi 'ugwlad Geri gael. — leuan Tew.
Ceris, Keris. Hence Pwll Ceris, the name of a spot of foul ground, or whirlpool, in the Straits of Menai channel, very dan- gerous for shipping : such another place, in name and nature, as Charybdis in the Straits of Sicily. Nennius, the British histo- rian, calls it Fwll Kervtt
Cernyw, Cornwall, Corinnia. The country opposite to this was anciently called Cernyw or Corrumailles; and afterwards, by Cynan Meriadoc, Pi^dain Vechan^oi Little Britain. See Vertot.
Cernyw (Llan), a parish and church in the deanery of Rhos, Denbighshire. Church dedicated to St. Digain. {Br, Willis.)
Cernyweg, lingua Corinmce.
Cerrig, stones, in the names of places. Hence the county of Kerry in Ireland ; in Irish, Kiemg ; and the Isle of Skerries, q. d. ys cerrig.
Cerrig y Drudion, or the Druids* Stones, a village in Den- bighshire, North Wales.
Cerrig Gwyddyl ym Mon.
Cerrig Havael.
Cerrig Hydwydd. {E. Llvxyd)
Cerrig Hywel, in Brecknockshire. Fairs kept here. Rectfe Crug Howel. • Cerrig Niwbwl, certain stone in Cader Idris.
Cersith. ap Hydwn D wn. Censith {D. MS)
Ceryn, the 47th King of Britain.
Cesail Gyfarch, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire.
Cesaryeit, Csesarians, i. e., Romans belonging to Caesfitf, or the followers of Julius Cassar. {Tr. 40.)
• Cettell or Kettel. Here a battle was foiight between Bar- cLred King of Mercia and Mervyn Vrych, where Mervyn is said to have been slain. (Powel, Car., p. 27, a.d. 843.)
Cethin. leuan Gethin ap Madog Cyffin.
Cbthineoc (Price's Descript). See Oytheiniog.
Ceugant Peiluawt orPEiLLiAWC,un o'rtri aurgelein. (2V.68).
Ceulan, a valley near Tal y Bont in Cardiganshire. Here I was shown the grave of Taliesin, in an open field, encompassed with flat stones, but without any inscriptions in sight. L. M., 1745.
Ceunant (fl.) : hence Aberceunant.
Ceurwys Amheurwy.
Ceyna (St.), a virgin, daughter of Brychan ; her acts in Cap- grave, Oct. 8 ; called in British Oeinvayre, or Keyna the Virgin, i. e., Ceinforwyn ; turned serpents into stone of that shape. {Brit, Sanct)
Chenin, a valley in Anglesey, in the Cambridge copy of Nen- nius, where there was a wandering stone which always returned home by promise. Ci/ieinn, the same valley in the Cottonian copy of Nennius ; GheJiennius, the same valley in the Oxford copy of Nennius ; Ohieninn, the same valley in Sir Simon D 'Ewes' copy of Nennius.
There is a deep valley and a river called Cefni (anciently Cevenni) in Anglesey, which is the place meant in Nennius, where this tra^velling stone was said to be. Some trick of the monks, no doubt. There is a church near that river called Llan- gefuL
Chepstow, the Saxon name of Casgwent by Castell Gwent. [Casgwent is the same as Castell Gwent. — L if.]
Chikk, a parish, church, and castle, part of Powys Vadog, Denbighshire ; in Welsh Y Waun, but called anciently CasteU Crogen.
CiAN (Sant) : hence Llangian. There was an Irish saint of the name of Kienan in the fifth century. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 409.)
CiBDDAR (n. pr. v.). Drych eilCibddar, un o'r tri Uedrithawc. (Tr. 33.)
CiBWR (or Cibowr as in Price's BescripL), one of the commots of Cantref Brenhinol, Morganwg. [Cibwyr is between the rivers Taf and Eleirch, vel Ehymyn sen Ehympyn, — /. M.]
CiL, a recess or hermitage ; an ancient Celtic word. Aburid- ance of churches in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, are named from this word, as Cilkenin in Cardiganshire ; Cilcwm in Cannarthen- shire ; Cil y Sant ; Cilwri in Cheshire ; Cil Maenan ; Cilgeraint. In Ireland, Kildare, Kilkenny, Kilfinan, Kilmallock, Kilamey, Kilaloe, Kilfenora, Kilworth ; Kilrenny, Kjlblain,Kilmoney, Kil- moir, etc, in Scotland.
CiLBEBYLL, Glamorganshire. . CiLCARN, Pembrokeshire.
CiLCARW, Carmarthenshire.
CiLCELFF. Cynan Cilcelff ap Tryfifin Varfawg.
CiLCEN, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Mostyn. A church (rectory and vicarage) in Flintshire. Dafydd person Cilken : qu. an id. Kilkenny in Ireland ?
CiLCENiN, in Cantref Penwedig, Ceretica.
KiLCHERAN, a place in North Britain wherie Aeddan ap Gafran was buried a.d. 606. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 476.) He was bom in Kyntir.
CiLYCWM, Carmarthenshire.
CiLFACH: see Y GUfach.
CiLFACH Afal, a house in Cardiganshire.
CiLFACH YR Haidd, Glamorganshire : qiL Cil Fechan ?
Cil Fargen or Fargak, Caermarthenshire. Vid. Margan.
CiLGARAN (Camden in Perribrokeshire), oorrxiptly for Cilgeraint.
Cilgeraint, a village and castle in Dyfed, on the river Teivi, which Mr. Camden says was built by Giraldus of Windsor ; but Powel {Oaradocj p. 169) says that Eoger Montgomery begun a
castle about a.d ; and where Gilbert Strongbow, Earl of
StrygiU, built one a.d. 1 109, the county of Caredigion being given him by Henry I to win and keep. This place is famous for nothing but salmon fishery. The name signifies the Eetreat of Geraint, and is of great antiquity.
Cilgerran : see Cilgeraint
Cilgwri, Worrall in Cheshire.
Cil Hendre, a gentleman's seat. (J, D.)
Cilmanllwyd, Pembrokeshire.
CiLMiN Droed-ddu {i, «., Cilmin with the black foot, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales) ap Cadrod ap Gwrydr ap
Elidir ap Sandde. He came with Mervyn Frych from North Britain about the year 840. He lived at Glyn LUvon in Uwch Gwirfai. He bore argent quartered ; on the first quarter an eagle displayed with two heads sable; 2, three rugged sticks gules; 3 and 4, ditto, — a man's leg couped sable in an eschutcheon argent. The tradition is, being a conjuror, and in going through hell, lus foot slipt into a river there, which coloured it black. There was a king in Ireland in the year 516, called NiaU Glinddu, i. «., Niall with the Black Knee.
CiL Owen, a place in Flintshire, so called from Owen Gwyn- edd*s retreat there in the war with Henry II, King of England, A.D.1157. {Caradoe in 0. Gwynedd.)
Gil Bhedyn, Carmarthenshire, a church and parish. Also a place in Pembrokeshire. See Bhedyn.
CiLRHEDYNEN, a gentleman's seat in Englefield.
Gil Ehiwa, in South Wales.
Gil Euadd, in Ireland, where St. Golman built a cell. {Ogygia, p. 413.) See Zlangolman,
Gil y Sant, a church in Llanwinio parish, in Derllys hundred, in Garmarthenshire. The retreat of the saint : qu. ?
GiLYDD (n. pr. v.).
GiNAST, enw lie. Syr Eoger o Ginast.
KiNED (St.), probably Ov^nadl; Llangwnadl. Kined was a hermit of the 6th century, honoured with the friendship of St. David. (Brit. SancL, Aug. 1.)
GiNiN ap liowarch Fychan.
GiNMEL or Gynmael, a place yn Sir Dinbych.
GiOG or CuAWC, a river which falls into Dyfi at Dolgiog in Montgomeryshire.
Yn Aber Cnano yd canant cogen. — Llywarch Hen, Dolydd Kjog. — Llywarch Hen, See Abercuawc.
KiRKiNN, a battle where Dyfngart^ (Domangard) ap Aeddan was slain a.d. 598. {Ogygia, p. 475.)
Glaerddu, in Geretica, a river which falls into the Wye.
Glaerwen, a river in Geretica that faUs into the Wye.
Clam Hoctor, Clamoctor {Gild, Gotton.), and Olam Octor {Camden). This is a King of Ireland mentioned by Nennius,
-whose sons invaded and possessed some parts of Britain, as Dal)]!* eta in North Britain, the Isle of Man, and G^yr and Cydweli in South Wales ; but were drove out of all the regions of Britain by Cunedda and his sons. This was in the year 460 ; one of the irruptions mentioned by Gildas. The Irish history is almost a blank about this time of confusion at the very dissolution of the Boman power in Britain. But in Flaherty (p. 429) I find one Loagair mac Neil that reigned from 428 to 463, and was suc- ceeded King of Ireland by one OUlol Molt, son of a King of Conacht, who reigned twenty years. The above Clam Octor was either one of these, or perhaps one of the petty kings of Ireland. See Glam Hector, Ysgroeth, Builke, and Bethoun,
Clarach (fl.), Ceretica.
Clare (St.), died a martyr in Normandy. {BiHt. Sand., Nov. 4.) Parish of St. Clare's, Carmarthenshire.
Clas (in Mr.Llwyd's copy), an island mentioned in the Triades, supposed by Mr. E. llwyd to be Carfu, an island in the Ionian Sea on the coast of Greece. Vid. Cla^ Merdin,
Clas Merdin, or, as some MSS. have it, Clas Meitin, the first name of the isle of Britain {Tr. 1) : perhaps the Olds of Myrddin (see Glas) ; perhaps corruptly for Glas ; in the same sense as Latin writers called it Insula Cserula, or the blue island. See Selden, Mar. Olaus., L i, c. 2.
Clawdd Offa, Offa's Ditch, a deep trench and mound thrown up by Offa, King of Mercia, from sea to sea, to prevent the incur- sions of the Welsh, about the year 784; about which time also the Princes of Powys were obliged to remove their seats from Pengwern Bowys (Salop) to Mathravael. (Caradoc in Cynan Tyndaethtay,)
Cledawc ap Brychan, videtur idem quod Clydawc.
Cleddau Du, one of the rivers that go to Milford Haven ; the other is Cleddau Gwyn. A. hundred there called Dau Gleddau. (Caradoc in Llewelyn ap lonvertJu)
Cleddyf. Caergleddyf is Tenby. (Thomas WiUiams.)
Cleddyf, a river.
Cleddyfrudd, a surname signifying a ruddy sword, i.e., bloody. Gwgon Cleddyfrudd ap Caradoc Freichfras. Vid. Bhudd,
Cledfryn yn Ehos, the Castle of Denbigh in Denbighshire. {Camden.)
. Cledri ap Cadivor.
Cledwyn ap Brychan Brycheiniog.
Clegyr (Y), a gentleman's seat, Anglesey.
Clegyr Gwynion (Y), Anglesey.
Cleifiog, a place near Holyhead (from clai).
Cleirwy. Boger Vychan o Gleirwy.
Cleitddyn. Twain ap Cleuddyn.
Cleugoch (fl.) : hence Abercleugoch, Carmarthenshire. . Clocaenog, a parish in Denbighshire, dedicated to St. Voddyd. (Br. Willis,) See THllo Caenog,
Clodrudd, a cognomen. Elystan Glodrudd, is also wrote Clodrydd.
Cloff, lame. Arglwydd Glofif.
Clogwyn Carnedd t Wyddfa, called also Clogwyn y Gam- edd, the highest rock in the three kingdoms, famous for Alpine plants. {E, Llwyd!)
Clogwyn Du (Y), ym mhen y Glyder, a mountain near Llan- beris. {E, Llvryd.)
Clogyuddwr or Clegyrddwr, a gentleman's seat. [J.D) Jones.
Cloit and Cloith, in Doomsday Book, corruptly for the Clwyd river which runs by Bhuddlan.
Clonenau, i. q. Celynennau, enw He.
Clorach (n. 1.) in Mon., and a river. Khyd Glorach.
Clotvaeth verch Brychan.
Clud (qu. a river ?), a country in Maelienydd. Hence Einion
Clud ap Madoc.
Priodawr clodfawr Clad ac Aeron.
Cynddelw, i Cadwallawn ap Madawc.
Clun, a castle of the Normans in Elvel, a.d. 1142 (qu. ?).
Clun Castle in the Marches, taken by Lord Eys A.D. llOr*, and burnt, in Shropshire. British, Colunwy.
Clwch (n. I.)* Clwch Tymog, a place in Anglesey noted for chrystals.
Clwyd (fl.), a river of this name divides between Flintshire and Denbighshire, in Dyffryn Clwyd ; Engl., the Vale of Clwyd. Another in Scotland called by Latin writers Olota, and the people bordering on it the Stradclwyd Britains ; and by the Saxon writers, Stratclyde Weales, i, e., Welsh or Brutaniaid Ystrad
Clwyd, now called Clyde, which runs through Clyde's Vale to DunbartoQ and Glasgow. See Yatrad and Strat.
Clydau, a parish in Pembrokeshire.
Clydawg (St.), or Clitauc, son of Clitguin, Prince of South Wales : see his Life in Capgrave and in Dugdale^s Monasticon, voL iii He was buried, where he was killed, by the river Min- gui (Mynwy), where a church was erected and dedicated to him by the Bishop of Llandaf. {Brit. Sanct.)
Clydawg ap Cadell, slain by his brother Meuric, ad. 917. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 47.)
Clydawg ap Ithel, the 53rd King of Britain.
Clydei verch Brychan.
Clydno, the 54th King of Britain. , Clydno Eiddun, a Prince of North Britain (qu. Edinborough ?), father of Cynon. {Tr. 53.)
Clynennatj or Celynennatt, a place in Caernarvonshire. Sir John Owen of Clenenney. (/. JD.)
Clynnog or Celynnog (a place of holly), a church dedicated to St. Beuno in Caernarvonshire.
Clyno ap Cynyr Farfdrwch.
Clynogwr, a parish (qu. ?) in Glamorganshire, or Glyn Ogwr. Vid. Offwr, river.
Clyw^DOG (n. ti),^,,8onarus (qu.). Llanvair y Clyieedogau ; two rivers of that name there meet. Several of this name. [ Watein Clywedog, a poet — W^. -D.]
Cnbppyn Gwrthrynion, a poet of the country of Gwrthrynion. [Marvmad Trahaem,)
Cnwccin, a place not far from Oswestry {Dr, Powel, p. 381), where Madoc defeated the Marchers. A parish and church now called Knockin, Shropshire. The castle was founded 1242, says J. K, by John le Strange.
Ckwx)c Glas, in Badnorshire, a gentleman's seat
Cnwch (n. 1.). Pen y Cnwch.
CocH, properly red. Cantref Ooch, formerly one of the seven cantrefs of Morganwg, is now in Gloucestershire, called Forest of Dean. (Price's Description.) Y Fron Goch ; y Plas Goch ; y Ehiw Goch ; y Garn Goch ; y Ehos Goch ; yr AUt Goch ; Traeth Goch, etc. lorwerth Goch (n. pr. v.). Y Castell Coch ymhowys.
the Eed Castle in Powysland, now called in English Pcmis CastU, It lies on an eminence above the river Severn, near the town of Welsh Poole, in the county of Montgomery, and hath a prospect that wants nothing (except a view of the sea) to make it com- plete. It is a grand, ancient house, built on a rock, in form of a castle, and hath been a stronghold in the time of the ancient Britains.
GocHWiLLAN, a gentleman's seat in the parish of Uandygai^ near Bangor Fawr. From hence came the famous John Williams, Archbishop of Canterbury [York. — W. J9.]
Coed, properly wood, in the composition of names of places, as Caer Penhwyl Coed ; Uangoed, a church in Anglesey and Brecknockshire.
Llan-goed fal llwynau Godwin. — Hywel Bafydd.
Coedmor or Coetmor ; Coed Llys ; Tsgubor y Coed ; Coed Gron- wy; Dugoed Mowddwy; Llechwedd Hiigoed ; Argoed ; y Coedty ; y Goedtref ; Glascoed ; Coed y Brain ; y Perfeddgoed ; y Glyp- coed, Anglesey ; Coed Celyddon, yn yr Alban ; Coetalog, i. e., Coed halawg ; Coedtraeth, near Tenby; Trawsgoed ; Pen y Coed ; Ty'n y Coed ; Cantref y Coed, one of the eight cantrefs of Dyfed ; Coed y Mynydd ; Uwchcoed and Iscoed, etc.
CoEDANE or CoEDANAU, a chapel of that name in Anglesey. See Cad y Coedanau.
Coed Celyddon, near Litchfield.
Coed Cae' Du, in Trawsfynydd.
Coed t Cra, a gentleman's seat, — EUises. {J. D)
Coed y Cymmar, Brecknockshire.
Coed Eulo : see Euh.
Coed Gronw, near Abergavenny. {H. Llwyd)
Coed yr Haf, one of the three commots of the Cantref of Pen- fro. (Price's Descript)
Coed Llwyfain : see Lhvyfain.
CoEDMOR (n. L). Llangoedmor, a church and parish, and a gentleman's seat, in Cardiganshire. See Coetmor.
Coed y Mynydd, in TegeingL (D, ap Edmund,)
Coed Ehygyn, a house in Trawsfynydd.
CoEDRWG, in lal, a gentleman's seat.
Coedtraeth, near Tenby, a place not^d for trees appealing in
the sand at low water. (See TJwyd's Notes on Camden in Pem^ hrokeshire.) This is by Camden erroneously wrote Groytarath, No wonder that the Romans wrote the names of our places so bad.
CoEDTY (Y), Glamorganshire.
Coed y Llai, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
Coed Yspys. A battle fought here, where the Nonnans were defeated by Cadwgan ap Bleddyn of Powys, who the same year, with GruJBTydd ap Cynan, Prince of North Wales, had taken their castles in Cardigan and Dyfed, a.d. 1092. (PqwcI)
CoEG. GaUwyn Goeg.
CoEL (n. pr. v.). Camden derives it from Codius, as Howel fix)m HcrUus, sunbright, used in Britain before the Soman inva- sion.
CoEL, son of CadeU ap Geraint, the 45th King of Britain.
CoEL, Earl of Gloucester, the 85th King of Britain, father of Elen (i. c, Helena Augusta), his only child, called by the Britains Elen Lwyddawg, or the Prosperous, the wife of Constantius, and mother of Constantine the Great, Emperor of Bome.
CoEL GODHEBOG, or Coel Hen, priodawr o'r Gogledd, the son of Tegfan ap Deheufraint, was a Prince in North Britain, father of Cenau, from whom descended several great warriors, Padam Beisrudd, Pabo Post Prydain, Urien Reged, Uywarch Hen, etc. These two Coels are confounded together by some of the poets, etc., who have misled Geo. Owen Harry and several other writers. See Hanes 24 Brenhin,
Coel ap Meurig, the 78th King of Britain.
Coel Momadawg.
[CoELBRYN. Capel Coelbryn in Brecknockshire. A Roman causey thereby. Arch.y i, p. 297. — W. D,]
CoETEN Arthur, i. e.. King Arthur's Quoit. By this name a great many of those ancient monuments in Wales are called, which by the modems are supposed to have been the altars of the Druids ; but in some places they are called croinlech, pi. crovft- lecfiau. One of them at Llanvihangel Tre'r Beirdd, in Anglesey, is called Coeteri Arthur ; another, near Harlech, etc., etc.
CoETMOR, a place in Carnarvonshire, t. e.. Coed Mawr ; and Llangoedmor, a parish in Cardiganshire. Hence Catmore in Rut- land. Pugh of Coetmor.
CoF Angharad, enw Awdl i Angharad verch Ricart. (D. ap Givilyfn)
[CiG, the name of two villages and two or three farmhouses in Glamorgan. Qusere, what does it mean ? — L M.]
[Cog AN, the name of three or four villages in Glamorgan.-/, ilf.]
CoLEDAWG or CoLEDDAWG (n. pr. V.), mab Gwyn, un o'r tri an- heol. Qu., anneol, unchosen ?
CoLEiGiON,one of the three eommots of Cantref Dyffryn Clwyd; from Coel ap Cunedda Wledig. (Price's Descript)
CoLEYON (Price's DescripL), by mistake for Coleigion.
CoLMAN (St.). Llangolman in Dj^ed. Colman was an Irish saint, and the third Bishop of lindisfame. Died 676. {Ulster Annals.) There have been several Irish saints of this name about A.D. 661. (Brit. Sanctj Aug. 8.)
GoLMON, the name of some Irish general that invaded Anglesey
about A.D There is a great ditch thrown up near Tre
Wynn, called F/os Golmon to this day ; and the ruins of a town hard by, called Y Gaimeddau, or the Heaps ; but no tradition what town it was. A wedge of gold, about 20 lbs. weight, was lately found near the place, and other treasure.
CoLOFN Prydain, some measure of poetry, it seems. (Cynddelw, i Hywel ap 0. Gwynedd.)
O Golofn Prydain y prydaf Yn gelfydd or defnydd dyfnaf.
CoLUN, CoLUNWY, in English Clynn or Clun. See Oolun, CoLUNWY, a river in Shropshire. {Camden.) Hence the Forest of Clun, Shropshire.
CoLUNWY, a surname, from the river.
Maccwy Colunwy, cei lawenydd.
I). M. Tttdur^ i Howel Colnnwy.
CoLWEN. CasteU Colwen (Camden, Britannia), which he makes Maud's Castle in Colwent. Qu., whether CasteU Colwen ?
CoLWN : see Oolun.
CoLWYN, a river. Ystum Colwyn, a gentleman's seat, Mont- gomeryshire.
COLYN, the name of a man among the ancient Britains : hence Ehos Colyn in Anglesey. I know Mr. Rowlands fancied it came
from Colofn, or a column erected there by the Romans at the extreme boundary of their conquest. Hence also Dincolyn, an ancient fort in the parish of Diaerth in Tegeingl, where, in a field called Bryn Colyn, there are ruins of an old fort. (E, Llwyd, Itinerary,) See T Ddiserth and Colyn Dolphyn,
Colyn Dolphyn, a Briton pirate in Bristol Channel in Eichard the 3rd'8 time, a.d. 1477. (Powers Caradoc, p. 139.)
CoLYNNOG Fawb yn Arfon, or Celynnog or Clynnog.
Coll (n. pr. v.). CoU mab CoUfrewy, un o'r tri Gwrddfeich- iad. (TV. 30.) This man was the principal king-at-anns in King Arthur's time ; for it appears in this Triad that he gave the eagle to Brynach the Scot, and the wolf to Menwaed of Arllechwedd. This shows the great antiquity of bearing arms in Britain. Un o'r tri prif hut. (Tr, 32.) Hut Rhuddlwm Gawr a ddysgodd i Coll mab CoUfrewy. [Tr. 32.) Coll mab CoUfrewy, un o'r tri prif Uedrithawc. {Tr, 33.)
CoLLAWN (n. pr. v.). CoUawn mab Berch. {Tr, Meirch, 8.)
CoLLEK (St.) ap Gwynawg ap Clydawg ap Cowrda ap Cariadog Vreichfras. Llangollen, a church, parish, and village in Den- bighshire. Fairs kept here. The Abbey of Valle Crucis in ruins near this place ; and also Castell Dinas Bran^ an impregnable fort. Pont Llangollen, a curiosity.
CoLLFRYN (n. L), q. A Bryn y CyH
Cnewillyn y Collfryn cell. — H, Oilan^ i Gr. Deuddwr.
[Coll-fryn, from loss of a battle ; and Cefn Digoll, where it was retrieved. — W, DJ]
CoLLWYN (n. pr. v.), and not Collfryn,
Collw^n tylwyth Bleddyn blaid.— flyweZ Dafydd,
CoLLWYN, a river. Dyffryn CoUwyn, Breconshire.
CoNGARTH Fechan, the old name of the place where the Castle of Pembroke was built by Gerald Steward of Pembroke, A.D. 1108. {Carad., p. 163.) Qu., whether the Oangi t
CoNiACH, Conaught in Ireland.
A hyder o wychder iach Hy goresgynny Goniach.
lolo Ooch to Sir Bog. Mortimer.
CoNSTANS, or Cwsteint, the 86th King of Britain. This is Con- stantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great.
CONSTANnus ; Cambro*British^ Cwsteint and Constans.
CONSTANTINUS ; Cambro-British, Owstenin. Camden says " in some parts of the realm" he was called Custance, meaning Wales ; but he was wrong. All our British writers call him Cwstenin oxCwstenyn; and there is a church in Caernarvonshire dedicated to Cwstenyn Fendigaid^ called Llangwstenyn. See Custeint.
CONSTINOBL (Triad 61), i. e., Constantinople.
CoDstinobl a'i phobl.
Conwy, or, as Mr. Edward Llwyd would have it, Cynvry; Lat- inized Conovium by Antoninus (rectfe Convium) ; a garrison town and a beautiful castle built on the west side of the river Conwy in Caernarvonshire, which stands to this day. The river is called by the natives Alerconwy ; Latinized Aberconovium ; by Ptolomy called Toisovius for Conovius {Oamden), It is comiptly called in English Conway, This place was by the Princes of Wales found more convenient than the situation of Diganwy, which was the ancient town that lay on the east side of the river, where the Princes of Wales formerly resided ; and where King John came with a vast army to destroy all Wales and every living thing in it, A.D. 1211 ; but was defeated by the Welsh, and reduced to great extremities. See Teganwy.
The Abbey of Conway was buUt by ; and here they kept
the records of the acts and successions of the Princes of North Wales, and buried their chief men. This Abbey was spoiled and burnt by Henry III, a.d. 1245, who then lay at Diganwy, which Matth. Paris calls Gannock. Hugh Earl of Chester fortified Conway before Edward I's time. (Camden in Caernarvonshire)
Conwy is also an appellative. Hugh Conwy ap Robin ap Gr. Goch. Hence the surname of Conway, It is wrote Conwy by our learned poets ; as,
Neam bn aralldyd ym rydyd rwy Cer moreb cain wyneb Conwy.
Prydydd y Moeh^ i L. ap lorwerth.
Gwdion mab Don ar Gonwy Hndlaih ni ba o'i fath fwy.
D, ap OwUym.
Wyr i'r gwalch o oror Gwy Wyd a*i genedl hyd Gonwy.
Y cawn ar Ian Conwy *r wledd Nan Conwy man cawn y medd.
Tudur Aled.
Coppa'r Leni, a gentleman's seat near a hill of that name near Rhuddlan. [Coppa^r Oleuni, a beacon there. — W. JD,]
CoRANNiAiT or CoRANYEiT,one of the three molesters of Britain. (Tr. 41.) This is a nation or colony of strangers said to have come to Britain in the time of Ilndd ap Beli, which was before the Roman conquest, and are said to be originally Asiatics. These may be the people called by Roman writers Coritani. (See Camden, who could give no account of them.) It is probable they were Grermans, for Lludd went over to Gaul to advise with his brother Llefelys about them ; so they were not Gauls. {Tys- silio,) See " Stori 'r tair Gormes." [Of these L. M. gives, in his own opinion, a very good account. — I. MJ]
CoRDiLA or CoRDEiLA, a Quecn of Britain who reigned five years, being the 11th Prince of Britain of the Trojan race. She was daughter of Ilyr.
CoRMUR ap Eurbre Wyddel. See Btychan.
CoRNDOCHEN. Castell Comdochen, the ruins of a castle, of which no author makes mention, says Mr. E. Llwyd. {Notes on Camden,) It lies in the parish of Llanuwchllyn in Merionydd- shire. It is seated on the top of a steep rock at the bottom of a deep valley, a wall surrounding three turrets, and the mortar made of cockle-shells. Mr. Edward Hwyd thinks it built by the Romans, but gives no reason for it. See Prysor, [It is more likely to be British than Roman. There were no coins nor any other Roman relics found. No Roman military way goes near it. The situation might have served for a short defence ; but the besieged would soon find the inconvenience of the place. The Romans, according to Hyginus, always chose a place where they might conveniently draw out to figlit. These brave people never fortified such places inaccessible as would show they were afraid of the enemy. Camdochen and Treberry (Tre'r Biri, or Castell y Biri, q. v.), if any, are of Welsh construction, thinks Daines Barrington ; and he would, he says, add Castell Dinas Bran, if not so near the English frontier. He adds that the
Welsh princes had neither money, skilful masons, nor a sufficient number of hands, to complete such works. He had never seen a coin of a Welsh prince. None of them (meaning the Welsh) can now lay courses so well, or hew so regularly, as those in many of the ancient castles. — W, D,]
CoRNWY, a mountain in Anglesey ; and qu. whether a river by Caerau ? Y Gam ynghomwy.
ComwyLys and ComwyLan are divisions of a lordship there : hence a church, lianvair ynghomwy. See Extent of Anglesey.
CoROLWNG ap Beblig.
CoRS, a bog ; frequent in Ireland ; used in the names of some places where there are no bogs ; as, Cors y Gedol, Meirion ; but chiefly of places so situated. Dol y Corslwyn, a gentleman's seat ; Cors y Bol ; Cors Eilian ; Cors Ddygai ; Cors y Cefndu ; Glan y (Jors, a gentleman's seat ; y Gors Ddu ; y Gors Wen ; y Gors Eudd ; Ehiw Rygors ; y Gors Lwyd ; y Gors Fawr ; Uan- gors, Brecknockshire, etc. Mr. Edward Ilwyd, in his Letter to Nicolson, author of the Historical Library y says that cors signifies a marsh, which is a mistake I don't know how he could be guilty of, for a marsh is rnorfa ; and he further adds that cors signifies also a reed, and marshes being often overgrown with them, it was thence probably they were called corsydd. [Gors is a marsh in South Wales ; cors is also a reed in South Wales. — L J!f.] This was also a great oversight in Mr. Ilwyd, for corsen in the British and Armoric, and not cars, is the name for a reed, which is plainly derived from ctw-a, a bog, because often growing in bogs ; and corr in Irish is a pit of water.
Frenniau cors are the subterranean trees found in bogs, but not in marshes, unless such marshes have been bogs. Oorsydd are inland, but marshes are on the sea-coast, and so called because overflowed by the sea, and therefrom called morfa. There is also a distinction between mavm cors and rriavm mynydd, i. e.,bog turf and mountain turf; but there is no turf in marshes, which are clayey ground.
Cors Fochno, a bog by the river Dyfi.
A chad Cors Fochno a chad ym M6n. — Hoi. Myrddin.
Cors Heilin, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,)
CoRS Y GEDOL,in Meirionyddaliire,the seat of William Vaughan, Esq., Member of Parliament for that county.
[CoRS T Saeson. — JT. D.]
CoRTHi (o Lwyn Dyfnog) ap Medrod.
CoRUN ap Ceredic. Harri Corun. Cwm Corun.
CoRWEN, a vlUage in Edeymion in Powys Land, where Owain Gwynedd, with the forces of North and South Wales and Powys, came to meet Henry II, King of England, with a vast army fix)m England, Normandy, Anjou, Gascoine and Guyen, Flanders, and Britanny. Here the Britains encamped, and the King of Eng- land encamped on the river Ceiriog, where they disputed the pass with him with some loss of both sides ; but he got over, and encamped on the side of Berwyn Mountain. Here Owain Gwynedd got master of all the passes, that neither forage nor victuals could come to the King's camp, nor durst a soldier stir abroad. To augment his miseries, such heavy rains fell that the strangers, not used to such grounds, could not stand upon their feet ; so with much ado the King returned with great loss of men and danger of his life, without effecting his purpose of de- stroying aU that had life in the land, as he intended and threat- ened. A.D. 1165. (Garadoc in Owain Gvjynedd.) See Berwyn and Crogm.
CoRYBANTAU, rect^ Ov/To i hantau. The Corybantes among the CeltaB were the same with the Curetes, priests of Cybele. Six brethren who had the care of bringing up lou were so called from their curOy beating their weapons together to make a noise. This they did in the isle of Crete, that Saturn might not hear his son lou cry. And when lou came of age he rewarded them, and made them priests to Cybele in Mount Ida in Phrygia. See Curetes.
CosGARN EiNiON, in Basaleg, Monmouthshire.
CossEiL or CossAiL, a consul ; the principal of&cer or general of the Boman party of the Loegrian Britains ; and the word was in use even after the Saxon conquest of Loegria.
Ny thorrei Oosseil fy nherfyn. — Llywarch Hen. Ni cbarei OossaU fy ngwrthlid. — Llywarch Hen.
Cot : vid. Oynlas. Whether Coth, old ? CoTHi, a river in Caermarthenshire, falls into the Towi. Hence Dol y Cothi (n. 1.) ; Glyn Cothi. See Glyn and Dol, Lewis Glyn Cothi,, a famous poet, A.D. 1456.
CouNSYLLT, one of the three commots of Tegengl hundred. See Prestatyn and Bhttddlan, the other two.
CouNSYLLT, a strait or pass near FKnt. Here Owain Gwynedd with his North Wales men met and fought Sondel Earl of Chester and Madoc ap Meredyth, Prince of Powys, with hired soldiers from England, more in number and better armed than the Gwyn- eddians, where Owen gave them a total defeat, and very few escaped except the chief oflScers by the swiftness of their horses, A.D. 1148. (Caradoc in 0, Gwynedd,) Here also King Henry II, in his first attempt against the Welsh, took the standard of England ; and the King lost several noblemen, and was obliged to fly. (Powers Chron., p. 207.) See Ooed JEulo.
CowBRiDGB, or Bontvaen, a town in Morganwg.
CowNi, a gentleman's seat. (/. D,)
CowRDA Sant. A church of his at Llangoed. Cowrdaf ap Gariadog Freichfras. Bron Llangowrda, the ruins of a chapel in Cardiganshire. [GalU Cawrda, a monastery of Glamorganshire, now in ruins. — I. MJ\
COWRES (n. L), qu. a river ?
Llys Gowres lies ag arian.— -O. op LI. Moeh
Tri o gariad trwy Gowres. — Eywel Swrdwal. See Gowres.
CowRTD ap Cadvan : qu. Cywryd ?
CowRYD ap Perfarch ap larddur.
CowYN or CowiN, a river. (Llyivarch Hen in Marwnad Cadwall- awn.) Llandeilo Abercowyn, Caermarthenshire. See Abe^-camyn,
CoYTY, a lordship in Morganwg ; or perhaps Coedty. (Powel, p. 122.) [The richest parish in Britain,as the inhabitants boast; it has a very rich soil, plenty of wood, coal, lime, iron, lead, marble, freestone, slate, millstone, potter's clay; salmon, trout in abund- ance ; two castles, two churches, a market-town (Pen y Bont ar Ogwr) ; the large village of Coetty, and several other villages. — /. M.] '
Crach. Gruffydd Gr&ch.
Cradifael Sant. A church dedicated to him at Penmynydd in Anglesey. See Gradifel.
Cradifel (n. L). L. G. Oothi.
Cradoc or Cradog ; Lat. Caractacus, {E, Llwyd). See Caradog,
Crafdin Grythob, a famous musician of Ireland, a.d. 48. Crab- tine Grutaire. {Ogygia, p. 283.)
Crafnant, a river in Eryri, which runs from Ilyn Crafnant, about two miles from Trefriw, perhaps took its name from craf, wild garlick. Qu., whether that plant abounds there ?
Craig, a rock, used in the names of places ; as Craig Buna, Eadnorshire; y Graig Coch; y Wen Graig; y Greigddu; y Greiglas ; y Greigwen ; y Greiglwyd ; Pencraig, Anglesey ; y Greigfryn, etc.
Crau Swch. Lands of Crau Swch mentioned in the Prince's Extent^ A.D. 1352. It signifies soccage tenure. Crau is that part of the swch, or share, that the wood goes into the iron. See Lledwigan and Milain Aradrgaeth.
Credic ap Dyfiawal Hen. An id. qd. Ceredig t
Credyw Sant. (Broume Willis.)
Creg. Gwenhwyfar Grfeg.
Creirwy (n. pr. f.). Creirwy verch Cludno Eiddim ap Cyn- wyd Cynwydion.
Creirwy, merch CeritwexL (Tr.73.) This is Caridwen Wrach, wife of Tegid.
Creirwy, sister of Morfran ap Tegid, a lady in Arthur's court. (Tr. 73.) See Gamy.
Crenant. Cappel Crenant, Morganwg ; recti CreunarU, blood- brook. See Creunant [Cappel Creunant, ymhlwyf Uangyfelach y mae ; always pronounced Creunant ; a village with a chapel and fairs. See Almanetc. — I. M.]
Crbsi, Cressy in France.
Gwae a'i gweles ynghresi Gwr di wael mewn trafael tri.
lolo Oochf 1 Syr Rys.
See Dr. Davies in the word Oresi, mistaking it for a verb.
Cresfain (Y), enw Ue.
Creuddyn (wrote also Creidhyn by English writers), one of the three commots of Cantref Penwedig in Cardiganshire ; from crau, blood, and dun, a fort ; q. d, bloody fort. Qu., whether of the same origin with Cruthen in Vita S. Patricii, (Ogt/ffia, p. 180.)
Creuddyn, a commot in Caernarvonshire ; one of the three commots of Cantref y Rhos.
Y cri oedd yn y Creuddyn
■A-g wylo tost glowed hyn. — B. Ddu,
Car iddynt wyf o'r Creuddyn, Llyna haid o'r Uin i hyn.
Deio ah leuan Du.
Perhaps Croydon, near London, is of the same origin. Creulon. Einion Greulon ap Einion ap Eirid. Creunant, bloody brook.
Ami celain ynghrain ynghrennant.
Cynddelw, i 0. Gwynedd.
Cribach, a harbour in Cardiganshire.
Crib y Ddiscil, a mountain near Ilanberis in Eryri. {E. Llv>yd.) [Crib y Ddysgl {Ddistyll), one of the three peaks of Snowdon as observed from Capel Curig. — W, D,]
Cricciaith or Crucciaith, a town and castle in Caernarvon- shire.
Pendefig Cmcciaith maith mygr difwng.
Ein, ah Mad, Rhahawd^ i BofT. ap Llywelyn.
Rhys ap Sion o'r happus iaith.
Gwr yw accw o Gracciaith. — L, O. Cothi,
Cridia, an abbey of White Monks, burnt by Henry III, be- cause a refuge for the Welsh, near Ceri and Montgomery, men- tioned by Matth. Paris ; where Henry III gave leave to Hubert de Burgh to build a castle, which by the peace then made Llew- elyn ap lorwerth insisted to be rased on his own charge.
Crigion, in the parish of Guildsfield, Montgomeryshire.
Crimmach, in Anglesey.
Criniogau or Crinioge (or qu. whether Ceinioge), a gentle- man's seat. (/. D)
CRiSTik (n. f.), Christiana. Cristin verch Gronwy (Ronwy) ap Owain ap Edwin, arglwydd Tegengl, oedd wraig Owen Gwyn- edd ; mother of Dafydd and Rodri. {MS.) See " Awdl Saith Mab Cadifor.''
Cristiolus (Sant yn Uedwigan) ap Howel Fychan ap Howel ap Emyr Llydaw. {MS) Llangristiolus ym M6n. Dr. H. Mor- ris, a famous preacher in Charles II's time, was of this place.
Cristog. Y Barwn o Gristog.
Croes Oswallt, Oswald's Tree or Cross, now Oswestry, in Shropshire.
Crogen Castle, a pass on Ofifa's Ditch near Oswestry, where the Britains, in defending it, slew a great number of Henry II's men in his expedition to Berwyn. Castell Crogen was the old name of Chirk Castle in the commot of Nanheudwy. SeeAdu^'rBeddau and Com^en,
Crogen Iddon, a gentleman's seat in the parish of DangoUen, Here was a battle fought between the Welsh and Normans.
T Plas ynghrogen ar Ian Dyfrdwy. {Dr, D)
Cromlech, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey, which takes its name from one of those altars of the Druids called cromlechau, which still stands near that house. It is very large and high, and worth the observation of the curious.
Cronerth, one of the four cantrefs of Morganwg. (Price's Descript.) It contains three commots, viz., Ehwng Nedd ac Afan, Tir yr Hwndrwd, and Maenor Glynogwr.
Croytarath {Camden in Pembrokeshire), rect^ Coedtraeth.
Cruc Mawr, a mountain in Ceretica (Cardiganshire), men- tioned in Nennius (Flaherty, O^yfa, p. 292), where he says there is a grave which fits the length lying in it, short or long.
Crug, a heap or tumulus : hence the names of places. Crug- unan ; Crug Howel ; y Crug in Eryri ; Crucmor or Crugmawr ; yr Wyddgrug ; and perhaps Crugciaith ; Pen y Crug (Lat. Pen- nocrucium) ; Gallt y Crug ; Crug Eryr ; Plas y Crug.
Crug Eryr (n. L). Z, Glyn Cothi
Crug Howel {£, 6. Cothi), a town on the Wysg ; also a com- mot in Brecknockshire.
Crug y Dyrn, in the parish of Trelech, Carmarthenshire, a timiulus of the ancient Britains. Mr. E. Ilwyd interprets it the King's Barrow, making Dyrn to be teym, and supposes it pagan.
Crugunan (n. 1.), qu., in Eadnorshire ? [and CreigTiant in Mei- fod parish. — W, 2).]
Crupl. Madog Grupl ap Grufifydd.
Cruthinii Populi, supposed to be the Picts. The people of Dalaradia in the time of St. Patrick.
Crydon (n. pr. v.). Crydon, father of Cywryd. ( JV. 73.)
Cryg. Ehys Gryg, Angl. hoarse.
Crymlyn, a river (qu.) in Coy church, Glamorganshire. Blaen Crymlyn. Crymlyn or Cremlyn in Anglesey.
Ckyniarth, in Edeymion, a gentleman's seat. {J,D) [Another in Mochnant, Denbighshire. — W, 2?.]
Crys Halawg : vid. Oadwal
Cu ap Gweneu o Frecheiniog. Gwen gu verch Gruffydd.
CUAWC (fl.). Abercuawc {Llywarch Hen) ; id. quod Ciog, See Dolgiog.
CuHELYN (not Cyhelyn), Archbishop of London, who brought up the Roman lady who afterwards married to Cwstenyn, brother of Aldwr, King of Ilydaw; and afterwards, on Gwrtheym's seiz- ing the crown of Britain, escaped over to Llydaw (Armorica) with her two sons, Emrys and Uther, Vho were both afterwards kings of Britain. {TyssUio) Latinized by Galfrid and Virunnius, Gmtolinus.
CuL. Meirchion Gul ap Gwrwst Ledlwm.
CULEDREMNE, a battle fought by Conall Mac Conagail, King of Alban, a.d. 563. (Ogygia, p. 473.)
CuLFYNAWYD (n. pr. V.). Culfjrnawyd Prydain, father of the three unchaste wives, Essyllt, Penarwen, and Bun: {Triades.)
CUNALLT : see Bryn Cunallt,
CuNEDDA, the 12th King of Britain, reigned here thirty- three years, about the time Romulus founded Rome.
CuNEBDA Wledig, a Priuce of a country in Scotland called Manau Guotodin, whence he was drove by the Scots {i, e:, the Irish Scots or Gwyddyl Ffichti), with his eight sons, 146 years before the time of Ma^lgwn Gwynedd, i, e,, about a.d. 440. This was the time the Scots came over from Ireland, and settled in Argile. (Usher, Prim,, p. 1023.) Nennius says he brought eight sons with him from Manau Guotodin (see Gododin) ; and Price (Descript) names them and four more. He might have some sons in Cambria before. — 1, Tibion, father of Meirion ; 2, Arwystl ap Cunedda; 3, Oaredig ap Cunedda; 4, Dunod; 5, Edeyrn; 6, Mael ; 7, Coel ; 8, Dogvael ; 9, Rhufaon ; 10, Einion Yrth ; 11, Ussa ; (in a note) 12, Maelor ap Gwran ap Cunedda. Selden, in Mare Clav^im, p. 251, concludes, from his driving the Scots out of aU the islands and countries of Britain, that he must have very great strength in shipping.
Uii o*r tri Sanctaidd Linns. ( TV. 42.)
CURETUYR, in the old orthography Cwr^^es. Curet in the ancient orthography would be wrote in the modem Ov/rydd, which sig- nifies a beater ; and those priests were called so because they beat drums, and clash their armour together. See Corybantau,
CURIG (n. pr. V.) ; Lat Cyricus, Curig Lwyd. Llangurig, a church in Montgomeryshire erected by Curig, an Armorican. Curig yn Nhrefdraeth.
CUKMWR, alias Morfawr, ap Caden ap Bran ap Llyr Uediaith.
CusTANS, verch Tomas Hen o SalbrL
CusTEiNT or CwsTEiNT (n. pr. V.) ; Lat. Constans. In Nennius' Catalogue there is Caire Custenit; in Usher, Goer Custeint, Some say it is Caer'narfon ; for that Constantius re-edified it, and was buried there. It is not [called] by this name in the Triades,
CusxENiT. Caer Custenit, in Nennius, supposed to be Caer Cwstennin, i, e., Caernarvon.
CuwcH (in the English maps Keach), a river in the cantref of Emlyn in Dyfed. The river is the bound between Pembroke- shire and Carmarthenshire : hence Uwch Cuwch and Is Cuwch, the names of two of the three commots of Emlyn. Price (in Deacript) calls them Uwch Cuch and Is Cuch by mistake.
Glyn Cuwch yn Emlyn. ( Tr. 36.)
See Emlyn and Glyn Ouioch,
CwcH (Castell). Emljm is Cwch.
CwM, or CwMM, is a very ancient Celtic word signifying a valley or dingle. It is prefixed to the names of several places in Britain having that situation.
CwM, a church and parish in Flintshire.
CwM Amman, Carmarthenshire.
CwM Blowty, a gentleman's seat. (/. R)
CwM Cawlwtd, arglwyddiaeth.
CwM Cenin, in liandeUo Fawr, Carmarthenshire.
CwM Cethin.
CwM Cyllau, in the parish of Gelli G^ir, Glamorganshire.
CwM Deri Cyrn, in Llannon.
Cw>i Ervin.
[CwM Y Felin (n. 1.), in Glamorgan. Gvjyr Owm y Felin, a little ancient society thus nicknamed, supposed by the common people
to be deists^ atheists, or the Lord knows what ; but by their own account of themselves they are the immediate successors of the ancient bards and Druids ; and they still retain, or pretend to do so, the ancient opinions, discipline, maxims, poetic laws, etc., of the ancient British bards. They seldom admit any into their society but such as have a genius for poetry, and call themselves by no other name or style but Beirdd or Beirdd wrth Fraint a Defod Beirdd Ynya Prydain, and sometimes Prifeirdd, But ask the common people, especially the Methodists, what 6w^ Cwm y Felin are, and it is ten to one but a very curious (always care- ful of its being a bad) account of them :
'Tis this and 'tis that, And they cannot tell what.
They have always been a sensible and intelligent set of people and are now but very few in number. — /. M.]
Cwm y Gro (n. 1.). D. ab Owilym,
CwMiNOD, in Powys Land.
Cwm Igu, a parish in Monmouthshire ; another in Hereford- shire. [One and the same parish ; part in one county, and part in the other, — ^a common thing in South Wales. — /. M.']
Cwm Llifon. Cilmin Droedtu o Gwm Llifon. Vid. Ghjn Llifon,
Cwm Llwydrew, in Machyn, Glamorganshire. [Not in Mach- yn, but in Llanilltud Faerdref. — L if.]
Cwmmein, a gentleman's seat ; perhaps Cwm Meini, or Cwm Main, a river.
Cwmmwd, a commot, a subdivision of a cantref in Wales ; from cwm and 6orf, people living in the same valley : hence also cym^ mydog, a neighbour. Mr.Spelman says it should contain properly fifty villas, which is half a cantref; and that this is derived from cynn and lod, to coexist, to coinhabit ; and quotes the Statute of Ehuddlan, 12 Edward I, from a Latin copy which I have faithfully copied here from him. Whether his copy was bad, or (more likely) his want of knowledge of the language of the Britains, a Cambro-Britain will hardly forgive any man of any nation that takes the liberty of murdering his language as this author doth. " Statuimus quod vicecomes coronatores & ballivi coramotorum sint in Snowdon & terris nostris." And a little
after: "Vicecomes de Kaernarvan sub quo cantreda de Arvan, cantreda de Artlentayth, commotum de Gonkyn, cantreda de AUen & commotum de Irmenichy Would you ever have thought these to be Arvan, Arllechwedd, Orevddyn, Lleyn, and Eivionydd i And yet these are the names in the British copy of that statute, of which I have a copy I took firom a MS. in Hengwrt; and all are known at this day. Since, then, the British names of places are so coiTupted in Latin books of no longer standing than Edward I's time, what sort of a guesswork must that be of an English antiquary who is utterly unacquainted with tlie British, when he would attempt to explain the British names in Ptolomy, Antoninus, the Notitia, or in Nennius ?
CwM Nant, in Llannon, Carmarthenshire,
CwM- Nant Ffyllon : see Ffylhn.
CwM Symlog : see SyrrUog.
CwM Teuddwr, near Rhaiadr Gwy, Eadnorshire, on the river Elain.
CWNNWS (St.) Du.
CwNODL, a gentleman's seat, — Wynne. {J, D,)
CwsTENiN, or Constantin, the 87th King of Britain, This is Constantino the Great, Emperor of Eome.
Mae ar y gweilcb main gwin
Oes donniau plant Gystenin. — Guttyn Owain.
TJangwstenin, a parish and chapel, part of Rhos deanery, St. Asaph, but in Caernarvonshire.
CvvsTENYN of Armorica, the 93rd King of Britain.
CwsTENYN of Cornwall, the 101st King of Britain.
Cystenyn Gorneu (aZ. Gorveu)^ idem quod Constantino, Duke of Cornwall,
CwYFAN (Sant) : hence Uangwyfan in M6n, and another in Denbighshire. Cwyfan yw sant y Ddiserth yn Nhegeingl, a'r Sul nesaf ar ol yr ail dydd o Fehefin y cadwent ei Gwyl Mab- sant. (E. Llwyd, Itinerary,) There is a stone in the parish of Whitford called Maen y Ghvpyfan, with curious knots of lines cut upon it, probably belonging to this Cwyfan. (See W. WiUiams* cut of this stone.) In our genealogical tables we find Cwyfen ap Brwyneu Hen.
CwYLLOG (Sant). Llangwyllog Church in Anglesey.
CwYRT (Y), a gentleman's seat in Anglesey.
CwTTA Cyfakwydd (Y) Forganwg, an ancient MS. so called.
Cybi Sant ap Selyf ap Geraint ; Lat. Kebius or Chebius, John of Tinmouth says he was son of Solomon, a nobleman of Corn- wall ; that he studied in Gaul under St. Hilary, where he was made bishop ; converted the Isle of Mona, and had his episcopal see at Caer Guby, where in Leland s time there remained a col- lege of canons, which he supposes to have been formerly the monastery of this saint. {Brit SancL, Nov. 8.) Leland says he taught in Gwynedd and Manaw, and went over to Mon, and fixt his see at Holyhead (Promontorium Sacrum), and there the Prince of the island gave him a castle, where he erected a monas- tery, which of his name is called Oastrum Ohebii (Caer Gybi). (Leland, Script Brit, c. xlviii.)
Caer Gybi in Anglesey, North Wales ; Llangybi in Lleyn ; Ilangybi in Cardiganshire ; Llangybi in Monmouthshire.
Cnan a daU enwd a welynt Gwisgi ar ffon Gybi gynt.
P. LI. i*r Ffon gerfiedig.
Cydewain, neu Cedi^wain (n. 1.).
Cydweli (k qfd and gwdi), one of the three commots of Can- tref Eginoc in Caermarthenshire. (Price's Descript) Cydweli Castle built by Lord Bees, ad. 1190. See Nennius.
Dwywlad a Chedweli wenn
Dwyoes cwyned Is Cenneu. — Lewys Morganwg, See Cedweli.
Cyfeddliw, qu. whether a river in the north of England ?
Pell oddyman Aber Llyw
Pellach an ddwy G^yfeddliw. — Uywarch Hen,
Cyfeiliog, in the deanery [diocese] of St. Asaph ; part of Powys. (1), Machynllaeth ; (2), lianwrin ; (3), Cemmaes ; (4), Llan Bryn Mair; (5), Penegoes; and (6), Darywain, Chwe phlwy Cyfeiliog (from Cyfail, n. pr. v.). One of the commots of Castell Cynan. (Price's Descript)
Cyfeiliog : see Ywain Cyfeiliog,
XIJyfelach. Llangyfelach, Glamorgansliire. Fairs kept here. See Camalae,
Cyferthwch (n. 1.). Rhiw Gyferthwch yn Eryri. (TV. 30.)
Cyflefyr ap Brychan.
Cyfreithiau : see Dyfmoal Moelmut and Hywel Dda.
Cyfylchl Y Ddywgyfylchi, or Ddugyfylchi, or Ddwygyfylclii, a pass over the mountains of Eryri, between Penmaen Bacli and Penmaen Mawr. Caer y Gyfylchi may possibly be Conway.
Caraf i Gaer falchwaifch y Gyfylchi. — H. ajp 0. Owynedd.
But see Penmaen Mawr fort, called Braich y Ddinas. A plan of this wanted.
Cyffig and Cynffig (n. 1.) in Pembrokeshire.
Cyffin. Caer GyflBn, Conwy. {1%. Williams,)
Cyffin (n. pr. v.).
Elphin gida Chyffin chwym. — Llewehjn ap Guttyn,
Eglwys Gyflin near Conwy. Cynllaith y Cyffin, or probably Cyn- Uaeth, primum lac.
Cyffog, an ancient British prophet.
Gwn i Gyffog ddarogan
O'r ffydd ar ryw ddydd ydd kr\\
B. LI. ap LI, ap Qruffydd^ of the Saxons.
Cygurwen. Gwaun Cygurwen, Glamorganshire.
Cyhelyn, the 24th King of Britain. Twr Cyhelyn, in Llan- erchmedd.
Cyhillin ap Marwydd Goch ap Tryffbn.
Cyhoret eil Cynan, and Cynhored eil Cynon. {Tr, M. 3, 9.)
Cylch, in the ancient British Laws and the Extent of Wales, is a circuit or round, as, 1, Cylch Stalwyn or Stalon ; 2, Cylch Hebogyddion ; 3, Cylch Ehaglon or Rhaglot ; 4, Cylch Dourgon. These are services or taxes due to the Prince's ofl&cers : 1, to the Master of the Horse for the rose of a stonehorse for manner (sic) ; 2, attendance on the Prince's falconer ; 3, attendance on courts baron ; 4, attendance on the Prince's other hunters. Spelman owns he is ignorant of the root oi Kilck and Kylch Stalon, which he corruptly writes " Killyth Stallon." (Spelman, Glossary.)
Cyliau Duon, Black Cowls or Hoods, an order of lay monks under a lay abbot in a monastery in Bardsey Island in the beginning of Christianity. It seems there were some of the same
order once at JJanbadam Vawr, near Aberystwyth. (See Giral- dus Cambrensis, Itin, of Wales, Dr. Powel's edition.)
Our learned writers, who were unacquainted with the British tongue, have beat their brains to no purpose in deriving these Oolidean monks from the Latin. See also the blunder of an Irish Bishop (Nicolson) in his preface to his Irish Historical Library.
Cylwch ap Cylydd ap Celyddon Wledig, or Cyllwch ap Cil- ydd ap Celyddon (n. pr. v.).
Cylyddon Wledig, a northern Prince [who] gave the name to Coed Celyddon yn yr Alban. (D. /.) Caledonia was called so before the time of this Cylyddon ; so it is either a mistake of D. J., or it was another Celyddon Wledig.
Cymaron. River, and Cymaron Castle in Maelienydd, Rad- norshire, built by Roger Mortimer, a.d. 1194; belonged to Hugh, Earl of Chester, 1142.
Cymen. Madoc ap Hoel Gymen o Fon. [Gyrnen, an advocate in law courts in Dyfr Coch Asaph. — W, D!\
Cyminawc or Cyminawt.
Amgylch Cyminawc cymynai Saeson.
CyitdddWy i Gadwall. ap Madoc. Some place in Powys.
Cymmeibch, one of the two commots of Tstrad, Denbighshire. See Cevnmeyrch,
Cymmeb, near Caereneon. lljm y Cymmer, in the Severn, near Llanidloes. Pont y Cymmer, near Uantrisant, in Glamoigan- shire. ICymmerau, the joining of rivers; a place where the rivers Severn and Vemiew join in Shropshire. — W, D^
Cyhmeb Abbey, near Dolgelleu ; another in
Cymmeb Deuddwr, mentioned in GorhofFedd Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd. It seems to be in Keri, for he immediately adds,
Arglwydd nef . . .
Mor bell o Geri Oaer Lliwelydd,
[Dmddv^r, between Efymwy and Hafren, a tract of land com- prising the parishes of Uandysilio and Llandrinio, ending at Cymmerau, the junction of those two rivers. — W, B,] Cymmereu (n. L). ffoianau Myrddin.
CymmereUy near Tal y Bont in Cardiganshire.
Cymmereu, in Caermarthenshire.
Cymmereu, in Badnorshire. It signifies a confluence of rivers, as some say. (E. Llwyd) CumaVj in Irish, is the meeting of two or more rivers.
Cymminod, a place in Anglesey. Qu. Cwm Minod ? Men- tioned also in Hoiane Myrddin, Cvmiinod in Powysland, or Gym-
Amgylch Cyminawc cjmynai Saeson. — Gynddelw.
A chad Cyminawd a chad Caer Lleon. — Hoiane Myrddin,
Cymmytmaen, one of the three commots of Cantref Lleyn. (Price's Descript)
Cymorth, Mynydd (n. L).
Cymraeg, Wallica Unffua.
Cymraes, Walla, a Welsh woman.
Cymro {k cyn and bro), Wcdlus, a Welshman, an inhabitant of Cambria : pi. Cymru, See Gymry,
Ai gwell Ffranc na fPrawddns Gymro ?
Prydydd y Mochy i Lew. ap lorwerth.
Cael Cymro a garo gwir,
Cael flfynnu i Gymm gar. — L, O. Cothi.
Bond da a f n i Gymm Hon, Gwent, etc. — L, G. Cothi, Therefore this is wrong of the same author :
Ef a dry'r Cymry at wyr a'u car.
L. O. Goihiy i Syr W. Herbert.
Tri llu aeth o [oL, i] Grymm gynt
Trwy Wynedd y trywenynt. — L. Glyn Cothi,
Y dynion anadonair
Felly drwy Gymry a gair. — D. Lhcyd ap LI, ap Gmffydd,
O digiai Lloegr a'i dagiaid
Cymry a dry yn dy raid. — L; O. Cothi,
larll dy dad ...
larll gemrydd ar oU Gymry,
larll dy frawd ar ei lied fiy. — L, O. Cothi,
The country :
Eithafwy waed Mon mynna pob bonedd,
Pwy piDfl^l holl Gymru. — T, Aled^ i Rys ap Thomas.
Pen ar G^mm llu lias Lloegr affaitb, Llu Gruffydd ap I^iclas. — Tudur Aled,
Cymru (Y), the Welsh people of Cambria. The country should be wrote Cymry, and the people Cymru, q. d. Cynm>au. [This is wrong. Cymru, the country ; Cymry, the inhabitants. — W. D.]
Cymry, Wallia or Cambria^ the country called Wales, and anciently Wallia or Gallia ; perhaps Gallia Minor, as Bretagne in France is now called Britannia lilinor.
Cymryd, a place near Conway, where the great battle of Dial BhodriwQA fought between Anarawd and the Danes and Saxons, A.D. 880. The river in this place is fordable at low water^ spring tides. Probably derived from Cam ryd, a crooked ford.
Cyn, river ; hence Abercyn.
Cynan, one of the five cantrefe of Powys Wenwynwyn ; also one of the two commots of Cantref Cydewen, (Price's Descript.)
Cynan (Caer), Norwich. (Th. Williama,)
Cynan (n. pr. v.), Oonanvs; AngL Oonan.
Cyfoeth Cynan, Owlad Meibion Cynan {Oirald. Cambrenaii) is Meirion. Cyfoeth Cynan is mentioned in the twelve battles of lly welyn ap lorwerth,
Tri thrywan Oynan Gyfoeth Pedwar enwawg peithiawg poeth. See CyUh Llywdyn.
Cynan y C^n.
Cynan Garwyn, Prince of Powys, father of Selyf. (7V/65.)
Cynan Meriadoc. A prince of this name settled with a large colony of insular Britains on the coast of Gaul in the time of Maximus the Tyrant, which was about the year S83 ; [and from these the Armoricans, who sent for wives from Britain, and 11,000 sailed, and fell among barbarians. — W. D.]
Cynan Nant Niver, a noble warrior, died a.d. 865. (Powel's Caradoc, p. 32.)
Cynan Tindaethwy, a prince or King of Wales, son of Rhodri Molwynog. He began to reign a,d. 755. He had his surname from his place of birth, Dindaethwy, i.e., the fort of Daethwy, in Anglesey, the name of one of the six commots of that county. He was father of Esyllt, the mother of Rhodri Mawr.
Cynan Veiniai).
Cynan Wledig, the 102nd king ; Latinized Aurdiui Conanus by Gildas.
Cynadaf, father of Brwyn, {Trioedd y Meirch, 7.)
C YNAWC or Cynog (St.) , son of Brychan Biyclieimog. (Ach Oynog)
Cyndeybn (n. pr. v.).
Cyndbyrn ap Arthawg.
Oyndeyrn Gabthwys (Latinized Kentigemiis), Archbishop of Ireland about the year 542, was son of Owen ap Urien Beget, King of Beget in North Britain in the time of King Arthur. His mother was Thamet (or, as some write, Thenis, Thenna, or Thenaw), daughter of Lewddyn Luyddog o Ddinas Eiddyn, i.e., Edenborough ; called also Loth, King of the Picts. He is said to have a cognomen given him on account of his virtues and innocence, Aftry?!^, i.e., kind and lovely. (Lives of Samts, Jaj:i, 13.) Leland calls him Ghentegemus, and says he was bom in Ireland by his mother happening to travel there, and studied there under Servanus ; that he came to Gwynedd and Bhos (Bosses) ; that the people were partly rude, partly infected with the Pela- gian heresy; that Morchenius [read Maelcun], King of Gwyn- edd, envied him, through the advice of Cathen ; that he went to Scotland, and erected the monastery of Glasgow. Catgallus, Eang of Bhos, gave him a place near £lwy and Glwyd to build a monastery.
The JTriades say that he was Penesgyb in Penrhyn Bhionydd yn y Gogledd, i e., head of bishops at Edenborough in the north, when Arthur was chief King there, and Gwerthmwl Wledic chief elder, i e., prince or proprietor. See Dewi^ MaeU gum, and Caradoc, (Tr, 7.)
After the death of Marken, Morchenius Lelandi (March ap Meirchion), or Morgan his friend, King of Cambria, his death was conspired by the royal family, and he withdrew to Wales, and built a church at GaerUion ar Wysc, and visited St. David ; then founded a monastery at Llanelwy, and also his episcopal see, and was both Abbot and Bishop. Maelgwn opposed him; but he was struck blind, and the saint cured him, and they were made Mends. He left his disciple, Asaph or Hasa, his successor. He saw in a vision the soul of St. David going to heaven. Ehydderch Hael succeeded the Prince that opposed him, who sent for him to his see at Glasgow ; and about the year 593 he went to Borne to visit Pope Gregory (as Usher says
from old records), which was his seventh journey to that city. St Gregory was charmed with him, and sent him home, where he died eight years afterwards, in the year 601, being 85 years old. (Brit. Sa7ict., p. 34, out of Capgrave, Leland, Usher, and Harpsfield.)
Jocelin, in his life, says he had such a command over the clouds that neither rain nor snow ever fell on him or those in his company. Perhaps he had a coach.
Cyndor, yn Sir Amwythig.
Cyndrwyn, a nobleman of Powys (a.d. 603), father of Cyn- ddylan. {Llywareh Hen.) See Dynivennan and Ovnon.
Cynddelig ap Ninio ap Cimet ap Envay.
Cynddyian ap Cyndrwyn, a noble warrior. His elegy was wrote by liy warch Hen, " Marwnad Cynddylan Powys." He was Prince of Powys in Maelgwn's time ; and he, or his father Cyndrwyn, entertained Llywareh Hen when the Saxons took his country from him. In this Marwnad there are several of Cyn- drwyn's children mentioned : Elvan Powys, Gwion, Cynwraidd, Moryal,Cynon,Gwyn; and daughters, Ffrevor, Heledd, Meddlan. [His mansion house was at Llys Dynwennan in Powysland, wherever that place is. — W. D.]
Cynbddaf, Lat. Cunotamtis, (Ed. Uwyd, Notes on Camden.)
Cyneiddian ap Ynyr Gwent.
Cyneie (n. pr. v.). Meurig ap Cyneie.
Cynfael (n. pr. v.), Lat. OunovaUus. (JE. Llwyd.) Huw Llwyd Cynfaelf a poet.
Cynfael, a river in Meirionydd. Cynfael yn Ardudwy. Blaen Cjmfael.
Cynfael, a castle of Cadwaladr ap GruflFydd ap Conan, in Meirion, taken by Howel ap Owen Gwynedd and brother by battery, &c., defended by the Abbot of Ty Gwyn. T^ Cynfael, called also Cynvel.
Cynfar ap Tudwal ap Curmwr, alias Morfawr, ap Caden ap Bran ap Llyr Uediaith.
Cynfarch, the 19th King of Britain.
Cynfarch, the 27th King of Britain.
Cynfarwy Sant. Llechgjrnfarwy, Anglesey, a chapel and parish.
Cynfawr Cad Cadwg ap Cynwyd Cynwydion, one of the Tri tharw cad." {Tr. 12.)
Cynfedw, a slave, father of Cadafael, a Bang in North Wales. {Tr. 76.)
Cynfel : see Oynfael,
Cynfelyn (n. pr. v.), Lat Cunobdirms, a King of Britain, son of TeneuaiL Also Cappel Cynfelyn, and Sam Gynfelyn in Car- diganshire, take the name hence. His sons, Gwydyr and Gweir- ydd. Cynfelyn Drwsgl or Drwscyl, iin o'r tri phost cad. {Tr. 11.)
Cynfrig and Cynrhig (n. pr. v.). Cynrhig Goch o Drefiiw. {Arch, Brit, p. 262.) Pentre Cynfrig, a gentleman's seat. {J. D.) Cynfrig Oer ap Meirchion Gul ap Grwst Ledlwm.
Cynfyg Castle of the Fitzhaimons^ Glamorganshire. (Camden.)
Cynfyl Sant. Uangynfyl, Lleyn, or Cynwyl ; hence Cynwyl Gaio and Cynwyl Elfed.
Cyngar Sant. His church at Llangefni, Anglesey. [Cyngar founded a monastery in Morganwg about the year 474. This Cyngar was also called Docuinus. The place is still called lian- dochwy and Llangyngar. There is a curious old cross with an inscription in the churchyard. — /. M.]
Cyngar ap Arthawg.
Cyngar ap Geraint.
Cyngen ap Ysbwys ap Cadrod Calchfynydd ap Cynwyd Cyn- wydion.
Cynglas, Lat. Cuneglassits, which see.
Cynhaethwy ap Herbert ap Godwin larll Cemiw a Dyfhaint, i. e., Cornwall and Devon. See Daethwy, which seems to be of the same origin.
Cynhaval or Cynhafael (Sant) ap Elgud : hence Uangyn- haval, Denbighshire. Cynhafal mab Argat, one of the Tri tharw unhen. {Tr. 13.)
Cynhayarn Sant. Ynys Cynhayam Chapel, Eiddionydd.
Cynhillin ap Gwaithfoed. See GenUlin.
Cynin Sant ap Brychan. Llangynin yngwlad Ddyfed. Cynin Cof, Cunyn Cof. {Tr. 88.)
Ni chawn ym Duw a Chynia
Dy bach o*r Deau heb win. — J), ah leuan Du.
Cynio ot Cynyw Sant. Llangynio in the deaneiy of Pool [near Llanfair Caereinion. — W, D.]
Cynlas Cot ap Ywain Danwyn. Qu. Cynog Las ? [Ystrad Gynlas.— JV. R]
Ctollaeth, one of the three commots of Cantre'r Ehaiadr (Price's Descript.) ; oiCynllayth, part of Powys Vadog, and falsely CyrUleth.
Cynllatth (Cynddelw), It seems the river Dyfi was origin- ally called Llaith. Carreg Tstum Ilaith (not Uaeth) is a bend- ing of it, and the commot of Cynllaith, from whence Machyn- Uaith town has its name. The old legend of Tydecho calls it Llaethj and says the saint turned it into milk.
A heny w ceinllyw Cynllaith
fonedd Gwynedd ai gwaith. — Ekys Ooch Eryri.
Och nad byw ceinllyw Cynllaith
Achaws fa Haws o'i laith.
Cynddelw, i Ywain ap Madawc. See Canon,
Cynllech (fl.) : hence Abercynllech.
Cynllo or Cynllaw Sant. Uangynllo, Cardiganshire.
Cynog Sant ap Brychan ap Cormur ap Eurbre WyddeL Cynog signifies chief or principal. Llangynog church and parish in the deanery of Pool. Llangynog church and parish, Carmarthenshire. See Ach Cynog, Anilech, and Brychan,
Cynog Las. This Prince is mentioned by Gildas in his Excid. BrU., and the name is pretended to be explained there, and foolishly rendered into Latin, Lanio Fulve, i, e,, a Yellow Butcher, which is a plain mark of the want of skill in the writer, or of the forgery of the story, or of the later monks trimming it to their own purpose ; for Cynog Las signifies Cjmog the Blue, or rather Cynog the Pale, as Brut Darian Las is Brutus Blue-shield.
There is a church in Montgomeryshire dedicated to Cynog, called Llangynog ; and the grave of Cynog Las is shewn at this day in the cathedral church of Bangor.
Cynon. Cappel Cynon. Cynon mab Clydno Eiddyn. (Tr. 53, 86.) Cynon ap Cyndrwyn. {Zlywarch Hen in Marwnad Oyn- ddylan,)
Cynon, a gentleman's seat. {J. D)
Cynbhig (n. pr. v.), Lat Cingetorix (?).
Cynstabl, a constable ; from cyn, a head or chief, and ystabl, a stable. See Spebnan's Glossary for his derivation of this word.
Cyntwbch (n. pr. v.), Latinized Ountegorix, (Ed, Llwyd)
Cynvor or Cynfawr, i. e., great head ; idem quod Owrgem, and Gwrgent, E, Llwyd, by transposing, — aU a whim.
Cynvyn Hirdbef, who married Angharad, the widow of Llyw- elyn ap Seisyllt, Prince of Wales. {Oaradoc, p. 73.)
Cynvyniait or Cynfynuid, the people or tribe of Cynfyn ; pi. of Cynfyn in -aid : hence the Latin termination of the names of people and places in Gaul and Britain -ates : Attrebates, Abrincatse, Adimciates, Agesinates, Basabocates, Bercoreates,Cade- tes, Caletes, Cocosates, etc. Some plurals end in -on, as Mer- viniawn, lorwerthion, Madogion, Edeymion ; but these are patro- nymics or clans' names ; and hence came those names in Gaul, etc., — ^names of places or people, from men, as Ambrones, Alen- conium, Bizeriones, Burgundiones, Caledonii, Centrones, Dum- nonii, etc.
Cynwac Ehychwain, o Fodrychwain.
Cynwal ap Ffr wdwr.
Cynwlff ap Corvlwng ap Beblig.
Cynwraidd or Cynfraidd (n. pr. v.), a brother of Cynddylan ap Cyndrwyn. (Llywarch Hen in Marumad Cynddylan.)
Cynwyd Cynwydion, a man's name ; and Cynwydion was the name of the clan or land.
Cynwyd, a place in Merionethshire where fairs are kept.
Cynych (n. pr. v.). Llangynych, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here.
Cynyr (n. pr. v.). Cynyr Ceinfarfawc, father of CaL {Tr, 26.)
Cynyr Farfdrwch.
Cynyw (n. pr. v.). Llangynyw.
Cyranog (n. pr. v.). Llangyranog in Ccudiganshire. Fairs kept there.
Cyrchynan, a place in TegengL {Caradoc, p. 261.)
Cysgen. Bod ap Cysgen. Vid. Pasg^n, qu. an id. ?
Cyttiau'r Gwyddelod, the Hut^ of the Lish, a name given to certain circular small entrenchments on Bhos Ligwy in Anglesey, and not in the woods (as Mr. E. Llwyd in his Notes on Camden)
They are on a plain, open common, where there are no stones ; and are only round ditches with a door into them, as if they had been tents. They are not called KittimW Gwyddelod, as he calls them, but Oyttieu, A survey of them wanted.
Cytheinigg or Catheiniog (i. G. Cothi), one of the four com- mots of Cantref Mawr in Cardiganshire [Carmarthenshire], wrote by Sir John Price, in Description, Cethineoc. Qu., whether it has any affinity with Cathen, Llangathen, and with Caithness in Scotland It is also one of the commots of Caermarthenshire.
Cywrennin (n. pr. v.).
Marw Morgenen marw, Cywrennin Marw Morien mar trin.
Cyfoed Myrddin a Owenddydd, See Tir Morien.
Cywryd (n. pr. v.). Llywelyn Fardd ab y Cywryd, a poet, flor. A.D. 1280 {K Llwyd) ; but rather sooner.
Cywryd ap Crydon, father of Gwen, un o'r tair gwenriain. (2V. 73.)
Chenin, a valley in Anglesey (in the Cambridge copy of Nepnius), where there was a wandering stone which always returned home by promise. Ciheinn, the same valley in the Cot- tonian copy of Nennius. Ohehennius, the same valley in the Oxford copy of Nennius. Chieninn, the same valley in Sir Sim. P'Ewes* copy of Nennius.
There is a deep valley and a river called Cefni (anciently Cevenni) in Anglesey, which is the place meant in Nemiius, where this travelling stone was said to be. Some trick of the ^onks, no doubt. There is a church ne^r that fiver c^ed Llan- gefpi.
Chepstow, the Saxon name of Casgwent by CasteU Gweut. [Casgwent is the same as CasteU Gwent. — /. M,]
Chikk, a parish and church and castle, part of Powys Vadog, Denbighshire ; in Welsh Y Waun, but called anciently CasteU C^rogQu.
Chwaen (n. 1.). Several places in Anglesey of this name.
Chwaen, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire (?). Hughes of Chwaen.
Ohtvaen Bach,
T Chwaen Ddu, . ^
Y Chwaen Goch, f ^^ ^
Y Chwaen Hen,-
Y Ohwa>en Wen is called Chawen erroneously. Chwibleian, a Sibyl, quoted by Myrddin Wyllt ; q. d. Sihleian,
wrote also Ohvrimbleia/n. Chwiler (fl.) : hence Aberchwiler. Chwitffordd, enw plwyf.
Chwitmor, Dafydd Chwitmor ap Davydd person Cilken. Cmwith, left-handei Davydd Chwith ap Grufiydd ap Caradog.
D. Da, good CiUin ap Maelog Dda. Dadu (fi.). Cwmdadu.
Tabwrd dadwrdd Cwmdadu. — T. Prys.
Daethwy, a man's name : hence Dindaethwy, some fort from whence the commot of Dindtiethwy in Anglesey took its name : hence also Forth Ddaethwy, the ferry over the Menai to Bangor. See Cynhaethwy and Cynan Tindaethvy.
Daftdd or Davtdd, a man's name, common among the ancient Britains. This has a very natural derivation from the British tongue, from da, good, and h/dd, will be ; i. e., he will be good ; but as it is a name that seems to have been used but since Christianity came here, it may be the same with Damd, a Hebrew name signifying beloved, though by the Britains pronounced as if wrote in English DavUh, with a soft th, as in the English word with,
Dafydd Ddu o Hiraddug, a poet who wrote about the year 1340. He wrote a British grammar, which is extant Henry Salesbury says he was a noted mathematician, and Bobert Yaughan calls him Doctor of Divinity, and he had the honour of being called a conjuror and a magician by the ignorant of his age, who have handed down to us such surprising stories about him. This hath been the fate of another great man, his name- sake, Dr. John Dee, in Queen Elizabeth's time.
Dai ap Uywri ap Cynan CiIk6l£F. Dai Melyn.
Dalaboan (h. pr. v.). A king of the Picts of tbis name killed in Gwaith M^adoc, a battle with the Britains^ A.D. 750. (Car- adoc)
Dale, part of Powys Vadog. {Poml)
Dalltaf (n. pr. v.). Dalltaf eil Cunyn Cof. {Tr. 88.)
Dan, the 28th King of Britain.
Dan y Castell, a house near Aberystwyth, where there are the remains of a castle, which I take to be that of Bichard de la Mare, mentioned in Powel's Oaradoc, p^ 189.
Danes, the English name of the people of Denmark. It is remarkable that the British writers never call those people by this name, but always either Uychlynwyr or Nartmyn. We have no such word as Daniaid, and it seems Nartmyn was a general name among the Britons for all the northern nations ; and the names of Danes and Normans were promiscuously used, as appears by Eegino, Dudo, W. Malmsbury, Abbo, and Gemi- tensis. (Selden, Afare Olaumm, p. 249.) Tyssilio calls their country Denmarc.
Daniel (Sant), the first Bishop of Bangor in North Wales, the cathedral of which is dedicated to his name ; and he instituted a college or monastery, says Bale, at Bangor in the year 516, where King Maelgwn afterwards built the city ; and the pletce, from its lofty choir, was called Ban-cor or Bangor. Here Daniel was ordained Bishop by Dubricius. Daniel was at the Synod of Brevi, and deputed by them to bring St. David thither. He died A.D. 545, and was buried in the isle of Bardsey. (See Usher's ArUiq,,!^. 274; Brit. Sand., Nov. 23.)
Myrddin, the Pictish poet, mentions him in his Hoiane, in
these words :
Pan Borro Deinioel vab Danod Deinwyn,
which shows he was the son of Dunod, probably the great Dunod Fyr ap Pabo Post Pryda-in. Deinioel had a son called Deiniel, who founded the church of Llanddeiniel Fab in Anglesey. Le- land says he erected a college in Arvon, in Gwynedd, near the passage to M6n, called Portua (Porthaethwy), which place is called, for its excellency, Banchor Vawr (Bangor Fawr yngwyn- edd).
D ANMONH. So the iRomans called the Britons inhabiting Corn- wall and Devon. The name was coined from the British name of Devon, which is Dyfrh Nainty i. e., deep valleys.
Daon, a river. Aberdaon (Dr. Powel) for Aberthaw, Glamor- ganshire. It runs through Ystradowe, or some siich name : qu., and by Landogh or Llandogh ?
[Lewis yn y coed ! — all merely conjectural. Dawon runs through Cowbridge, Ilandochwy, Llanfleiddan, lianfair, TreflSieniin, Uan- garfan, Ilandathan, etc., and falls into the Bristol Channel at Aberddawon. — /. M,"]
Dar, a river, Glamorganshire. Aberd&r parish.
Darog. . Llanddarog in Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here.
Daron (fl.) : hence Aberdaron, a village and church in Lleyn {k dar and onn, oak and ash).
Daronwy (n. pr. v., Tr. 81: qn. Dar Eonwy or Daron Wy ?), one of the three chief molesters of Anglesey that was bom in it, Un dair prif gormes Mon, etc.
Darowain, a chui*ch and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog, dedicated to St. Tudur. {Br. Willis.) But I never heard of a saint of that name ; and this seems to be but the blundering gtiess of those who wonld have it a contraction of Tvdur Owain ; but there never was such a name among the Britains. It would have been Tudur ab Owain. Darowain is Owain's Oak, as Cil Owain is Owain's Retreat ; Tir Owain in Ireland, Owen's Land, etc.
Dathel. Caer Dathel, qu. ?
David, treasurer of Llandaf, a very ingenious, learned man, a great antiquary, a great natural philosopher, and a great poet. He wrote several things in prose and verse, and was cotempo- rary with Jo. Boss the historian, who mentions him. (Leland, Script. Brit, c. 573.)
David's (St.), a bishop's see in Pembrokeshire, South Wales, founded by Dewi, or St. David, about the year 523, and was the metropolitan church of all Wales from that time to the year 1103, when, after a long trial at Eome, it became subject to Canterbury.
Davydd ap Gwilym, the Ovid of the Welsh nation, a most sweet poet, and a great master of the British tongue. He is said to have been bom at Bro Gynin, according to Taliesin's predic- tion, about 800 years before :
[Am Dafydd gelfjdd goelfin praff awdnr Propbwydawdd Taliesin] T genid ym Mro' G^in Brydydd a'i gywydd fal gwin.
But wherever he was born, he says himself his country was Tir Pryderi in Bro GFadelL His uncle and tutor was Dywelyn ap Gwilym ap Gwrwared, one of the lords of Cardigan, whose seats were at Cryngae and DdSl Goch.
This poet wrote avast deal I have of his works near 300 poems. He is oftener quoted by Dr. Davies in his Dictionary and Grammar than any other poet. He flourished about a.d. 1400.
Dau, Aberdau, mentioned in *' Gorhoffedd Gwalchmai/' sig- nifying the flail of two waters into ; and thence came the
name of Deuddwr, and a surname of a family, Gruflfudd Deuddwr, etc., and a lordship and cwmmwd Deuddwr in Cantref Ystlyc in Powys Wenwynwyn. According to Gwalchmai, the two waters that gave it the name are Ogwann and Cegin; and a third falls into them, called Clywedog. Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd calls it Cymmer Deuddwr. (Gorhoffedd Hywel ap Owain.)
[See Gwalchmai*s poem, "Gorhoffedd", whether his Aherdani has any reference to Ogwen and Cegin. However, Aberdau shoiQd not be confounded with Deuddwr, which has its cymmerau at the junction of the Vyrnwy and Havren, below Han Drinio.
Daubertheg (fl.). Aberdaub Ertheg.
Daugleddeu, one of the eight cantrefs of Dyfed. (Price's 1>«-
Daugleddyf (fl.). Alerdaugleddyf, Milford Haven, Portus Alaunicua, (/. Morganwg)
Daun, corruptly for Dawn, which see.
Dauei, Dauvri, see Davm,
Dawn, a river in the West Eiding of Yorkshire, which falls into the Humber ; in English, the Don, Gaer Dawn in the Tri- odes, Gaer Daun in Nennius and Usher, is, no doubt, Doncaster in Yorkshire.
Ddeheuros (Y), a place in Cardiganshire. (2>. ah Tman Dil)
Ddreiniog (Y), in Anglesey (i drain, thorns). [Dreiniog, nomen loci in Glamorganshire. — L M,]
Ddbtdwt (Y), the name of a river in Anglesey. Melin 7 Ddiydwy.
Ddwygyfylchi (T), or Ddngyfylchi, or Ddy Wgyfylchi : see Cyfylchi,
Ddysgwylpa Fawb (Y) and Ddysgwylfa Face, two mountains in Cardiganshire, which by their names seem to have been the watch-mountains or beacons in ancient times. See Wylfa, [Sguil- ver Hillfl near Bishop's Castle. — W. Di]
De, a foreigner : hence deol, to exile.
Decca: vide Tecea.
Dee. Camden (in Merionethshire), describing this river, says it runs unmixed through liyn Tegid. It is the English name for the river Dyfrdwy. (See also Peryddon and Aerfen.) He says some derive it from dwy, because it has two fountains. So have all rivers two or more fountains. Others contend, says he, that it took its name from Duw, God, as if a sacred river ; others, from du, black. There is another river Dee, which runs by Aber-^ deen in Scotland.
Deheubabth, South Wales, including at present Cardiganshire, Badnorshire, Brecknockshire, Glamorganshire, Caermarthenshire, and Pembrokeshire, and also Monmouthshire, though called an English county. Dafydd Benfras calls Dafydd ap Gwilym £os Djjfed, and Hehog Dehmbarth.
Dehewynt ap Ithel ap Dolflfyn ap Ilywelyn 0.
Deicws ap Gronw ap Gruffydd Grach o'r Blaen. Nicolas ap Deicws o Ystrad Alun.
Deifir, Durham coimtry {E. Llwyd), Deira. Ddfr, Durham men (2V. 16). It seems it extended to the river Tweed, for Goer Deifr is Barwick. See Brynaich and Brynych, and Gall.
Deiftb, a hermit at Bodffari, who directed Gwen&ewi to Sad- wm, a hermit at Henllan. (Life of Winifred.)
Deili, verch Syr Gruflfydd Llwyd, marchog.
Deiniel (Sant). Llanddeiniel Fab, a chapel in Anglesey. This Deiniel or Daniel, they say, was son of Deinioel Sant, first erector of the see of Bangor, and first Bishop. See Daniel.
Deinioel Sant, Daniel Sant.
Doniog im' fed myn Deinioel Yn &rdd hil Llywelya Foel. — Deio ap leuan Du. See Daniel.
Deniolen Santes. lianddeiniolen. Deinis Lyth ap Cadwr. Deio, dim. of Dafydd.
Tri henw ay ar y dyn Deio, Dafydd, Deipyn.
Deio ap Dafydd ap Madog Ddu.
Deio ap lorwerth o Ddinmeirphion.
Deneio, a church near Pwllheli in Lleyn (qu. k din ?).
Denmabe, mentioned in Tyssilio. The word is compounded, says Camden, of a Danish word and the German march, which signifies a bound or limit. (Camden in Names of Brit)
Deon (qu.), foreigners, strangers.
Dyniadon Deon dylyam ei ddwyn Dolnr cwyn ai cyffry.
Einion Wan^ i Llyw. ap lorwerth.
Nid ar a'n perchis a'n peiroh y weithon
O'r Deon dihefeireh
Tn y cyrcham oaroharfeirch.
Cyndddifff i Birid Flaidd. See Dwywg.
Deobath Wledig, father of Ehufawn Befr.
Dekfedd, one of the three commots of Cantref Ffiniog, Caer- marthenshire. (Price's Description.) Whether Perfedd t
Deri, a place in Anglesey. Tre Dderi (Jt dar, oak. So doth also Derry in Ireland, which Bede interprets Bdboreturn),
Derllys, one of the present hundreds of Caermarthenshire ; now wrote also Derllysg. [A place of the same name in Mon- mouthshire. — I. M!\
Dervel (n. pr. v.). Lltrnddervel, a parish and church in Edeyr- nion deanery, diocese of St. Asaph, Powys, Merionethshire.
Dervel Gadarn (n. pr. v.). There was a huge image of his in Llandderfel, carried to London to be burnt.
Fal Derfel ynghamlan. — Tudur Aled.
See Fox's MaHyrs, and also Lord Herbert's JUfe of Rewry VIIL Derwas, q. d. Gwas dewr (?). Gruffydd Derwas ap Howel Selyf ap Meurig Uwyd. Owen Derwas, Dafydd Derwas, etc. It is but modem, and now used as a Christian name.
Derwen, a parish and church, Denbighshire.
[FfynTum Ddenoen, a well greatly resorted to. — W. 2>.]
Debwennydd, rivers in England, now called Derwent One is between the East and North Biding of Yorkshire, and falls into the Ouse. Antoninus names a city Derventio, on this river, seven miles from York The first of G-wrthefyr's battles with the Saxons was fought on a river of this name. It is called in Nennius, published by Dr. Gale, Derevent and Dergwent ; in my vellum MS, of Galfidd's translation of Tyssilio, Derwende ; in the French editions of Galfrid, 1508 and 1517, it is "super fluvium Derimend all which are corruptions of the ancient British name, according to the old orthography, Dervenyt, and in the modem orthography, Derwenivydd, probably from derwen, an oak.
The Derwent or Darent, in Surrey, which falls into the Thames, is the river where Gwrthefyr fought the Saxons probably. An- other Derwent river rises in the Peak, and runs through the heart of Derbyshire, and falls into the Trent.
A place called Derwen in Wales ; qu., whether a river of that name besides Daron in Lleyn. [ Vide my account of Darwent from Burlington. — W, 2>.]
Derwydd, a Druid (anciently Dervid), Derwyddon and Drudion (Gynddelw), Druids, Druidce. These were princes and priests of Gaul and Britain, and so had their subjects' bodies and souls in their power \ and the king was the high priest. It seems to be owing to this Druidical government that the British monarchy lasted so long, viz.^ from the first plantation of the island to the time of Christ's birth, or thereabouts ; it being not only heredi- tary, but absolute and arbitrary.
The help qf the Church and religion hath been always found necessary to govern mankind in all nations : oracles, auguries, prophets, seers, etc., were the great hinges of the state ; but here and in Gaul the crow^ and the Church were united in one per- son. This is the reason that religion is scarcely mentioned in our ancient British history, it being an article that no writer durst meddle with.
The religion of the Druids prevailed in some parts of Ireland tUl the year 433, when St. Patrick converted the Irish. [Ogygia, p. 203.)
Bar is an old oak tree ; derwen, a young oak ; derwyddon, oak-men. The singular must be denvydd, hence Tre Dder- wydd in Anglesey; Llan y Dderwyddon, a village near St. David's ; and the Indian Bervis, a priest, may be of the same origin. Cerrig y Drudion, a church and parish in the rural deaneiy of Ehos, Denbighshire.
Dysgogan Derwyddon dewrwlad.
Cynddelw, i Yw, Oyfeiliog. Dmdion a veirddion a fawl Neb dragon namyn draig ai dirper.
Cynddelw, i Yw. Cyfeiliog.
Derwyddveirdd, i. a., Druidical Bards. These were the poets of the Britains and Gauls in the time of paganism here. They kept an account of the descent of families, and made songs on the actions of great men, and consequently were the national historians. These songs they sang to the harp, and from them our ancient history hath been collected ; and not only ours, but [that of] all nations (except, perhaps, the Jews) was collected from the same kind of materials. See Derwydd.
Derwyn, and Bryn Derwyn, where a fierce battle was fought by Lleweljm ap Gruflfudd and his brothers Owen and Davydd for the Principality of Wales, a.d. 1254, when Llewelyn got the day. It is called in the jErce Gambro-Britannicce, y Frwydr yn Nerwyn ; and in Llyfr Cock o Rergest, Bryn Derwyn. Caradoc [Hist, of Wales) doth not name the place.
Devanog. Cappel Devanog in Eamsey Isle, near St. David's, in Pembrokeshire.
Stinan a Devanog dan anwyl gymydog.
(E. Llwyd, Notes on Camden in Pemhr.)
Qu., whether it is not Tyvanog i
Deusant. iJanddeusant, a parish and church in Anglesey ; a chapel dedicated to two saints. Llanddeusant in Caermarthen- shire.
Deudraeth, y Traeth Mawr a'r Traeth Bychan, Ardudwy.
Gwrdd y gwnaeth uch Deudraeth Dryfan.
Prydydd y Moch, i Lew. ap lorwerth.
Deulyn. Afon Deulyn, the name of the river composed of
the waters of Llyn Crafnant and Llyn Geirionydd.
Deuddwr or DuDDWR, Divodurum {E. Lhtryd), a commot in Cantref Ystlyc in Powys Wenwynwyn. Qu., two waters ? Hence Gruffudd Deuddwr ap Owain.
Dewen Hen, father of Mabon: in ihelndex,Dov^ngan,{Tr.55.)
Dewi Sant (i. e.j St. David), the patron saint of Wales, as St. George for England, St. Patrick for Ireland, and St. Andrew for Scotland. He was son of Xanthus {Oambro-Brit. Sand.), who had taken refuge in Armorica, and had married an Armorican Briton, and a relation of King Arthur, who was son of Ceredic ap Cunedda Wledig, Prince of Ceretica (Ceredigion), now called Cardiganshire, in South Wales. Dewi's mother's name was Nonn; and there are churches dedicated to her name: Uan- nonn, and a river near St. David's called Non, and a place called Abernon. She was called in Latin (the favourite language of those days) Nonna or Nonnita ; others call her Melaria, by mis- take, I suppose, for Eleri, daughter of Brychan, the mother of Xanthus. {Brit, Sand,)
He was bom in South Wales in the 5th century, and was brought up at ffen Menew, or Old Menevia, in Pembrokeshire. [Cardiganshire, near Aberaeron. — JV, D,] {Brit, Sand,) See Dr. Davies' mistake in his Dictionary, Mynyw Hen, He was edu- cated at the famous school at the Isle of Wight, under Paulinus, a disciple of St. Germanus ; and there performed miracles by giving Paulinus his sight, with the sign of the cross, which he had lost with much weeping and old age. {Brit, Sand,) An angel admonished Paulinus to send Dewi among the Britains, where he founded twelve religious houses or monasteries, among which were Glastonbury, Bath, Leominster, Rhaglan in Gwent, Llan- gyvelach in Gower, and the chief in the Vale of Ross, near Mene- via, or Vallis Bosina (the Rosy Vale) ; in the Acts of the Irish Saints called Bosnat or Rosnant, {Brit, Sand., Mar. 1.) Theo- marchus and John of Tinmouth mention his Rules.
He was sent for by Dubricius (Dyfrig), Archbishop of Caer- lleon ar Wysg, to the synod held at Uanddewi Brevi to suppress the Pelagian heresy that had revived after Garmon and Lupus had suppressed it about anno 430 ; and in his way there he raised a person from the dead ; and whilst he preached in the fields, the earth, by a miracle, raised under his feet, and became
a hill, on the top of which the church was afterwards built. (Brit. Sanct.) At the conclusion of the synod Dubricius desired to resign and retire to the monastery of EnUi, and that David might succeed him; which David approved of on condition that he might remove the metropolitan see to Menevia, the noise and hurry of Caerlleon, a populous city, being disagreeable to him. Dubricius, with most of the clergy that [were] convened on that occasion, went to the Isle of Bardsey, and entered themselves in the monastery there for the rest of their lives. (Llwyd, Notes on Camden, out of Mr. E. Vaughan's MSS.) But what could induce the other clergy to do this, though Dubricius might take a pen- sion for his archbishoprick, unless they [were] opposed in that synod, or that the Armorican party were the most powerful ? Uthur Bendragon having brought over many relations who must be provided for, and Dewi among the rest. [L. Morris is at a loss here. — W. 2?.]
It was in anno 522 that Dewi was made Archbishop of Caer- lleon ar Wysg, in King Arthur's time, when he kept his court there. (Tr. 7.) But take notice that the Triades call him Penescvh, i. e,, head of bishops, and not archbisliop (archesgob), Dewi held another synod afterwards, to confirm the former, and called it the Synod of Victory. {Gir, Camhrensis,)
Leland calls his parents Xanthus and Noninta, He says he went to the Isle of Wight, and studied there under Paulinus ; thence to Ceredigion ; thence to Pebidiauc, which is in the Vale of Eos, where Patrick once lived a solitary life. There a little well, called Pistyll Ddewi, afforded him his drink ; and for his abstinence and hard living he was called Dewi Ddyffnor, i, e., David Aqnaticus, His fame spread abroad all over Wales, and Teilo (called also Eliud), and Madoc of Towyn Meirionydd (called also Aidan), and Ismael of Ehos, came to visit him. There he was troubled by one Boias, a prince, who had two castles in lihos.
Dyfrig and Deinioel, bishops, and others, having met at Llan- ddewi Brevi (i. e., " Locus Davidis mugientis", Leland, from hrcvu, to talk loud, — ^a very poor derivation), David, with much ado, was persuaded to join them out of his great modesty; and in Leland's memory there were canons, vulgarly called prebendaries, at Han- ddewi.
In the Triades (43) he is called one of the three happy guests of the Isle of Britain, because he was a foreigner. St. Padarn and St. Teilaw were the other two happy guests. He died at Menevij^ 147 years of age, and was succeeded by Chinotus, Bishop of Llaubadarn Vawr. (Leland, Script, Brit., c. 34.) St. Kentigem, in a vision, saw his soul going to heaven, conducted by angels, and there crowned by our Lord. {Brit. Sanct, Mar.l.)
Dewma (n. 1.). Leitns Glyn Cothi.
Dial Kodri, a battle fought by the Britains on the river Con- way, A.D. 880, against the Danes and English, where the Welsh had the victory, in revenge of Eodri's death. (Gwaith Cymryd Conwy.)
DiAMS verch Eoger Vychan o Frodorddyn.
Diana (n. f.), the name of a Celtic princess, afterwards deified. In the British the word signifies without blemish (di-anav).
DiER ap Arwystl Gloff.
DiFWG (n. pr. v.). Difwg, mab Alban, was a commodore of a fleet of pirates. (TV. 72.)
DiFFEDEL, mab Dysgyfedawc, one of the three chief heads of Deira and Bernicia about the time of the Saxon conquest. He killed Gwrgi GarwlwyA {Tr, 16.) See Gall.
DiGAiN ap Cwstenyn Gomeu {at, Gernyw).
DiGANWY or Dyganwy (Dictum. Notitia), Gannoc (if. Paris), a town on the east side of the river Conwy, burnt with light- ning. Here Maelgwn Gwynedd kept his royal palace. There are still the ruins of an old fort called Castell y Faerdref. Thus far Henry III, King of England, came against Llewelyn ap GrufPydd with the power of all England ; but could proceed no further, retiring with great loss. See Teganvjy.
DiGOLL. Mynydd DigoU, the Long Mountain in Shropshire, mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Marvmad CadwaUaiim.
Owaith Digoll, a battle fought there between CadwaUawn, King of the Britains, and Edwin, King of the Saxons, till the river Severn was red with blood. (TV. 75.) Neither this battle nor that of Bryn Ceneu*n Ehos, between Cadwallon and Edwin, is mentioned in Tyssilio, nor in Galfrid's translation ; nor the battle of Meigeii. See Triades, 49.
Lluest Gadwallon glodrjdd
YDgwarthaf Digoll Fynydd,
Saithmis a saithgad beunydd. — Llywarch Hen. See Belyn,
DiGWYDD (Y), reversio,
A'r digwydd o draean i fam.
DiHEWYD, a parish in Cardiganshire.
DiLYN : hence Aberdilyn.
DiLLUS Fakfawc (n. pr. v.). Tstori Kil ap Kilydd.
DiMBECH or DiMBYCH, Angl. BeiMgh. Dinas Bychod, city of bucks.
DiMEiRCHiON, enw lie ; q. d. Dinmeirchion.
DiMETiE, a name given by the Eomans to the inhabitants of what is now called part of Caermarthenshire, Pembrokeshire, and part of Cardiganshire ; by the Britains called Dyfed ovDyvet, q. d. Dehau/ed, or the South Country ; part of what is now called South Wales. Camden makes them a different people from the Silures [and that very rightly. — /. if.].
DiMiLWY or DiNMiLWY, the name of some fort in Cantref Gwaelod drowned by the sea.
Ardal dwfu hoewal Dinmilwy Eissyddyn gwylain rhiain yn rhwy.
Prydydd y Moch, i Llew. ap lorwerth. See Dinfyddwy,
Dm (fl.): hence Aberdeen in Scotland, Lat. Aberdonia, a bishop's seat and University ; anciently Devana {AiTtsworth). Aberdeen lies between the rivers Dee and Don ; two cities, New and Old Aberdeen.
Din is a most ancient Celtic word used in the composition of the names of places, signifying a fortress or stronghold, and is not the same as diTias, as Dr. Davies advances. Out of it was formed Dinas, when a city or a society of people was added to the fort so as to make it a garrison or fortified town. Dindryfal ; Dinefwr; Dinbych; Dinsol; Dinorweg; Dinteirw; Dineithon; Dinsilyw; Dindaethwy; Dinalclud; Dinerth; Dinmor; Din- geraint; Dinmael; Dinbrain; Dinmeirchion.
In Scotland : Dunbar ; Dunbarton ; Dundee ; Dungon ; Dum- fries; Dunfermlin; Dimkeld; Dunstafnag; Dunvegan; Dun- tulm ; Dum'obin ; Dunnet Head ; Dingwel ; Dunsbay Head Dunblain ; Dunsterc ; Dunglass ; Dunrossness.
In the Irish, dun and duna signifies a fort, and hence came the Latin terminations of the names of some places in dmium : Gam- elodunum, Uxelodunum, etc., etc. [Melodunum, Moeldun. — W. DJ]
DiNALCLUD : see Alclud,
DiNAM, qiL ? Llanddinam, Montgomeryshire, dedicated to St. ULoniaw.
Dm ANT, a place in Britanny lately called DzTiham, from whence the surnames of some families in England. (Camden.) DunarUr in the Welsh, is black valley. See Dmam.
DiNAS is an old Celtic word signifying what the Latins called civitas and urbs; Ir. diian, "City" is the English word that comes nighest it. It is prefixed to the names of several towns, as well as din, from which it is formed ; din signifying only a fortified place, but dlnas an inhabited town fortified, which answers to the notion of a city, according to Cowell, who says it should be civitas, oppidum, and urbs: dvitas, because of the magistracy ; oppidum, for the great number of inhabitants ; urbs, because of the walls. Sir Edward Coke calls Cambridge a city» though it never had a bishop. Westminster, by 27 Elizabeth, c. 5, is called a city. Crompton, in his Jurisdict, leaveth out Ely in his catalogue of cities, though it hath a bishop and cathe- dral ; and Landaff, St. David's, Bangor, and St. Asaph, are na cities, though they have cathedrals and bishops.
DiNAS, an old fort near Aberystwyth ; and several others^ Dinas, near Carnarvon.
DiNAS Bassin, an abbey near Holywell in Flintshire ; Basing^ werk. Tomas, Arglwydd Abad Dinas Bassin.
Dinas Beli, London.
Dinas Bran : see Bran.
Dinas Bwch, enw Ue. Arglwydd Dinas Bwch.
DiNAB DiNLLE, Caernarvonshire. [Caer Dinlle, now Kinners- ley.— W. D.'\
Dinas Emeys, in Caernarvonshire ; enw Dinas Ffaran ar ol dadguddio'r dreigiau. {Tr. 45.) Another of the same name in Lloegria ; Latinized Anibrosii Vicus, Ambresbury. (Camden.)
A Dinas Bmrys amrygant Amrygyr Newenhyr naw cant A Chaer yn Arvon.
Frydi/dd u Moch, i Lew. ap lorwerth.
DiNAS Ffakaon or Ffaran, He dadcuddiodd Gwrtheym y dreigiau. (2V. 45.) This was some fort on Snowdon hills, per- haps the same with Dinas Emrys, which see, and Ffaraon and Coed FfarcLon, (Bhys Goch Eryri,)
Dinas Gawb.
Dinas Melin y Wyg, a British oppidum, such as is described by CsBsar (Comm,, 1, v). It lies in the mountains of Denbigh- shire.
Dinas y Mowddwy, a town in Meirionydd.
Ddinas Newydd (Y). Gwaith y Ddinas Newydd, a battle fought at Brecknock with Elfled, Duchess of Mercia, ad. 919. (Powel, Carad., p. 47.)
Dinas Powys, a manor in Morganwg. See Ynys Pawys.
DiNAU (Llwdlo), or Dinan, or Dunant, qu. ?
DiNAWALy a lordship in Cardiganshire.
Pob rhjrw wr pybyr eirian
Ddinawal a d&l dan.
Beio op leuan Du,
DiNAWAL, neu Dinawl, neu Dinafawl : qu., whether the same as Dinefawl, tad Bran, tad Uowarch (15 Zlwyth).
hydr riain
O'r wenliys gar Dinbrain
Ami yw gwawd gynnevawd gain, etc.
Hytoel ap Eignion^ i Fefanwy Fechan o Gkistell Dinas Bran.
DiNBRAN, the name of a lordship near liangoUen, where Cas- teU Dinas Bran is. See Castdl Diiias Bran. DiNBRiTHON, Dunbritton in Scotland. Dinbyrn (a pr.).
Eirf drabludd ang^dd angerth Dinbyrn.
Em. ap Gwcdchmaiy i Lew. ap lorwerth.
Nid ail Dinbryn. — 2>. ap Gwil/ym^ i Rys Meigen.
DiNBYCH and Dinbech, q. d. Dinas Bychod, a town and castle in North Wales; in English, Denbigh: hence Denbighshire. Church dedicated to St. MarcheU. See Dinas Stock
DiNBYCH Y Pysgod, Tenby, and the hundred of Denbigh in Essex.
DiNCADVAEL, an old fort on the top of a high hill in Han Nefydd parish in Denbighshire, capable of holding a large army, strengthened with three fosses on the side next the east, the other side very steep ; not mentioned in Camden. There is also a gentleman's seat called Dincadfeiel^ in the hundred of IsalecL (J. D)
DiNDAETHWY, One of the six commots of Anglesey, from a fort of that name.
DiNDRYFAL, the ruins of a fort in Anglesey ; lit, a triangled town or fort.
DiNEFWR, a part of South Wales, once a principality. Talaith Dinefwr. Castell Dinefwr, near Llandeilo Fawr. Here a terrible battle was fought, a.d. 1254, between Llewelyn ap Gruffudd and Henry Ill's army, who had besieged this castle with a strong power landed at Caermarthen. The King's men were put to flight, and [he] lost 2,000 soldiers. {Camd, in Llewelyn)
Llawn Uef Talaith Dinefwr
Llefain mal llif Noe am wr. — Lewys Mbrganwg.
Dm EiTHON, a castle on the river Eithon in Maelienydd, from which some part of that country takes its name. Bro Din Eithon.
Prif arglwydd brolwydd Bro Dineithon.
Cynddelw^ i Cad. ap Madawg.
DiNERTH (n. pr. v.). Howel ap Dinerth. (Powel, Car ad., p. 178.) Hence Castell Dinerth.
Dinerth in South Wales, at St. David's, where a battle was fought, AD. 911, between the Welsh and Uther and Rahald, the Danes, who came there with a great navy, where Mayloc ap Peredur Gam was slain. {Garad, in Anar,, p. 451.)
Dinerth Castle and Caerwedros Castle rased by Owen Gwyn- edd, etc., A.D. 1136, and all the Normans and Flemings drove out of Cardiganshire. {Carad. in Gruff, ap Gynan,) He had this year an army of 6,000 foot and 2,000 horse well armed, and near the river Teivi fought all the power of the Normans, Flemings, and English ; killed 3,000 in the field, and several were drowned in the flight, and several carried away captives. (Garadoc.)
DiNFYDDWY. Some fort, in Caledonia, perhaps.
Gwyn ei byd hi'r fedwen
Yngwarthaf Dinfyddwy
A wybydd psin fo y g&d yn Ardudwy. — Myrddtn WyUK
DiNGAD Sant.
Nid Dingad ddoniad ddinodi gwlad Goel Deinioel a Seirioel rhag ea sorri. — Hywd Dafydd^
DmGAD ap Nedd Had.
DiNQAD ap Brychan Brycheiniog.
Oes le rhydd was osier hen
Ond yn Ll^ neu Dinllaen. — lolo Ooch^ i'r Gwyddelyn.
DiNLLAES: vid. Tinllaes.
DmiiLE. Dinas Dinlle.
DiNMAEL, in Powys Vadog. (Powd.) See LUmgwm Dinmael, Denbighshire.
DiNMAWR or DiNMOR, viilg6 Dingmor.
DiNOGAN (n. pr, v.). Dinogan mab Cynan Garwyn.
DiNORWEG, Caernarvonshire. Syr Gruffydd Ilwyd o Wynedd, Arglwydd Dinorweg.
DiNOTHTJS {Dinotvs by Leland, who says in Scr. Brit,, c. 44, he was first a monk of Bangor is y Coed, and then abbot), a learned man. He and other abbots and seven British bishops met Augustine at the Claudian Synod, when sent by Pope Gregory, but could not agree with him. He is also mentioned by Bede, 1. i, c. 1. In the ancient orthography this name was wrote Dinot or Dinanjt ; in the modem, Dwnod or Dunawd. Dun- awd Fyr was son of Pabo Post Prydain. See also Oaer Ddunod and Deinid. [Dunawd Ffur, i, e., Dunawd the Wise. — W. 2?.]
DiNSOL, some town anciently in the north of England.
DiNTAGOL or TiNTAGOL, a village in ComwalL It is turned into a man by Buchanan.
DiNTARN. Mynachleg Dintam ym Mynwy gynt.
DrNTEiRW, a castle in ......
Trais ar ysgwyd rhag ysgor Dinteirw A gwyr meirw rhag mar cor.
Cyndddw^ i Twain Gyfeiliog.
DiocHLEisiON (n. pr. v.), Dioclesian the Emperor. See Cffmedlau
DoethUm Ehufain [printed in the BrythonI].
DiBiE, the Furies Tisiphone, Megsera, and Alecto ; from the Celtic dfr, necessity. T Duwiau Dir.
Snccessum Dea dira negat. — Virgil.
Ddiseeth (Y), a parish church in Tegeingl, whose patron saint is Gwyfan {K Llwyd) ; Disart {CwmderC), There has been, says E. Uwyd, in Descript. Diserth, a castle at Trecastell, which some say was called CasteU Ffailon, alias Dincolyn, alias Gastell Geri ; for in the same township there is a field called Biyn Dincolyn. There are some pieces of wall still remaining. {E, Llwyd)
DiSEBTH parish, Eadnorshire. There is a Dysert in Scotland
DisiLWY, or DiNSiLYW, or Diksilwy, Mon.
DiSMAS : see Esmas.
DiSTAiN. Einion Distain ftp lerwerth ; i. e,, steward.
DiFANCOLL (T), Total Loss, a battle fought in North Britain, where it seems not one man escaped. It is mentioned in Tr, 34 : " Teulu Gafran mab Aeddan, pan fu y DifancoU, a aethant i'r mor tros eu harglwydd." Bede says it was fought between Ethelfrid, Eang of Northumbria, and Edan, King of the Scots that inhabit North Britain, who had an immense army, and that they were almost all slain. The Saxon Chronicle places it in ad. 606, but Bede in 603. See Bede, L i, c. 34
Divi Gawb. Gaer Divi Gawr yw Gaer Ddyffn, says Thomas Williams {Oatalogue of Cities),
DivoDOG or Dyfodog : see Tyfodog,
DiWLAS (fl.), Montgomeryshire.
DiWKiG, father of larddur.
DoBUNi, a name which the Bomans gave to the people of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, or thereabouts.
DocvAN ap Brychan, oZ. Doevan.
DocHTWY o Lydaw.
DoDiEN, King of Gomwall. See Dyfimai,
DoFB, Dover.
T ddelw a'i wayw'n ei ddwylaw
A fu ar draeth yn Nofr draw. — L. Morganwg.
Gwerthefyr, King of Britain, whose statue was set up at Dover harbour to frighten the Saxon invaders. {Marvmad Syr B. af Sion,)
DoGOED. Uanddoged, a parish and charch in the deanery of Ehos, Denbighshire.
DOGMAEL ap Cunedda Wledig. {Ach Cynog a Chattwg.)
DoGYAEL Sant (in English, Dogmael)^ a British abbot. An ancient church dedicated to him in the land of Kernes in Pem- brokeshire, given after the Conquest to a priory of monks, by the name of St. Dogmael's. (Dugdale's Monasiieon.) Uanddyg- weL {Brit, Sanct., June 13.)
DoGVEiLYN, one of the commots of Cantref Dyfifryn Clwyd, Denbighshire ; so named from Dogvael ap Cunedda Wledig.
DdL or Dole, the name of a city and bishop's see in Little Britain and of a city in Fraruihe Comte, The meaning of the word in British is avale or dale, much the same with y8trad,dyffn/n. Agreat many places in Wales so situated have their names formed from ddl, as Dol Gadfan ; Dol y Calettwr ; Dolau Gwyn ; Dol y Cothi ; Dolfan, Caermarthenshii'e ; y Dolau ; Dol Benmaen ; Dol y Cors- Iwyn ; Dol Arddun (see Arddun) ; Dolgelleu ; Dolgiog (see dog) ; Dolobran ; Dol Bodfta ; y Ddol Goch ; Dol y Garrog ; Dolwyddelen.
In Scotland those places that have this situation are called Dale or Strat; and Stratclwyd in Scotland, where the Strat- clwyd Britains were formerly, is now called Clydesdale ; and so our Ystrad Clwyd in Wales is called Dyffryn Clwyd. They have also in Scotland, Teviots Dale, Liddis Dale, Annan Dale, Tweed Dale, Lauderdale, Eskdale, Dalewhinie, Nithsdale, Knap- dale, Dalkeith, etc.
DoLANOG, a gentleman's seat {J. B). Williams.
DoLBEN (n. pr. v.).
DoLBENMAEN, a chapel in Caermarthenshire [Caernarvonshire].
DoLEUBACHOG, a gentleman's seat. Wynne.
DoLEUGWTN, a gentleman's seat in Meirion.
DoLGABFAN (nomen loci).
Dolgelleu, a town in Meirionyddshire, near the river Maw. Mr. Camden places it on the river Avon, but there is no such river. Mr. Edward Llwyd says the name is derived from kdleu, which he says is ceUi, a grove of hazles ; but qu. whether the river that runs through the town is not called Gelleu, as most Ddles have their name from the rivers that run through them ? The great sessions are kept here and at Bala alternately. It is called DolgeUef by Syr Owain ap Gwilym to Lewis Owen.
DOLGIOG, a gentleman's seat, Montgomeryshire.
DoL Y Glesyn, a gentleman's seat {J. B,). Wynne's.
DoL Y FoNDDU, a gentleman's seat (/. D,), Pugh.
DoL Haidd, a gentleman's seat, Pembrokeshire, qu. ? [Carmar- thenshire].
DoL Y Melynllyn, a gentleman's seat in Meirionydd.
DoL Y MocH, a gentleman's seat. (/. D.)
DoLOBRAN, a gentleman's seat in Powys.
Dolor (n. pr. v.). Dolor Deifr a Bryneich, father of Pryder, one of the three strong crooks or strong cripples. (Tr. 21.)
DoLPHYN ap Terwerth ap Llewelyn Anrdorchog. Hence Prys Dolphyn and Treddolphyn in Anglesey. [Ooed Olphyn (n. 1.), Davies' Heraldry, p. 33.— JT. D.]
DoL Y Sere, a gentleman's seat in Meirionydd.
DoLWEK : see Llwyndolwen.
DOLWYDDELEN Castle, near Uyn Dolwyddelen in Caernarvon- shire ; q. d. Dol-wydd-Elen, i. e., the Valley of Elen's Wood.
Dolling ap GrufiTudd ap Cynan, a learned priest, A.D. 1137. {Garadoc)
Don (n. pr. v.). Don, lord of Arfon, was father of Gwydion or Gwdion, an eminent Cambrian philosopher and astronomer. Tir mab Don, i, e., Arfon, the land of Gwdion ap Don.
Pan aeth Caswallon hir i dir mab Don. — Taliesin, Hence Oaer Daun in Nennius ; in the British, perhaps Caerdon ; whence the Danum in Anton. Itinerary, which, perhaps, is Don- caster. See lor. ap Beli i Esgob Bangor, and also -4rcA. Brit,, p. 259, and Gwdion,
Don. lankyn Don. Ddn Gwenonwy.
Dona Santes. Llanddona, a church in Anglesey.
DoNCASTER : see Davm,
DoNN, a river, runs by Aberdeen in Scotland.
DoNET ap Tudwal ap Ednyfed,
DoRABEL, a castle near Abertemys, — the mouth of the Thames (Tyssilio) ; probably at Deal or Dover. J. Caesar having landed at Abertemys, Caswallawn secured the Castle of Dorabel. In Galfrid's Latin it is DorabeUum oppidum, and not a castle. See Pvryth Meinlas.
Doris, a sea-nymph. (Ovid. Met. i, 11.) This was a Celtic
princess. Duwies y Dvrr, the Goddess of Water, or Water God- dess, — Dwres or Dyfres.
DoBTi (n. pr. f.), Dorothea.
DovEiLiNG, enw He. Gwehelyth Doveiling (qu. Dogfeiling ?). Vid. Dogvael.
Dour or Dwr (fl.) : hence Aberdour of Fife in Scotland. Lat. Aberdara or Dura,
DouRGUY, wrote anciently for Dourdwy. {K Llvryd) ' DoWROR or Dyfrwr, Llanddyfrwr, a parish and church, Caer- marthenshire.
Dows, verch Sicard ap Hoel. AngL and Lat Duldbella,
Draethon. Caer Draethon. (Usher's Oataloffue.)
Dragon. I take it to be an old Celtic term in the military art ; perhaps a standard. Some say it signified only a lord or commander. Uther, the father of Arthur, was sumamed Pen- dragon ; that is, head or chief dragon. Perhaps a dragon was with the Britains what the eagle was with the Eomans, their standard. Gwen Ben Dragon is also mentioned in the Triades, 50. Qu. whether the word dragon is derived from thence ?
GwyddbwU Dragon gosbarth Brython. — Taliesin, i Eidol.
Dran (n. pr. v.). Triad 24.
Dref Wen (Y), a town mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Mar- wnad Cynddykn, where Mr. E. ULwyd supposes he was killed. It lay near a wood, between the river Tren and Trodwydd, and Tren and Traval. Y Drewen {£. 6, Oothi), Whitington.
Y Dref wen ymron y coed. — Llywarch Hen,
Dremrost. Daniel Dremrost, a king of Armorica. (Sunburnt. — Br. Davies,)
Dreflys (Y), one of the three commots of Cantref Buallt. (Price's Descript.)
Droichau. Caer Droichau. (Nennius,) Qu. whether Caer Draethon of Usher ?
Dronwy or Daronwy, a place in Mon. See Palttc and Edwin.
Drudwas or Drutwas (n. pr. v.). This I found in an old MS. : " Drutwas ap Tryphin a gafas gau ei wraig dri ederyn Uwch gwin, y rhai a wnaent beth bynnag", etc. ; i, e., Dnitwas, son of Tryphin, had of his wife three Llwch givia birds which
would do whatever their master commanded them. There was a duel to be fought between Arthur and Drutwas, but no body was to be suffered to come into the field but themselves. Drut- was sent the birds into the place of appointment with orders to kill the first man that came. A sister of Drutwas, who was Arthur's concubine, came to know this, and out of regard to them both stopped Arthur from going. At last Drutwas came into the field imagining that the birds had killed Arthur in his armour, and the birds snatched him up, and killed him instead' of Arthur ; and when they were high up in the air, they knew who he was, and came down with the most pitiful complaints for killing Drutwas their master ; and upon this that famous piece of music called "Adar Uwch 6 win" was composed, and then Llywarch Hen had the subject to sing as follows :
Drutwas ap Tryphin mewn (gwnae) trin anianawl Ar drallawd ac orddin Adwy a wnaeth gysefin Adar a'i lladdodd Uwch gwin. — Llywarch Hen,
The meaning of this fiction of the poets is this : Some Arthur (not the King) and Drutwas (who is mentioned in the Triades as a noted orator in King Arthur's court) had a duel to fight. Drut- was sent three ruflBans to the place appointed, to kill the first that came. Adar Uwch gtoin are vultures, and vultures is a pro- per term enough for ruffians. The tune, or piece of music, after- wards composed on this subject was of a grave and melancholy kind ; and perhaps Llywarch Hen's Englyn, misunderstood, gave the first rise to this story.
Drutwas mab Tryphin was one of the three golden-tongued knights in King Arthur s court. {Tr: 82.) His oratory dropt as pleasing as gold from his tongue.
Drum: see Trum,
Drum Benawc ap Tryphin o Frecheiniog ap Drem ap Cu ap Gweneu.
Drws, an ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of places, signifying in our days a door or entrance into a house, anciently signified any opening or passage between mountains, etc., or a pass. Drws Ardudwy, Meirion ; Drws y Coed ; Drws y Nant. [Bwlch Oerddrws.— W^. Z^.]
Drych (n. pr. v.). Drych eil Cibddar, un o*r tri phrif Uedrith- awc. {Tr, 33.)
Dryge. Tudur (a laddodd y Dryge) ap Gronw. I suppose y Dreigiau.
Dryll y Pobydd, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,)
Dryslwyn (n. 1.), in Ilangathan, Caennarthenshire. Fair kept here.
Drystan ap Tallwch {Tr. 24), un o'r tri galofydd. See Trys- tan. Un o'r tri gwrddfeichiad* {Tr, 30.)
Drysyaes, Lat. iM^^ma^ru«. {E.Llwyd) Qu., whether Dyrys- faes, as Dyryslwyn, etc.
Qorddyar adar ar y Drywarth. — Uywarch Hen.
Drywon (n. pr. v.). Drywon mab Nudd yn Rhodwydd Arder- ydd. {Tr. 36.) A battle fought ad. 557. This Drywon had a gorsgordd adwy then ; i. «., a guard of a pass, as I understand it. {Tr. 36.) See Owenddolau.
Du, black. Llewelyn Ddu.
Due, a duke. A degree of nobility among the ancient Britains ; originally a general or leader of an army, as the British word signifies to lead; and in that sense IN'ennius says of King Arthur that he was dtus of all the petty kings of the Britains against the Saxons. But some unwilling persons will not see that this is the sense of that passage : "Arthur pugnabat contra Ulos in illis diebus videlicet Saxones cum regibus Britonum sed ipse DtuK erat bellorum et in omnibus bellis victor extitit." (Nennius, c. bdL) Can anything be plainer than that Arthur was the chief of the British kings, and generalissimo or leader of all the British forces ? With which account agree Tyssilio and the Triades.
DuDLYSTON. LlwythDudlystonynyTraean. [Dudleston, near Ellesmere, Shropshire. — W. D.]
DuLAS (fl.). There are abundance of rivers of this name in Wales ; and the river Douglas in Scotland {i. e., Duglas), and also Douglas in the Isle of Man, are of the same original. It signifies black and blue water, or bluish black. See Zlanddulas and AberdtUas.
DuLYN and Duflyn, i. e., Dublin in Ireland ; k du and Uyn,
i. e,, black lake or black pool ; and so in Irish. So Dafydd Ep- pynt is wrong to write Dulun,
Mae enw Wiliam yn Nulun Kt finan gwyr fwy nag un. — D. Eppynt^ See JEdnyfed Vychan.
DuNAWD ap Cunedda Wledig.
DuNAWT, DuNAWD, or Dynod (n. pr.). Dunawd Fjrr, son of
Pabo Post Prydain, mentioned by Tyssilio to have been one of
the noblemen that attended Arthur in his great feasts, etc. The
Triades call him " un o dri phost cad Ynys Prydain"; meaning,
I suppose, in the time of Arthur (TV. 11), for his father was also
called " Post Prydain"; so that " Tarw Cad", " Post Cad", « Cad-
farchog", and " Taleithog Cad", seem to be some particular station
in the army. Uywarch Hen, in Urien Reged's elegy, mentions
him :
Dynod fab Pabo ni thech.
St. Dinoth Church, at Worthenbury, Flintshire. See Pabo.
DUNOD Deinwyn, father of Deiniol Sant. (Raianau Myrddin)
DuNODiG. Cantref Dunodig, anciently one of the four cantrefs of Caernarvonshire, containing the commots of Ardudwy and Efionydd : so called from Dunod ap Cunedda Wledig. (Price's Descr)
DuNSETTAN, a name given by the Saxons to the mountain Welsh of Monmouthshire or Gwent Land, called also Wentset {Gamden)
DuNWALLON, lord of Dyfed, ad. 948. {Caradoc, p. 60.)
DuBOTRiGES, Loegrian Britains inhabiting Dorsetshire; so called by the Eomans. The British name was JDwrdrigMoyr, men inhabiting the water-side. They were of the Belgse that inha- bited the water-side about the Ehine, and were called also Mar- inwyr (Lat. Morini), See Morini and Morinwyr,
DwGAN (n. pr. f,). Y Ddwgan Ddu o Harlech. {AraUh lolo Goch.)
DwNWALLON, lord of Dyfed, ad. 948.
DwB. Caer Ddwrg3mt, sef yw Caergybi, yn Saesneg IToly* head, (Th. Williams, Catal) Qu., whether not Caer y Tvrr, from Mynydd y Twr.
DwRGWENT, Darby ; from the river Derwent. See Derwen- nydd.
DWY, qu. ? Danddwy (n. 1.).
Meibion myr Uenwjr Llanddwy,
Meddiant teg mae iddjnt hwj. — Bedo Pkdip Bach.
DwYFACH and Dwyfawr, two rivers near PwUlieli ; i e., the greater and lesser Buioy : hence, perhaps, Djrfrdwy, the Dee, or the water of Du, or Black- water. Probably it was at first called Dwfr Dtty as Dublin, Dulyn, black pool.
DwYFAEN, a gentleman's seat. {J. D,) Llwyd.
DwYGYFYLCHBU, a parish. {E. Llwyd.) Dygjrfylchi, Dygyfylchi,
or Dywgyfylchi The church is dedicated to St. Gwining. {Br.
Carafi gaer falchwaith o'r Gyfylchi.
Qu., whether Conwy Castle ? See OyfyUM.
DwYWANEDD verch Amlawd Wledig.
DwYNWE, merch Gwallawc ap Llienawc.
DwYNWEN, Santes y Cariad ; daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog. Her church, at lianddwyn in Anglesey, was repaired to in all love affairs, as Yenus' Temple was among the Bomans. (2>. Jones) Dafydd ap Gwilym^s poem or petition to her is curious as a specimen of it.
DwYEYD, a river, Meirion.
DwYBYW (fl.), in Ilywarch Hen's Marwnad Cynddylan Powys.
DwYVAEL ap Piyderi neu Pryder ap Dolor Deivr. Vid. Pry- deri,
DwYWE, Santes Ilanddwywe, Meirion.
DwYWELYTH ap Tegawc.
DwYWG (n. pr. v.). See Difwg,
Dygn gofion deon am dwg Difa dewrblant da Bwywg.
CynddekOf ym Marwnad Meibion Dwywg ap lorwerth.
Dyddgan Sant. Capel Dyddgan or Dyddgen, in the parish of Llangyndeyrn in Caermarthenshire.
Dyddgi (vel Dyddgu) verch Cynfrig ap Uywarch. See D. ap Gwilym.
Dyddgu, wife of Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd ap Cynan. (J. D.)
Dyf. Caerdyf : qu. whether a river called Tyf falls into the Taf at Caerdyf? [No river there called Tyf.—/. M.]
Morgannwg mawr yw gennyf I gwyr a'i dwr hyd Qaer Dyf.
Bhys Ooch Olytidyfrdwy.
But the great river is called T&f. T Ty Gwyn ar Dftf.
Dtfed, the coimtiy called in Latin Demetia or Dynetia (rectum Dyvetia), Penbrokeshire, t. e., Penbro Dyfed; part of South Wales contaimng 8 cantrefe and 23 commots ; derived^ I sup- pose, from dehau, south, q. d. Dehaufed, as all South Wales is called from the same word Deheubarth. In the MS. Book of the Church of Landaf it is said that ** Septem domus episcopales sunt in Dyued : (1), Menevia, que est sedes principalis in Cam- bria; (2), Ecclesia Ismael ; (3), Ecclesia Degeman ; (4)^£cclesia Yssel ; (5), Ecclesia Teilau ; (6), Ecclesia Teulydavc ; (7), Ecclesia KenexL Abbates Teilau et Teulydavc et Ismael et Degeman tenen- tur clerici esse et ordinari. Ebediu cujuslibet istorum Domino Byued erunt sc. 12 lib. vel qui ilUs successerint reddant. Mene- via ab omnia debito libera manet et soluta. Ecclesia Eeneu et Ecclesia Yssil ab illo debito liberse erunt quia terris carent"
This JSbediu was paid to the Prince; and the abbots of Eeneu and Yssil were probably lay abbots or seculars. What these " domus episcopales" were is hard to find out. They were not bishops' sees, as Mr. Spelman imagines them to be ; but probably they might have been originally bishops' seats in the infancy of Christianity, when the Loegrian bishops were drove into Wales. Secular abbots could not be bishops.
Bhag unig bari£fwyn gwehun Dyfed. — Boiana/u Myrddin,
Dyfed (Qwarthaf), the north part of Dyfed. (Pawd, p. 274.)
Dyfnaint ap Iddon ap Iddic.
Dyfnaint or Dyfneint, the ancient name of Devon and Corn- wall {k dyfn, and wmi), i, e,, deep valleys ; by. Eoman writers, Bamruyrda. A colony of Britains went from thence in early times to Ireland, which they called Fir Domnan, i. e., in British, Gw^r Dyfnant, or men of Dyfhant. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 14.)
Ddyfnaint o Naint o Nanbeudwy.
See Damrumii. Dyfnan ap Brychan Brycheiniog.
Dttnan^ Sant IlanddyfhaQ, a parish church in Anglesey. Na bo ... Fab Br&n ap Djfnan heb dir. — D. Eppynt.
Dyfnog Sant. {Br. Willis,)
Dyfnwal Moel Mut ap Dodien, King of Cornwall (Lat Dun^ wcUlus Molmutiiis), the 21st King of Britain, was father of Bell a Bran (Belinns and Brennos), and the first King that wore a gold crown. He reduced the pentarchy into a monarchy, and probably was the Prydain ap Aedd Mawr mentioned in the Triades to have conquered the island, and to have called it after his name, Piydain ; for our tables of genealogies place that Pry- dain about this distance of time, and is made to come from Cornwall ; and Tyssilio, in his Brut y Brenhinaedd, makes this Dyfnwal the first that wore a golden crown, and gave the islanders wholesome laws. Mr. Leland, in Script Brit., c. 7, praises him greatly for his great learning and making laws for his country, which were called after his name, the Modmviian Laws ; that they were translated by Gildas into Latin on the decline of the Eoman empire, and afterwards taken into the Saxon and Norman laws ; that he made four public ways through the Isle of Britain, a deed worthy of so great a prince. The Saxon writers have endeavoured to deprive this monarch of the honour of beginning these roads, and would fain have it that they were made by the Bomans ; but none of them ever could fix what Boman it was that made them. See Banulph Higden, monk of Chester. But Dyfnwal only began these roads, and gave them privileges. His son Beli prescribed the bounds of them, and perfected them. [TyssUio)
And the Laws of Dyfnwal have retained his name to the time the British power over the whole island was overturned by the Saxons. The Saxons being illiterate when they first came, had no written laws. The first written laws they had were those of King Ethelbert of Kent, who reigned from 561 to 617 ; and these were short and rude. {Spelman) The next were of Ina, King of the West Saxons, between A.D. 712 and 729 ; the next were of OflFa, King of Mercia, about the year 758 ; then came those of King Alfred, King of the West Saxons, about the year 900, who collected all the Saxon laws, and translated the Laws of Dyfnwal into Saxon, as Tyssilio says. There is a great
probability in this, as [his] tutor, Asserius, was a Britain, who, no doubt, assisted him in it ; they being before translated by Gildas- into Latin. {TyssUio.) Therefore the argument of the im- probability of his translating of his enemies' laws is answered. About this time Howel Dda revised the Cambro-British Laws.
Dyfr (n. f.). Dyfr Wallt Eurait, one of the ladies of Arthur's court. (JV. 78.)
Dyfrdonwy (fl.), the same with Dyfrdwy. {Dr.Davies, but qu.)
Nid cywiw a llwfr dwfr Dyfrdonwy.
Prydydd y Mochy i Lew. ap lorwerth. See Trydonwy and Onwy.
Dyfrdwy, the river Dee, q. d. Dwfr Du, or black water. This river had other names in ancient times, as Feryddon, Aerfen. Dyfrdwy, qu. Dowrdwy, from dwrdd, loud water (E, Llwyd) ; but it is not louder than others. It is mentioned by Einion ap Gwalchmai (1200) :
Eil gwelais i drais dros ganol Dyfrdwy
Yn y trai tramwy, etc.
Dyvrig (by Latin writers called Duhricius), Archbishop at Caerllion ar Wysg. King Arthur was crowned by him ; and in his old age he turned hermit, as some say, and was succeeded by Dewi (St. David), who was uncle to King Arthur; but the truth is, he finished his days in the Monastery of Enlli ; and had, no doubt, a pension, to make room for the King's relation.
Bennet of Gloucester, Capgrave, and John Tinmouth, have wrote his acts ; and Brit. Sanct picks out of them that he was a native of South Wales, and opened a famous school near the banks of the river Wy, at his college of Henllan, and among the scholars or disciples were Sampson, a bishop, and Teilo, who succeeded him Bishop of Uandaf. He was the first Bishop of the see of Llandaf, consecrated thereto by St. German on his second coming into Britain to oppose the Pelagian heresy, for which he is supposed to have been afterwards translated to the archbishoprick of Caerllion. Our British historians say he set the crown on King Arthur's head, and was with him at the battle of Mons Badon. At the synod of Brevi he resigned his archbishop- rick to St. David, and retired into the solitude of Enlli (the Isle of Bardsey), called the Isle of 20,000 saints, where he died in
the sixth centtuy, and was buried there, but his relics were since translated to Llandaf. (BrU. Scmd.) See Dewi. Uanddyfrig.
Dyfynnog, vie. Breckn.
Dtfynnyn Diabchae {Cyfoesi Myrddin a Gwmddydd), or Dtfyn Diabcheb (n. pr. v.), a Prince who I find in an old MS. reigned in North Wales after Cynan Dindaethwy. He is there called Byfn IHarchar Penhyn ; perhaps penhyTieify or chief elder. He was nephew to Alaethaw ap Cadvan, and Mdn was his inhe- ritance ; at the same time that fourscore chiefs (jpeviaeihau) dis- puted their right to North Wales ; at last it fell to him. (Dr. Thomas Williams' MS.)
Dyffrtn, an ancient Celtic word signifying a vale (& dy and tryTt), is prefixed to the names of many places in Wales : as Dyf- fryn Clwyd ; y Dyffryn Gwyn ; Dyf&yn Ardudwy ; DyfiBryn liar ; Dyfifiryn Paith ; Dyffryn Meissir ; Dyffryn Ceiriog ; Dyffryn Gol- uch ; DyfiBryn Hownant, Cardiganshire.
Dtffbtn Clwtd, one of the five cantre& of Berfeddwlad, containing the commots of Coleigion, Llannerch, and Dog- feilyn.
Dyffryn Goluch, in Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here.
Dyffryk Iglydd. {Hyivel ai Chvain Owynedd,)
Dyffryn Meisir, a place in Powys, wrote in Myfr Goch Eer^ gestf DyfSynt Meisir. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan.)
Dyffryn Tefeidiat. The Teme (Shropshire, Eadnorsbire, and Herefordshire) ; a country near the marches of Wales about Knighton, thence to Ludlow. It is one of the three commots of Gantref y Clawdd. Through it nms Teveidiat river. (Price's De8cript)
Dygbn or Tygent, a river near Craig Freiddin in Powys.
Gorlas rydian dyfr Dygen Freiddin. — Oorhoffedd Owalchmai,
Dygen Dyfnant.
EQ gad trom y tremynasant Udd adian uch Dygen Dy&ant
Bron yr Erw y galwant.
Prydydd Mochj i Low. ap lorwerth.
[Qa. Dyfnant in Meifod ?— W. 2).]
Dygynnelw, son of Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, A.D. 1160.
Dygynklw (n. pr. v.), Owen ap Urien's poet ; one of the Tri gweywrudd beirdd, i. e., red speared poets. (2V. 17.)
Dylan ail Ton (n. pr. v.). Marwnad Dylan ail Ton.
Dtlooau, a place in Cwm Ystwyth, Cardiganshire.
Dtltgion. Eithaf Dylygion, one of the two commots of Gwent Llwg in Monmouthshira Qo., Dy Iwg or Dwy Iwg ? Perhaps rivers of that name.
Dtmmoc, Dymock. Thomas Dimock.
Dyndaethwt, recti Dindaethwy. Vid. Tyndaetkwy,
Dtnbvowb: BQQiHnefwr,
Dtngad, a church in Herefordshire. (PatoeL)
Dyngbeant (n. L). (Powel, Caradoe, p. 169.) It shonld have been wrote Dingeraint ; i. e,, the Castle of Geraint, it being bnilt at a place called Cilgeraint in Dyfed, on the bank of the river Teifi. See CUgeraini.
Dynod. Caer Ddynod, or Caer y Ddynod, in the parish of Uanvihangel, close by the river Alwen. (j^. Llwyd,) See also Oder Forwyn^ which is just by this, on the other side of the river, probably Caer Forudd. Caer Ddynod should probably be wrote Caer Ddunawd. Dunawd Fyr was son of Pabo Post Piydain, a powerful Prince in King Arthur's time, whose caer this might be. It answers the description of Caractacus' camp in Tacitus, when he engaged Ostorius Scapula somewhere in this country of the Ordovices. See Ihmawt.
Dynwennain, or DinwenruLin, joi Mhowys, llys meibion Cyn- drwyn. {E. Zlwyd.) See Cynddylan,
Dynwil Hib, the camp of Reynold Earl of Bristol, near Oaer- marthen, a.d. 1159 or 60.
Dyknog or Dypnog Gawr, a Cambrian Prince in the time of the Romans in Britain. Pair Dyfnog Oawr was one of the thir- teen rarities of Britain. In this pot or boiler, if the meat of a coward was put, it would never boil ; but the meat of a man of courage would boil immediately. {MS)
Clwch Dymog in Anglesey ; perhaps Tyrnog.
Dyrnwyn, the name of Rhydderch Haers sword, one of the thirteen rare things or curiosities of the Isle of Britain. Un o'r tri thlws ar ddeg. Upon taking it out of the scabbard it woidd flame like fire. Qu., whether they knew the use of phosphorus then ?
Dtbtsqlwtn or Tbtsqlwyn, a gentleinan's seat in Anglesey. — Lewis, Esq.
Dtsgl a Gren Bhydderch, one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. See Elumed.
Dysgugbttawk (n- pr. v.), Dysgugettawr, perchen y Wen Ynys. Taliesin apud B. Yaughan.
Dysgwylfa (n. L), [a calcareous mountain between Nant y Glo and aydach.— W. D.]
Dysgypedawg (n. pr. v.), a poet, father of Gall {Tt. 16) and of Diflfedel and of Tsgafnell {Tr. 37). In Mr. liwyd's book 2>wsy- vyndod,
Dysynni, a river. Aberdysynni in Meirion.
Oadr ei dy oedwis ger Dissynni
Gadredd a llariedd a Uary roddi. — Llywelyn Vardd.
Dyvib. Caer Ddyvir, al. Deifr, Berwick. {Th, Williams,)
Eastyn, a church and parish in Flintshire dedicated to St. Cynfar. Qu. whether St. lestyn ?
Ebber Cubnig, a monastery on the sea-side, near the borders of Scotland {Bede,h iv, c. 16) ; probably Abercymig or Abercora.
Ebhbawc : see Sfroc.
Ebrain ach Eurog Gadam.
Eblud. Sc.
Ebrancus, falsely for Ebraucm.
Ebbaucus : see Efroc
Ebroauc {NmnivSy Gott. lib., Ox.) : see Efroc
Ector ap Eurog Gadaxn.
ECHEIFIANT (nomen loci).
EcHEL FoRDDWYTWLL, father of Goronwy. {Tr. 15.)
EcHNi, falsely for Enlli island, in Gapgrave's Life of St. Oadoe,
Echyrnwg. 8cr.
Edeirnion, one of the three commots of Gantre'r Barwn in Powys Vadog ; as if you would say, the lands of Edeym ap Cunedda.
Edelfled Fflesawc {NenmuSy c. 65),Eadlfred, son of Ealdric or Eadlfered. He was killed by Ysgafnell ab Dysgyfedawg. {Tr. 37.)
Nennius calls the Pictish king whom Ea^&ed fought Briiei^ perhaps Aeddan Fiadog. See Bede.
Edbnawc (n. pr. v.). Qraffydd ap Gwrgeneu.
Edeybk (n. pr. v.). Edeym ap Cunedda Wledig : hence Edeyrn- ion, a country, a commot of Cantre'r Barwn in Powys.
Edetbn, a parish in Caernarvonshire.
Edetrn Dafod Aub, a grammarian [orator, and poet of the 13th century.— W. J9.]
Edbyrniawn, the people of Edeym, or his clan, or tribe, or land.
Edetbnion, a deaneiy of St. Asaph ; seven parishes.
Edgab, a King of England. Mr. Camden (in Britannia in Cheshire) tells us of a triumph this King had at Chester over the British Princes. These are his words, speaking of the city of Chester : "And soon after saw King Edgar gloriously triumph- ing over the British Princes ; for being seated in a triumphal barge, at the foredeck, Kennadius, King of Scotland ; Malcolm, King of Cumberland ; Macon, King of Man and of the Islands ; with aU the Princes of Wales, hronght to do him homage, like barge- men rowed him up the river Dee, to the great joy of the specta- tors"; and in the margin, "circ. an. 960". This story seems to me to be very lame, and to want confirmation. First, Caradoc, in his History of Wales, hath not a word of his triumph ; nor Dr. Powel in his Notes, who only mentions this tribute of the wolves agreed upon about this time. Whoever worded this story did not know the names of the Princes of Wales that reigned then, nor how many there were of them, and only says " all the Princes of Wales". Caradoc, in the space between the years 958 and 961, tells us, " In those days laco and leuaf (two brothers) by force and strength ruled all Wales as they thought good." Then all the Princes of Wales were but tvH), which with the three other Princes before mentioned made five. They should have had six Princes to make it a six-oar barge. But how came Princes to understand handling the oar so well as to row against the stream lip the river Dee ? Kings and Princes are very little used to row- ing ; and I believe if the experiment was tried upon even five country esquires to row a barge up the river Dee, they would be more apt to go down the river than up. Again, how happened it to
the great joy of the spectators ? All the spectators were not Saxons. If there were British princes there, they had a great many attendants that were all spectators; but it was not to " their great joy". Therefore the story should be gilt to make it more easily swallowed.
Edlin, the heir to the crown. Edlin braint neu e7ii, an heir by privilege, or born. Spelman's Glossary by mistake writes this Breint eric, from an old Latin MS. of the Laws of Howel Dda : where he also writes Vrchrichiad for gvrrthrycMad, an heir. See Spelman's Glossary in Adeliir^us,
Edmund, Earl of Richmond. See Owen Tudur,
Edni. lian Edni.
Owain ydyw o Llan Edni. — I&iian Deulwyn.
Ednob, the lordship of Edenhope, near Bishop's Castle in
Yu amwyn Ednob ednaint ar gnes
Yn lladd esgarant pan esgores. Cynddelw, in Marwnad Cadwallawn ap Madawg.
The Castle of Edenhope, besieged by the Bomans and defended by Cadwallawn.
Ednyted, an old British name of men.
Ednyfed Vychan, Baron of Bryn Ffenigl, was a man of great
power in Wales about the year 1200. He was of the privy
council to Llewelyn ap lorwerth ; and his wife was Gwenllian,
daughter to Ehys ap Gruffudd, Prince of South Wales. (Powel,
Car., p. 249.) He had a son called Gruffudd, who was obliged
to flee his country on a suspicion of an amour with the Princess
; and we have extant his father's advice to him in excellent
poetry :
Bydd ddilesg, Gruffudd, bydd dilech
Ag na ddilyn eiddilwch
ddolnr bydd eiddilach
O Ddulyn oni ddelych. — Edn. Vycluin a'i dint.
[See G. 0. Harry's Pedigrees, whether Llewelyn ap lorwerth had a daughter. — W, 2>.]
Ednyfed Awo or Ednyfedog (n. pr. v.).
Ednywain Bendew ap Eginir ap Gollwyn, lord of Englefield,
one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, bore argent^ a chevron sdbU between three boars' heads of the second.
Ednywain ap Bradwen, of Ilys Bradwen near Dolgelleu, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, lived about a.d. 1194 Bore giiles^ three serpents enowed argent,
Edryd Wallthir, a name given by the Britains to Eadred Duke of Mercia, who fought the Britains at Gwaith Cymryd Conwy, A.D. 880.
Edryd ap Nethan [Tref Edryd near Mathraval. — W. J9.].
EDRYWi(n. pr. v.). Traeth Edry wi Carreg Edrywi is in New- port, Pembrokeshire.
Edvedd ap Sedd Gyfedd o Frecheiniog.
Edw (fl.) : hence Aberedw.
Edwal ap Grufifudd ap Cynan, abbot of Fenmon. (Garadoc in Gruff, ap Cynan.)
Edwal Foel, made Prince of Wales, a.d. 916, son of Anarawd. {Caradoc.)
Edwin ap Gronwy (called King of Englefield), one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, ap Owen ap Hywel Dda ap Cad- ell ap Khodri Mawr, lived at Uys Llaneurgain, an. 1040. Bore argent, a cross flory engrailed sable between four Cornish choughs.
Edwin, son of Howel Dda. {Garadoc, p. 58.)
Edwin or Edwyn (n. pr. v.), a British name. A King of the Saxons of this name, bom and brought up in Cadvan's court in Anglesey, with Cadwallon, his father Edelfled having turned off his mother, who took refuge, and was brought to bed in Cad- van's court. Edwin and Cadval were sent by Cadvan to
King of Armorica, to' be brought up in feats of arms. (BrtU
TyssUio) The Triades call Edwin " un o dair gormes Mon a fagwyd ynddi" {Tr. 81), i, e., one of the tliree molesters of Anglesey that were born in it. It is a British name.
North dnid Gasswallon wrth drin Nan Edwin a wnae adwy. See Edwin ap Gronwy,
Edwy river falls into the Machawy river at Aberedwy, Breck- nockshire (q. d. Ehedwy, from eJipd, to fly). {E, Llwyd) See Aedwy,
Edwyn, Kmg of the Picts,' died a.d. 736. (Powel, Garadoc, p. 15.)
Edyrn, vel Edeym, qu. ?
Efelffre, one of the three commots of cantref Daugleddeu in Pembrokeshire. Qrt, whether Y Velffri is from hence ; or Y VSl Vre, the honey-mount ? [Qu., Ufelfre, the fiery moun- tain ?—>r.i>.]
Efell, Angl., a twin, Cynfrig Efell.
Efyrnwy or Efernwy (fl.) or Y Fumwy, or Furnwy, falls into the Severn.
Efiliau (n. pr. f.). Eftliau, wife of Wydyr Drwm, noted for a chaste wife. (IV. 55.)
Efionydd, a part of Caernarvonshire^ or Eiddionydd ; also EJionudd, but not right.
Och fyned nwch Efionndd
Ceirw da 'ngh6r Cowrda 'nghndd. — Hywel BeinallL
Ni chawn odid ddawn hyd Eiddionydd. — Ttulur Aled.
Efnudd neu Eunudd ap Alan ap Alser.
Efnydd (n. pr. v.). Efnydd ap Clydawc died a.d. 936. {Car- ad,, p. 51.)
Efnydd ap Morrier, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales. In another book thus : Efnydd ap Gwerngwy in Dyffryn Clwyd, and lord thereof, lived in the time of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, of whom he had this coat for his services in the wai^s with the Sax- ons : azure, a lion rampant or. One Efnydd, a prince, I suppose, was slain in Arwystli, a.d, 900. (Powel, Oarad,, p. 43.)
Efrawc : see JSfrog.
Efrei, Gw^ Efrei, Jews, Hebrews.
Efroc, Efrog, Ebhrawc, Evrawc, and Evravc (n. pr. v.) ; Lat., EbraticTia.
Efroc Gaparn, the fifth King of Britain. He had twenty sons and thirty daughters. Built Caer Efh)c, now York, and made some conquests in Gaul. Beigned thirty-nine years. (Usher's Cai., Efrog ; Triades, Catalogue of Cities, Caer Efrawc.)
Egbert, King of the West Saxons, who in the ninth century (A.D, 827) brought the Saxon heptarchy under one crown, and called them by the name of English, and their country England. About 100 years afterwards the Danes conquered the English, and kept the crown for some time. About 100 years after that
the Normans conquered England, and demolished most of the English nobility, so that what remains of great families in Britain are either ancient Britains or Normans.
Eginib ap GoUwyn.
Eginoc, one of the four cantrefs of Caermarthenshire.
Eglwys Wen (Yr), i, e., Whitchurch, Candida Gam, built by Nynias, the Britain, in the country of the Bemicians, or Southern Picts. (Bede, 1. iii, c. 14.)
Egri (n. pr. v.). Egri o Dalybolion ym M6n, A.D. 550 {Arch. BriL, 257) : hence Bodegri, Anglesey.
Egryn (n. pr. v.). Egryn ap Gwrydr Drwm. lianegiyn, Meirion. See Llwyn Egryn,
Eg WAD Sant. Llanegwad, Carmarthenshire. Wiliam Egwad, the poet, had his cognomen from hence ; lived a.d. 1480.
Egwest or Egwestl. Camden calls it a small monastery of Llan Egwest. Llanegwest, in Latin Valle Grttcis, an abbey near Llangollen, Denbighshire, built a.d. 1200. John Llwyd, arglwydd abad.
Ehedog. Moel Ehedog, a high mountain in Caernarvonshire.
EiDAL, Eydal, Italy, Italia.
EiDOL or Eidiol ap Evrog Gadarn.
EiDOL ap Arthfael, the 63rd King of Britain ; Latinized Aido^ Ins.
EiDRUL, Hteturia [Hetruria or Etniria ?].
EiDYN (n. pr. v.). Eidyn, mab Einygan, a laddodd Aneurin. (TV. 38.)
EiDDiLic CoRR, one of the three noted philosophers {Tr. 31) ; in another place, Qwyddyl Goi^, Perhaps Eiddilic should have been Gwyddelig, i, e., Irish.
EiDDiONYDD {E. Llwyd), a country or commot commonly called Eifionydd, in Caernarvonshire.
Ni chawn odid ddawn hyd Eiddionydd. — Tudur AM, See Eifionydd.
EiDDON ap Idnerth; in another place, Iddo ap Idnerth ap Edryd.
EiDDUN. Cad Eiddun. Cledr cedeym cad Eiddun. {Cyndddw)
EiDDYN, Dinas Eiddyn, Edenborough. See Penrhyn Rhionedd.
ElFFT, for Aijphf, Egypt.
EiFiON (n. pr. V. ?). See Neifion.
Nofiad a wnaefch hen Eifion
O Droia fawr draw i Fon. — Dafydd ap Gwihjm.
EiFiONYDD (wrote also Eiddionydd and Efionydd, and pro- nounced YJionydd), one of the two commots of Dunodic in Caer- narvonshire ; the other, in old times, being Ardudwy.
Ni chawn odid ddawn hyd Eiddionydd. — Ttidur Aled. See Eifion,
EiFL (Yr), wrote also Yr Eifyl or Yr Eiffyl, a high mountain on the sea-coast of Caernarvonshire. On the top of one of its three heads is a surprising fort of vast stones. I read in an old MS. that the Princes of Scotland, upon the defeat and death of their countryman, Elidir Mwynfawr, killed by Shun ap Mael- gwn, landed their forces, and burnt the country from the Eifl to Hergyn [Erging, Urchenfield. — W. DJ],
EiGBAD Sant. Ilaneigrad, a church in Anglesey.
EiGYR and Eigr, verch Amlawdd Wledig ap Cynwal.
EiGYK, the mother of Arthur, King of Britain.
Ejlon ap Dogvael Dogveiling.
EiLLiON. Caer Billion in Powys. {Qweylgorddau Potvys.)
EiLLT. Cynddelw a gant y 3 Englyn hyn i Fab Eillt o Lan- sadwrn a'i enw Pyll. (MS,)
EiNiAWN, or Eneon, Einion, Eingion, and Engan, or, as Cam- den writes it, Enion, is a British proper name of men, which he says the British Glossary translateth Justiis ; but there is no such glossary. It is true that uniawn in the British tongue sig- nifies straight or just, though not enion. But the name Einiavm, as it is pronounced Eingion, seems to have the signification of the word eingion, that is, a smith's anvil, — a name not improper in an age of war, to a man able to bear strokes. Einion fab Bed Brenhin Cernyw. (TV. 75.)
EiNiAWN ap Arthal ap Morudd was the name of the 40th King of Britain, which was about 200 years before the birth of Christ.
Einion ap Maelgwn Gwynedd.
Einion ap Gwalchmai.
Einion ap Morgan ap Arthel, King of Britain, the 13th after Brutus.
EiNiON Sais ap Ehys ap Howel. Scr.
EiNiON Yrth, lord of Caereinion, one of the eight sons of Cunedda Wledig who were drove out of the country by the Scots, A.D. 440. Llanelngion Frenin yn Lleyn. Annianus ?
EiNON ap Owen ap Howel Dda.
EiNUDD or Efnydd ap G wemgwy. See Ffnydd. Hunudd verch Einudd.
EiNWS ap leuan Llwyd.
EiRA Mawr a barhaodd o ddydd Enwaediad hyd Wyl Badrig, yn amser Gruff, ap Llewelyn. {MS,)
EiRCH or Erch, a river in Caernarvonshire. Abereirch, vulgo Berach. St. Cawrda ?
[Bwriais naid hyd Abererch,
Llan yw hon ar afon Ercb. — Oro, Owadn, W. D.]
EiRiF (n. pr. v.), father of Llawr, and is probably a Norman name. (IV. 72.)
EiRiOEW. Scr.
EiRYRi or EiRYRiw, Snowdown Mountains in North Wales. Humphrey Llwyd writes it Eiryri^ and explains it Niyiferos ; but why did not Camden own where he had this derivation ? See Eryreu, (See Brit. Descr. Com., p. 82). Llywarch Brydydd y Moch seems to derive the name of the mountain from eryron (eagles) :
Dadeni haelion O hil Eryron o Eryri. —P. M.
ElTTUN, enw lie. Gwenllys Eittun. (fir. Dafydd ah Tudur.) [Eytyn o Eytyn ; Eyton of Eyton, near Rhiwabon. Sion ab Elis Eytyn, the Bosworth soldier. He lived at Rhiwabon, afterwards Watstay, and now called Wynnstay. — W. J?.]
EiTHA CoTHWYR, it secms, was the British name of the inha- bitants of the Hebrides, which signifies extreme old inhabitants, who might be part of the first planters of Britain. They are called in Eumenius' panegyric to Constantius Atta Cotti. See BrU. Dcacr.y p. 59.
EiTHON (Din Eithon ?), a river. See Ithon and leithon. [Caer wythochrog ar Ian Eithawn. — W. 2?.]
EiTHRAS o Lydaw. Sc.
Elaeth Frenhin ap Meuric.
Elaeth, a poet of the fifth or sixth century. Mr. Edward Ilwyd says he is author of Englynion y Beddau (he wrote near the time of Llywarch Hen) ; but in p. 258, Englynion y Beddau are given to Taliesin by William Maurice.
Elays, a river, qu. ? Penrhyn ar Elays, one of three commots of Arberth in Dyfed. (Price's DescripL)
Elbeth. Wiliam arglwydd Elbeth o Normandi.
Elbodus (Elfod). Leland says that he quashed the Arian and Pelagian heresies, settled the time of Easter, and was Bishop of Gwynedd (Venetorum) ; that he was acquainted with those two learned men, Nennius and SamueL This was probably the Elvodugus whom Nennius mentions as his patron.
Eleias Ledwyr Lydaw.
Elemon. Caer Elemon {Nennius), See Selemion,
Elen, a river that runs into the Gwy. Pont ar Elen ; Cwm Elen. [JElain (a doe), swift or rapid. Pont ar Elain ; Cwm Elain, near Ehaiadr Gwy.-r- W, D.]
Elen (n. pr. f.), Helena.
Elen verch Eudaf, Helen, the daughter of Octavius, who was married to Macsen Wledig, Emperor of Rome. She was sur- named £len Lueddog, or the Warlike, on account of the vast army sent over to Armorica in her time, under the command of Cynan Meriadoc. The British copy of Tyssilio mentions her by name ; but the Latin of Galfrid doth not, the two Helens, I suppose, having confounded him. This last Helen is called in the Triades Helen Zueddog, and not Luryddog, as some ignorant writei'S would have it. See Eleriy daughter of Coel.
Elen, the daughter of Coel, King of Britain, who was married to Constantius Chlorus, and was the mother of Constantinus Magnus, the Emperor. This Elen was called Elen Lwyddog, or the Prosperous, because it is said she found the cross of Christ. She was also called Elen Fannog, i. e., the Famous or Noted. She is by some confounded with Elen Lueddog. She was bom about the year 250, at York, or London, or Colchester ; which latter was called after Coel, her father, a British king. Constan- tius took her to wife, and Constantino the Great, her son, was born A.D. 274. Theodoret says {Hist. Eccl, 1. i, c. 14) that she brought her son up in Christian piety ; but Eusebius (1. i, c 47)
seems to say she was not hei*self a Christian till her son was converted by the sight of a cross in the heavens when he marched against the tjrrant Maxentius. She went to visit the Holy Land by divine instinct, and found the cross of Christ. {Brit Sand.) Constantine called her to his court, and declared her Augusta or Empress. Eufinus (1. x, c. 7) says she was a most fervent Christian. St. Gregory the Great says (L ix, Epist,, c. 9) she was incomparable for religion and goodness. She was buried at Borne about A.D. 328.
Elenis (n. L).
Elerch, a river in Geneu'r Glyn, Cardigansliire, falls into Eleri.
Eleki (St.), daughter of Brychan, wife of Caredig Ceredigion, and mother of Sant, father of Dewi (Ach Cynog.)
Eleri (fl.), vulg6 Leri. Glan Leri. Aber Leri, Cardiganshire.
Elerius (St), brought up at Uanelwy, and founded a monas- tery at Gwytherin in Dyffryn Clwyd, of which he was abbot. He wrote the Life of St. Winifred, whose first name was Brewa {Brit, Sanct.)y recti Gwenfrewi ; and Leland calls her Guenvreda {Script, Brit, c. 49). Brought up by Beuno.
Qu. whether liar (Ilanilar) be this Elerius, or perhaps Geler ? Dr. Fleetwood denies that Elerius wrote her Life.
Elestron ap Don (n. pr. v.).
Eleth Santes. Cappel Eleth in the parish of Amlwch, Anglesy.
Elfael, a castle in Maelienydd, belonging to Cadwallon ap
Madog ap Idnerth, whose sons were drove out of that country
by Balph Mortimer, a.d. 1194, when he built the castle of Cym-
Yn amwyn Elfael pan wnaeth Elfed
Elfydden grealawn elfydd greuled.
Cynddelwy in Marwnad Cad. ap Madog. See Elfed,
Elfael. leuan ap Rhys ap Ivor o Elvael.
Elfan Powys, brother of Cynddylan. {Llytoarch Hen in Cyn- ddylan.)
Elfed (n. L), qu. a jiwqtI {Llywarch Hen in Cadwallon's Elegy.) Cynwyl Elfed, Carmarthenshire. See Elfael.
Elfyw (n. pr. v.). Cwmmwd mab Elfyw, one of the four com- inots of Cantref Mawr, in Caermarthenshire. (Price's Descript)
Elgan Wefl Hwcli ap Cynan Archeuad. In another place,
Elgan Wefl Ffloch ap Arthnael.
Elgno (n. pr. v.).
Pwjlles i pan las Elgno.
Llywarch Hen^ Marwnad Urien Beged.
Elgud ap Cadfarch o L^n»
Elgwy (fl.), wrote anciently for Elwj/. {E. Llwy^,)
Eli, enw Ue ym Mhowys.
Eryr Eli, echeidw myr.
Llywarch HeUy in Marwnad Cynddylan. Eryr Pengarn. — Llywarch Hen, Eryr EH ban i lief.
Llywarch Hen, in Marwnad Cynddylan.
Eli, a river (Camden in Olamorgan) ; in Morden's Map, Elay \ Elay, mentioned in the Hist Land, (Camden,)
Eli. Ynys Eli, the Isle of Ely in Cambridgeshire ; so called, as Bede says, from the plenty of eels there. But query whether a British name, Elwy or Aelwy ? See Eli in Marwnad Cyn^ ddylan by Llywarch Hen.
Elian (St.). In our old genealogies he is called Elian Ceim^ iad ap Alldud Eedegawg ap Carcludwys. Qu. whether his father is the same with St. EUtyd, who was the famous Iltutus that erected a college in Morganwg, and preserved the religion and learning of the Britons from ruin upon the Saxons first coming and conquering Lloegria ; and was the instructor of St. David, St. Paul de Leon, St. Sampson, St. Teilo, Gildas.
The Legend of St. Elian says that he and his family and effects
came by sea from Rome, and landed in Anglesey at Perth yr
Ychen, and hard by there built his church. Tliis is said to be
in the time of Caswallon Law Hir, the father of Maelgwn
Elian a berai wjlo
O lid am ei fuwch a*i lo
Fe wnaeth yn ddall Gaswallon
Arglwydd mawr ar ogledd Mon.
See Rowlands' Mona A niijua.
By oral tradition, Elian had a young doe which he brought up
tame, and the lord of that country gave him as much land to his
church as the doe would compass in a day. The tradition doth not
say how the doe was drove to compass the ground ; but it hap- pened in her marking out her lord's ground that the greyhound of some rich man of the neighbourhood disturbed or killed the doe, upon which St Elian in great wrath pronounced it a judgment on the inhabitants of that parish, that none of them should keep a greyhound to the end of the world ; and his sentence is come to pass, for none of the parishioners are able to keep a grey- hound, — ^they are so very poor, the ground is so very rocky.
The marks of the feet of St Elian's oxen are shewn in the rocks where he landed, and the history of the doe is still pre- served in painted glass on one of the windows of the church.
How this Elian came to be called Hilary I cannot telL There is a small promontory near the church called by seamen Hilary's Point, but by the natives it is called Trwyn y Balog or Balawg, which is an ancient name (I don't doubt) older than Elian. But they have also among their coasters a bastard English name given it when the island was in the possession of the English, which is Pwynt yr Leinws, i. e,, -^Elianus' Point ; and this shews that Hilary hath no claim at all to this place. There is a place in the same parish called Ehos Manach, i. e., the Monk's Boss, which shews that there was a cell of monks at Llan Elian ; a bog also, called Cors Mian, retains its name to this day.
There is in the church (which is a grand piece of building) au appartment which to this day is called myvyr., which is an anti- quated word for a library : from hence comes myfyrdod, study ; myfyrio, to study.
I have a copy of a grant of lands and privileges said to have been made by Caswallon Law Hir to St. Hilarius. It is said to have been confirmed by Edward IV, A.D. 1465.
Elian seems to have been his first Welsh name, and Hilary or Hilarius his ecclesiastical name given by the Pope on preferring him to some high post in the Church ; and the addition, or sur- name, C&imiad, for his being a traveller (k cammv) \ so Beuno
Gymorth gan Elian Geimiad.
There are several churches dedicated to him : Uanelian yn Rhos, a parish and church, Denbighshire ; Llanelian, Anglesey, formerly a monastery or college ; Mynydd Elian, hard by; and Perth Elian.
Elidan (St). Llanelidan, DeDbighshire.
Elidir, the 32nd King of Britain, called Elidir Waty the mild.
Elidir Lydanwyn ap Meirchion, father of LlTwarch Hen. (TV. 14)
Elidir Mwynfawr, a North Briton that claimed the govern- ment of Wales from Shun ap Maelgwn, and entered upon his land in Caernarvonshire, and was killed at Abemefydd. Hence Oamedd Elidir, a mountain near Ilanberis, took its name, (if /S. and Tr.)
EuDiR Sais^ a native of Anglesey, a sound poet of the 18th
Da Elidir gwir gwarant, fto.
Owr o ddoethion Mob, mynwes eigiawn.
Eliter Gosgorddfawr {Tr. Mdrch, 1), t. «., Elifer with the great guard [clan — W, Z>.] ; wrote also Eliffer and Oliver {Tr. y Meirch, 1), but by Dr. Davies (Grram., p. 161), Elider Gosgorfawr. He married Eurddul, sister of Urien Reged, and daughter of Cynfarch Hen, (TV. 52.) Gwrgi, Peredur, and Ceindi^ch Pen- asgell, were three children of his at one birth, (TV. 52.) But somebody told Camden it was Heliodor, the great Jiousekeeper, and he turns it to Cosoorvaur, — which hath no meaning at all. Thus it is when authors pretend to explain a language unknown to them, or take those explanations from an ignorant native who may know as much of the grounds and foundations of his language as his horse does. See Oliver.
EuFFRi (n. pr. v.).
Cknt cant ei moh'ant mal Eliffri.
Eign, ap Gwalchmai^ to Nest.
Elis, a modern name, and also a surname, wrote Ellis.
Elise (n. pr. v.), a common name among the Britains ; but qu. whether from Ellis (which Camden says is corrupted from Elias, Heb., Lord God) or from Elijah ; or perhaps of British original, as Elmur, Elidir, Elgno, &c. It is pronounced El-i-se, in three syllables.
Elisseu, qu. an idem quod Elisha vel Eliseus (Heb.) ?
Eliwlod (n. pr. v.). Eliwlod, mab Madog ap Uthur, a nephew of King Arthur, and for his oratory called the Golden-tongued Knight (TV. 82.) There is a poem extant, a dialogue between
him and Arthur, where the poet feigns this Eliwlod to be in the shape of an eagle, appearing to the King after his death. '' Ym- ddiddan rhwng Arthur a'r Eryr."
Eliwys ap Owain Cyfeiliog.
Ellemenig (n. pr. v.). {Tr. y Meirch, 7.) See Llemenig.
Elli. Llanelli, Caermarthenshire, a village. Fairs kept here.
Elliw or EvELLiw (n. pr. f.), daughter of Cadivor ap Collwyn. {CaradoCf p* 182.)
Elliw, verch Owain ap Dafydd.
Ellmyn, Lat. Alemanni, Germans. Dr. Davies derives it from ully Lat. alivs. The Ellmyn were those Gennans that inhabited from the Ehine to the Danube and Main. See Allmyn.
Elltyd Sant, i. e., St. Iltutus, Abbot. Qu., whether Alltud Eedegwg ? Llanelltyd Church is near Dolgelleu. He had a monastery in Glamorganshire. His acts are in Capgrave. See Usher's Antiq,, p. 252. He was son of Bicanus, a knight, by his wife Riemguilida, daughter to a King of Armorica ; served in the wars under his kinsman, King Arthur ; then going to the court of the King of Glamorgan, married a lady of quality ; and by the persuasion of St. Cadoc, Abbot of Llangarvan, parted with his wife, and accepted of the tonsure of St. Dubricius, and resided on the sea-coast at Llan Iltud, now called Lantwit, where he founded a monastery and opened a school. His scholars were Samson, Maglorius, St. Paul de Leon, Gildas, and St. David. Left his school to a disciple, Isam ; retired to a cave, thence to Armorica, and died at Dole. {Brit Sand., Nov. 6.)
Ellyll Ednyuedawc Drythyll (ZV. 70), un o'r tri Gwydd Ellyll. Qu, what this Ellyll was ? Gwydd Ellyll may be one of the spirits of the wood, in the nature of the Dryades, or per- haps a wood-rover.
Elmur, mab Cadeir, one of the three Tarw Unben. {Tr, 13.)
Elnoc Sant o Gaergybi. Qu. whether Elvot ?
Elphin ap Gwyddno Goronir, lord of Cantre Gwaelod, was the patron of the poet Taliesin.
Ac yn armes Taliesin Drad yn Llys Faelgwn fu'r drin Pan olljngawdd medrawdd mwy Blphin o eurin aerwy. — LI, M, y Paidrl, See Elphm in LI. H.
Elphin ap Urien ap Cynfarch.
Elisabeth and Elsbeth (and so they pronounce in the north of England), id. quod Angl. Elizabeth.
Eluned (Sant) verch Brychan yngorsebawl, neu Crug gors- eddawL
Eluned, cariad Ywein ap Urien. Modrioy Eluned was one of the 13 tlws Ynys Prydain. The stone in it had the virtues of Gyges' ring. It would conceal the man that would conceal it ; meaning secresy in love affairs.
Eluther, the name of a Pope said to be at Eome when Lies ap Coel, King of Britain, sent to him for preachers to propagate the Christian faith. This was before the year 156, as the British copy of Tyssilio has it. Latin writers call him Elutherius or Elutherus. See Usher's PHmordia, p. 34.
Elved, name of a place. Cynwyl Elved, a place in Caermar- thenshire. See the quotation of Cynddelw in Elfaeh Llywarch Hen, in Marwnad Cadwallon, mentiona a place of this name. Nennius says (c. 65) that Edguin reigned seventeen years, occu- pied Elmet, and turned out Certec, King of that country. See Tyssilio, in Braint's speech to Cadwallon. Gale, in his notes on Nennius, says that Elmet is in Yorkshire, near Leeds, and that Bede mentions it. Bede, in 1. xv, c. 14, at the end, mentions a monastery in Elmcie Wood, which Dr. Smith says was a large forest including Berwic and a great part of Yorkshire ; and the English annotator says it took its name from elms abounding there, which wants proof. For the Britains, drove by Edwin from the country called Elfed, north of the Humber, carried that name with them, and gave it to places in Wales ; and according to Nennius it was called Elmet before Edwin conquered it and turned out King Certec, who must have been a Briton. See Tyssilio, who calls him Ceredic in Braint's speech to Cadwallon. The transcribers of Nennius have made Ceredic and Elved into one word through ignorance, Gerdicselmet,
Elyel or Elvael, a cantref between Wy and Severn, belong* ing formerly to Powys, in which are the commots of Uwch Mynydd, Is Mynydd, and Llechddyfnog. They were the lands of Ralph Mortimer in Powys r. Elfael. See Tralhong Elfael.
Elfod, Elbiiod, and Elbod (n. pr. v.) ; Lat. Elbottis, Elhodus,
or Elvodugus as Nennius has it, and Dr. Davies (Pref. Gram.) Elbodius, was Archbishop of Wales, and died a.d. 809. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 21.) He changed the time of Easter about the year 755. (Powel, Oar., p. 17.) But Caradoc makes him Archbishop oi North Wales (p. 211), which I suppose is a mistake, for that he was bom at Caergybi in Anglesey. (Achau'r Saint.) App. MS. TyssUio calls him Elvod Esgob Gwynedd (Bishop of North Wales, wliich probably means chief Bishop), and tliat he died A.D. 811. In the margin of Gildas Nennius (c. 65), Eeuchidus and Elbodus, Bishops, are mentioned. Nennius, the historian, says that he was the disciple of St. Elbotus (or Elbodugus as he names him in another place) ; and in the sixty-third chapter he calls one Beulanus, a presbyter, his master, — perhaps Saml. Beulan his interpolator.
Elwy, river : hence Llanelv?y, St. Asaph.
Elwtdden or Elwyddan, Elwyddyn or Elwyden (fl.). Tom Elwyddan mentioned in Ilywarch Hen's Marwnad Cyndylan, and in Englynion y Beddau.
Elysmer, Elesmere in Shropshire,
Llys Elysmer bei flfer bu ffwyr gno
Llwyr llosged ei tbudwed ai tho.
Prydydd y Moch^ i L. ap lorwerth. Elystan (n. pr. v.).
Elystan Glodrydd, larll Henflfordd, one of the Five Eoyal Tribes of Wales (un o Bum Brenhinllwyth Cymru).
Em, a woman's name.
Emerchret (n. pr. f.). Emerchret, gwraig Fabon ap Dewen Hen, noted for a chaste wifa (Tr. 55.)
Emlyn, nomen loci in Pembrokeshire ; one of the eight can-
trefs of Dyfed. Y Castell Newydd yn Emlyn, got by fihys, 1215.
Glyn Cuwch yn Emlyn {Tr. 30), the country of Pendaran
Ifor deg yw ei frawd ynn
I roi'n ami aur yn Emlyn. — O, ap leuan Hen.
Emral, a gentleman's seat in [Flintshire]. Emreis. Cantref Emreis, mentioned by Cynddelw, where Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd fought a battla
Embus and Emreis {Tr. 90 and 91), in the present orthography Emrys (n. pr. v.) ; Latinized Ambrositis,
Emrys Wledig, the 98th King of Britain, son of Constantine, an Armorican Britain, called Cwstenin Fendigaid (Tr. 90), bro- ther to Aldwr, King of Armorica. This Constantine had three sons : Constans or Cwstenin Vychan (Tr, 90), Emrys, and Uthur Bendragon. They burnt Gwrtheym's castle in Wales about a.d. 480. See Dinas Emrys.
Emtr is a very common name of men in Armorica ; and Emyr Llydaw was the name of the Prince that reigned there in Uthur Bendragon's time, and whose son Hywel was cotemporary with King Arthur, as appears by the Triades, No. 83.
Eneas, a Trojan Prince, son of Venus and Anchises, married Lavinia, daughter of King Latiniis. In the British, Eneon or Einion (and not Evan, as Ainsworth, for Evan is but a very modem name).
Eneirchawc (n. L). Gwyr Eneirchawc (Rai. Myrddin), some of the northern pirates.
Pan dy£fon dros vop gwyr Eneirchawc.
Enerys (n. faem.) {H. ap Owain Owynedd)
Enethan ap Cadrod Calchfynydd. (Rhys Goch Eryri.)
Enethan ap Siap : qu. ap Carwed ap Marchudd ?
Eneuddon (n. pr. f.). (Dr. Davies.)
Enddwyn Sant. Uanenddwyn,
Enfael (n. pr. v.). (Tr. 24.;
Enfail, ferch Brychan.
Enid (n. pr. f.).
Enid, verch Yniwl larll Dyfnaint, cariad Geraint ap Erbin, un o'r tair rhiain ardderchog. (Tr. 78.)
Enid, verch lamys Arglwydd Awdle.
Enlli (Tnsulam Entili sive Berdseyam), the Isle of Bardsey on the headland of Caernarvonshire, called Ueyn. Mr. Leland, for want of better acquaintance with our ancient British writers, hath committed a slip in endeavouring to explain this name ; but these slips are less common in him than any other English writer. He writes the name of this island (where Dubricius retired from the archbishoprick of Caerllion ar Wysg) Enis
Enthle, which he takes to be a corruption of EnisViin, because it lies against a country called Llin in Venetia (Gwyuedd), which others write Venedotia. All this is wrong. The island is not called by the natives Enis Entlile,but has been always called Tnys JSnlli; and the II has a sound which no English letters can express ; therefore it is impossible for an Englishman to guess at the deriva- tion of the word I know that Latin writers have turned it into Insulam JEntili, which was to show that they could do something, but really nothing to the purpose, and they might as well have wrote it with any other letters of the alphabet : Enbili, Encili, Endili, EnflSli, etc., etc. Myrddin Wyllt, the Caledonian Pictish poet about twelve hundred years ago, wrote it YTilli ; for in his Hoiane, wrote after the battle of Arderydd, between Ehydderch Hael of Aelclwyd (Dunbritton), Prince of the Cumbrian Britons, and Aeddan Vradog, one of the Princes of the Southern Picts, he has these words :
Er gwaith Arderydd mi nim dorbi Gyn syrthiai awyr i lawr Llyr Ynlli,
And the poet& from that time to this, and the natives at this
day all over Wales, pronounce it Enlli
The famous satirical Cywydd, wrote anciently on an abbot of
that monastery, part of which is in everybody's mouth to this
day, though, perhaps, not to be found in writing, is abo a proof
of this :
• « « •
« « « «
Abad ffwt flFat lygatgoch
Abad ni fyn roi bwyd i*w foch.
This passage alone proves the pronunciation of both Enlli and Lleyn as to the sound II, and also tells us a piece of secret his- tory, that either the abbot had a wife, called here dbades (abbess),
or that there was a nunnery on the island but he was a
lay abbot See Cyliau Ihwri,
Dr. Davies, author of the British-Latin Dictionary, about one hundred and twenty years ago published a handsome reward for anybody that could bring him a perfect copy of this poem ; but it was not to be found. It was at first so well known that it
was neglected to be wrote, and perhaps it was not safe to commit
it to paper in the time when abbots had a power here.
Lewis Glyn Cothi in one place writes it JEnUif, which induces
me to think that it had its name &om being situated in the
middle of strong tides, as they certainly are there as strong as
any about Britain ; q. d. Yn y llif, i. e., in the stream. But Zleyn,
the name of the headland or promontory, is plainly of another
Llawer hyd yn nhir Lleyn
Llwyn hesg yn llawen o hyn. — Perri's Rhetoric^
In the legend of St. Cynhaval there is mention of a fabulous giant called Enlli Qatar, who gave name to this island ; but that fiction took its rise from Benlli Gawr, the tyrant mentioned in Nennius, who was no giant though called Catvr, but a Prince oflal.
This Enlli is probably one of the four islands which Ptolomy in his account of Ireland mentions to be on the east of Ireland, which, if he had been well acquainted with the place, he would have left to his account of Albion. The four islands are: — 1, Monaida, Brit. Manaw, i. e., the Isle of Man ; 2, Mona, Brit. Mon, i, e., Anglesey ; 3, Edron, Brit. Ynys Adar probably ; 4, Limnon, Brit. Ynys Enlli. He says these are both heremos (ifyqfioL — W, D), i, e., deserted or uninhabited. Limnon might have been originally in the book before Edron ; then there would have been no doubt but that Limnon was Enlli, and Edron pro- bably Bamsey on St. David's Head ; but as it is, Eamsey isle has a better claim to the name Limnon, as the adjoining country is also called Menew (Lat. Menevia), and Edron may be inter- preted Ynys Adar, or Bird's Island, from whence it might take the Saxon name Birdsey (corruptly, Bardsey). But as there is no great dependence on Ptolomy's geography of those countries, we cannot build much upon it ; and therefore on such uncertain grounds we cannot say that Enlli was in Ptolomy's time called Ynys Adar, though it is probable it might. As this Claud. Ptolomy wrote about the year of Christ 230, and that we find a Christian monastery there about two hundred years afterwards, we must look for some other sense to his heremos than what is
generally given of it.
Edron deserta est. Idmni deserta est.
The island of Enlli is two miles long, and is at this day held by four families who are farmers there, and raise com and breed cattle there, and hath a very safe harbour in it for small vessels, and the people in it are about forty in number. It is very improbable such a fruitful island, so near the mainland, should be a desert, uninhabited; therefore his ifyqfio^ must certainly mean that it was a place for recluse men or hermits.
St. Dubricius, the Archbishop of Wales, when he resigned the metropolitan see to St. David, would not have gone into a desert island with a great number of his clergy, as is plain he did by Taliesin's (Aneurin's) account, who says that most of the synod of Brevi accompanied him to that island. This was about the year 5. . ., as Usher places it.
In Caerllion ar Wysg there was a museum of rarities in King Arthur's time, which Myrddin ap Morfran, the Caledonian, upon the destruction of that place, carried with him to the house of
glass in the Isle of Enlli or Bardsey. {MS)
Myrddin aeth mawr ddawn ei wedd
Mewn gwydr er mwyn ei gjdwedd. — l&iuin Byfi,
Y 13 tlws aethant gida Myrddin ir Ty Gwydr. {Came MS) This house of glass, it seems, was the museum where they kept their curiosities to be seen by everybody, but not handled ; and it is probable Myrddin, who is said to live in it, was the keeper of their museum at that time. For these 13 rarities, or 13 tlws, or admirable things, brought by Myrddin there, see — 1, Lien Arthur ; 2, Dymwen ; 3, Com Bran Galed ; 4, Cadair Morgan ; 5, Mwys Gwyddno ; 6, Hogalen Tudno ; 7, Pais Padarn ; 8, Pair Dymog ; 9, Dysgl ; 10, Towlbwrdd ; 11, Mantell ; 12, Modrwy ; 13, Cyllell Llawfrodedd.
There was a college of Lay Monks in Bardsey in those days, which some have ignorantly called Colideans, for Cyliau Ihwn, black cowls. Here Mjo^ddin studied, and here he ended his days, and was buried. See Cadvan,
Ennaint Baddon, hot waters of Bath ; literally Bath ointment.
Ennarawd. Caer Ennarawd. {Tr) Qu. whether this is Caer
Anrhod, said to have been swallowed by the sea near Caernarvon Bay?
Envey ap Uychwael.
En WIG and Anwig (n. 1.).
Entny, enw gwr. Tewdric ap Enyny.
Eon, qu. ? Bodeon, enw Ue, qu. ?
Eppa, a monk that poisoned King Ambrosius Aui'elius, first called Eopa.
Eppi, Elizabeth, now Betty.
Erbin ap Cwstenyn Cemyw.
Erbin, father of Geraint the admiral. (Tr. 20.)
Erbistock, church and parish in Denbighshire, deanery of Bromfield.
Ercal, a man [nomen loci — TF". D.] mentioned by Ilywarch Hen in Marwnad Gynddylan.
Tywarchen Ercal ar erdywal wyr
etifedd Morial A gwedy Bhys maerjsonal. — Llytoarch Hen,
Qu. whether this be Aircol Lawir [a person — W. D.] mentioned in the genealogies in " Llyfr Ilywarch Oflfeiriad" (MS., Jesus Coll., Oxon.). He was the father of one Erbin, and was a de- scendant, in the tenth degree, of Macsen Wledig.
Ercwlff, Hercules ; perhaps from erchyll, horrid ; or this Erchyll was Hercules, the son of Jupiter.
Erch, Orcades, or the Islands of Orkney : hence, probably the Ersh language in the Highlands.
Erch or Eirch (fl.) : hence Abererch, vulgo Y Berach, near Pwllheli in Ileyn : hence also Nannerch, quasi Nant Erch.
Erch a Heledd, in one copy of the Triades, for Arllechwedd
in mine.
As dne Daw yn ei dangnevedd
A ddnc trais tros Erch a Heledd.
OynddeLw, i Owain Gwynedd.
Erddig, a gentleman's seat, (/. D) [The seat of Philip Yorke, Esq., near Wrexham, Denbighshire. — W. !>.] Erddlys (n. 1.). llwyth Erddlys. Erddyled, mam Llewelyn ap Hwlkyn. Ereinwc. This was the country about Hereford, to which
the Loegrian Britains were drove by the Saxons over the Severn ; and these people had princes of their own, as appears by the manner of electing Maelgwn Gwynedd, chief king. (See Traeth Maelgwn) In one MS. it is called Ehieinwg, The inhabitants were called Ereinwyr {H, Llvyyd), and the country Ereimoch {H, Llwyd), See Urging. Camden derives it from Ariconium, and also Arcenf eld [Urchenfield — W, D,], and Hariford, as he writes it. Ariconium he supposes to be at Kenchester, just by Hereford. (Camden in Herefordshire.)
ERnN (fl.) — ^hence Cwm Ervin, Blaen Cwm Ervin, Cardigan- shire — falls into Clarach.
Ergengl, the same with Erging, a part of Herefordshire, called Urchenfeld or Irchenfield ; called anciently Ereinwc. (H, Lhvyd,)
Erging (n. 1.), qu. Ergyn? now Irchenfield; in Doomsday, Archenfeld, in Herefordshire. (Oamden.) Erging ac Ewyas was one of the commots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent, but is now in Herefordshire. (Price's Descr.) Gwrtheyrn GwTtheneu, larll oedd hwnnw ar Went, Erging, ac Euas. (Tyssilio.) Cwstenyn, larll Erging ac Euas. See Unas, Evryas.
Ergyr, a river, Cardiganshire (Cwm Ergyr), falls into Castell river.
EuiVED, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) Troverth Foulkes of Erived.
Erlleon (n. pr. v.). Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Urien Beged.
Llawer ci geilig a bebog awyrenig
A lithiwyd ar y Uawr
Cyn bu Erlleon Lyweddrawr. — Llywarch Hen,
Erlyn, a place in Gaul. Qu. whether Arlon in the Austrian
Netherlands ?
Lie w ffyrfder
Wyd o Erlyn hyd Orliawns. — Hytoel Swrdwal.
Erof Greulon (n. pr. v.), qu. Her9d ?
Erot, the ancient way of writing the name of Herod.
Seren heblaw llys Erot A roddes gyfarwyddyt.
Ersu, the language of the Highlands of Scotland, as it is called by the English, from Erch, the old Celtic name of the Orcades. See Erch
Eryn, in Tr. 40, for Geraint, a King of Britain about 300 years before Christ.
Eeyreu, Eryri, Eiryriw, or Eiryri, or Yryri. Creigiau Eryreu. Camden (in Caernarvonshire) calls them in English Snowdon, and says the British name signifies snowy mountains, as the Niphates in Armenia were called, from snow. If this had been the derivation, should not they have been called Creigiau 'r Eiry ? But see Eryri. Nennius calls them Heriri {E, Zlivyd), having a view probably to the Hebrew word Harerei. See Wyddfa,
Erw or Erow, vulg. Wrw. Eglwys Erw in Cemmaes, Pem- brokeshire.
EsABEL, Angl. Isabel.
Esc, a river in Devonshire ; another Esc in Scotland, and the vale about it called Esk Dale. Oaer Esc, in the Triades, is Exe- ter. (E. Llwyd,) See Wysg.
EsGAiR, river (Aberesgair or Aberisker), falls into the Wysg.
EsGAiR is an ancient Celtic woYd prefixed to the names of mountains in Britain and Ireland, and signifies a ridge of mountains like a shin-bone; whence esgair in Wales is also a leg. Esgair Oerfel, yn y Werddon ; Esgair Galed ; Esgair Gwyngu ; Esgair Weddar, a gentleman's seat, Meirion, — ^Pryse ; Esgair Hir ; Esgair Milwyn ; Esgair Goch, in Llanvair y Bryn, Carmarthen- shire ; Esgair Angell, a gentleman's seat, — ^Pugh. {J, D) [Esgair Ivan, in Uanbrynmair. — W, i>.]
EsGOTTLOND, used in the British copy of Tyssilio for Scotland, See Ysgwydiaid and Ysgodogion.
EsGUD AuR or EsGUDAWR ap Owain Aurdorchog.
EsMAS and Dismas, according to the British tradition, were the names of the two thieves that were crucified with Christ.
Bhoed ar groes o wydd Moesen
Bhwng Dismas ag Esmas hen. — Hywd Bafydd.
EssiDLO, nomen loci.
EsTEROLEF, One of the three commots of Arberth, in Pembroke- shire. (Price's Descript)
EsTYLL. Pentre Estyll, Glamorganshire.-
ESYLLT, daughter of Cynan Dindaethwy ap Idwal Iwrch ap
Gadwaladr frenin, wife of Merfyn Frych, and mother to Rodri
Mawr. (Price's Descript)
EsYLLT Fyngwen, gwraig March Amheirchion, merch Culfyn-
awyt Prydain ; aniweirwraig (TV. 56), a gordderch Trystan ap
Tallwch, yn amser Arthur. Clustiau march i Farch Amheirchion
a ganai pibau am dano. (D, /.) See March,
Pan bebyllo Lloegr yn tir Ethlyn
A gwnenthnr Diganwy dinas dygyn. — ffoiane Myrddin,
Ethni Wyddeles, gwraig Gwynawg ap Clydawc.
EcTARTH^ a gentleman's seat.
Ettas ap Morgan Hir ap lestin ap Gwrgi.
Eqas (n. 1.) in Hereford and Gloucestershire ; Latinized by some, Geuisda ; and this caused Jo. Major (Hist, Scot, lib. ii, c. 3) to say that Vortigem was Comes de West Sex, The British History by Tyssilio says plainly that Gwrtheyrn (Vortigem) was a South Wales man. " larll oedd hwnnw ar Went, ac Erging, ac Euas"; i, e., he was Earl of Gwent (Monmouth), and Erging (Urchenfield), and Euas; which last is now vulgarly called Ewyas, Ewyas Lacy, etc. See Ewyas,
EUBUL, secretary to Gronw Ddugu.
EuDAF (n. pr. v.), Lat. Octamus, father of Elen Lueddog, wife of MaximuB.
EUDAF, the 49th King of Britain.
EuDAP, the 88th King of Britain.
EuDAF (Caer), Caer yn Arfon. (Th. Williams* Catalogue)
EuDHA ap Cariadawc ap Bran Galed ; wrote also Evdhaf,
EuLO or Eflo, in Flintshire. Qu. whether Coleshill? At Coed Eulo, Dafydd and C3man, sons of Owain Gwynedd, put part of King Henry TI's army to flight, slew a great number, and pursued the rest to the King's camp on Saltney Marsh, near West Chester {i, e., Morfa Caer) ; from thence Owain retreated to a place called to this day Cil Owain, t. c, Owain's Retreat [Ogof Owen, or Cil Owen, where Owen Glyndwr was fed during his exile. — W, D.]
EuGAN. Bod Eugan, qu. ?
EuNANT (n. 1.), in Llanwddyn. Sc. Wynne o Eunant
EuNEDD ap Bledred, 890.
EuNEDD ap Clydawg died 936.
EuNTDD GwERNGWY, of DyflFryn Clwyd, 1135.
EuRBKAWST, un daii gwraig Brychan Brycheiniog.
EuBBEE Wyddel : see Cormur,
EuRDDYL, daughter of Cynfarch Hen {Tr, 52), and sister to Urien Beged (Llywarch Hen.)
EuRFRON HoEDLiw (n. pr. f.). Powel, p. 183. Qu. the same with Huron : see Tegau,
EuRFYL Santes. Ilanenrfyl in the deanery of PooL
EuRFYL, verch Cynferch Oer, gwraig Oliver Gosgorddfawr.
EuRGAiN, daughter to Maelgwn Gwynedd, married to Elidir Mwynfawr, priodawr o'r Gogledd, i, e,, a proprietor or prince in the North, who claimed the crown from Rhun ap Maelgwn, who was but a base son ; and Elidir came with a fleet from North Britain, and landed in Anglesey about the year 580, but was repulsed ; and Rhun carried the war to Scotland, which lasted several years. (Tr. and MSS. al) In one MS. she is said to have married Ethelfred, brenin Northhumberland.
Eurgain verch Maelgwn Gwynedd a roes y ganwyll wrth yr adar gwylltion i ddangos y fifordd i'w chariad. (2>. J,, MS)
Llaneurgain, in English Northop, a church and town in Flint- shire.
Eurgain a gaed yn Argoed
O'r un cyff goreu 'n y coed. — Huw Gae Llwyd,
EuRLLiw (nom. fem.).
EuROG Gadarn, King of Britain ; Eboracus, 3969. G.
EuRON (n. f.). This is Euron Galon Galed (hard-hearted Euron), mentioned by Myrddin. See Aeron.
EuROPA, Europe.
EusTus Cruer. {ff, C, p. 151.)
EuTAWD (n. pr. v.), father of Gwyl, a concubine of King Arthur.
EUTUN. Davydd Eutun. Canys brawd un fam un dad i For- gan ap Llewelyn oedd Davydd Eutun.
[Eyton, seat of a family of that name in Flintshire. — W, 2>.]
Evan, a modern nom. propr. of men, from letiaf, which see.
EvELL, a cognomen ; as Einion EvelL [A twin. — W. i?.] EvELLiw or Elhiw, nom. fern. (PoTvel, p. 183.) EvENECHTYD, a parish in Denbighshire. EvERWic, Eborcuyus, York. (Dr. Davies) EvEAUC, EvRAWC : See Efroc,
EvREAM Faen Gwynedd ; id. quod Abraham. [Dr. Barnes.) Madog ap Evream.
EvYRDYL. {Llywarch Hen.) Eurdyl, merch Orth. EurddyL
Handid Evyrdyl aflawen. — Llywarch JSen, Mar. Urien.
EwEiN, for Ywain or Owain.
EwERDDON, Ireland^ Hibemia, Invema, Ivemia, lerna.
EwERDDONiG, Irish. See Iwerddon and Ywerddan^ q. d. y Werdd Ynys, the Green Island.
EwERYDD. Forth Ewerydd yn y Gogledd, where Bhun ap Maelgwn fought the relations of Elidir Mwynfawr; said by some to be Lancaster ; others, Carlisle ; but see Morwerydd.
EwERYDD, verch Cynfyn ap Gwerystan ap Gwaithvoed, a briodes Edwin ap Goronwy frenin Tegengl, a sister of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.
EwRYD (n. pr., qu. ?). Bodewryd church in Anglesey.
EwYAS (n. L) in Herefordshire and Gloucestershire. Salter^ ennes in Ewyas Land (Powel, pp. 142, 148) ; lands of Hugh Lacie ; rect& Euas.
Is Qwent ag Euas a Gwy. — QwUym Tew.
Eydyn (Tr. 36). Mynyddawc Eydyn, probably Eyddyn, i. e., Edenborough or Eiddjm.
Each (Y), an ancient Celtic word used in the names of places, signifying a hook or nook ; as y Each Ddeiliog ; y Ty 'n y Each; Bachegraig, i. e., Bach y Graig.
Faenol (Y), a gentleman's seat near Caernarvon.
Faenor (Y), the Manor. Maenor Byrr ; Maenor Deifi.
Fann (Y). Cefn y Fann, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire. Bwlch y Fann ; Pen y Fann ; y Fenni.
Faustus, a pious, godly son of Vortigem out of his own
daughter, who, as Nennius saith, built a monastery on the river Ehymni, where he and other devout men daily prayed for his father's amendment, etc., and that God would not punish him for his father's faults, and free the country from the Saxon war. (Camden in Glamorgan.) See Gale's Nennivs,
Fedwen Deg (Y),'a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. (J, D.) Felenrhyd (Y), a river near Traeth Mawr, Meirion. Fel Ynys (Y), one of the old names of Britain ; i. e., the Honey Island. (Triades.)
Ef a lanwai'r Vel Ynys
O arian rhodd wyrion Rhys. — Hywel Dafydd.
Rhys o*r Fel Ynys flaenawr.
Fenis, Venice. Caerfenis. (I. JT. Cae Llvryd,)
Fens. Caerfens, qu. ? (/. JT. Cae Llwyd.)
Fenws: see Venus.
Ferwic (Y), a church and parish in Cardiganshire. Qu. whe- ther Y Faer Wig ? See also Berimg, Aberwig, and Caerferwig,
Festa, Lat. Vesta, the goddess of fire (Cicero, Be Leg., ii, 12), wife of Coelus and mother of Saturn, a Celtic princess. Qu,, whether from oes, life, and taUy fire ? q. d. Oestan.
FoDL Foel (Y), Anglesey.
FoELAS (Y), q. d. y Foel Las, a place in Denbighshire, where there are small pillars with strange letters, supposed Druidical.
A Dinbych wrthddrych orthoriant ar fil Ar Foelas a Oronant.
' Prydydd y Moch^ i Llyw. ap lorwerth.
Foel Ynys (Y), Ceretica.
Ford or Fford : hence Aberford, a town of Yorkshire, the Roman Calcaria. {Ainsworth.)
FoRWYN (Y). Caer Forw3m, which lies on the top of a high hill in Llanvihangel, near the river Alwen [E. Llwyd) ; probably Caer Forwydd or Forudd.
Y mae eryr fal Morndd. — /. B, Hir, See Monidd.
Frenni Fawr (Y), a mountain in Pembrokeshire.
Fronig (Y), St. Veronica.
Frutan (Y), a river at Beaumaris.
FuDDAi and Fuddei. Caer Fuddei, in the Triades, one of the twenty-eight cities ; another copy, Caer J^i^z; in Thos. Williams' Catalogue, Caer Fuddau ; Englished Chichester ; the capital of Sussex. Caer Fuddai signifies the merchant's town or city of lucre, from hvdd. See Bvddai,
FuRNWY (Y), or Fyrnwy, a river in Montgomeryshire. Cantref y Fumwy, one of the five Cantrefs of Powys Wenwynwyn, con- taining the commots of Mochnant uwch Ehaiadr, Mechain is Coed, and Uannerch HudoL Burn Water, in Scotland ; Hoburn or Holburn, a brook near London. See Efyrmvy.
Ffabiali, un o feibion Brychan Brycheiniog o'r Ysbaenes. Y rhai hyn aethant yn ben rheithiau (i. «., chief judges) yn Ysbaen. Vid. Neffel
Ffagan a DwYFAN, two preachers said to have been sent by a Pope called Eluther to convert the Britains in the time and at the request of King Lies ap Coel, about the year 160 ; by Latin writers called Fayanus and Duuianus or Deruuianus. In the British copy of the History of Tyssilio they are called Ffagan a Dwy wan ; but not a word in the British MS. of the Flamines and Archflamines, which they turned into bishops and arch- bishops, as Galfrid hath interpolated in his translation, who hath been since followed by all our historians.
[Llansantffagan, a parish and large village on Llai river in Gla- morgan ; a good church dedicated to St. Ffagan ; and at a little distance from it, Capel Ffagan in ruins. See Dyfan, — /. Jf.]
Ffakaon, probably kings, from Pharaoh.
Mor gadarn i fiwjr a fiaraon Ffrainc Ac ar ffrawdd o wystlon.
Cynddelwj i H. ap 0. Gwynedd.
[Or from Pharamond, first "King of France. — W. JP.] Ffaraon and Ffaran (n. 1.).
Ynghoed Ffaraon yngbadd. — Rhys Goch Eryri,
The Triadea has it Dimas Ffaran, where the dreigiau were hid by Lludd ap Beli. {Tr, 45.) Gwrtheym a ddatguddiodd y dreig- iau Ddinas Ffaran, yr hon a elwid wedi hynny Dinas Emrys. (Tr. 45.)
Ffarbras (n. pr. v.). Ffarbras Gawr.
Ffon yt trom a phen tramawr, Fferf a braisg ail Ffarbras Gawr,
Ehya NanmoTy i Sir R. Herbert.
Ffari or Ffarri. BodfFarri. This is [supposed] by Mr. Cam- den [to be] the Varia of Antoninus, a small city of the Eomans, or perhaps a fort only. There are ruins on a hill hard by, called Moel y Gaer. Mr. Camden guesses Varia to signify in British a pass, but we know of no such a word in the language.
Ffawydd. Caer Ffawydd (TV.), Hereford East. {Th. Williams,) See Trefawyth,
Ffenidwydd. Caer Ffenidwydd, Hwlffordd {Th, Williams),
Fferlex, the lands between Severn and Wye. [Elystan, arglwydd of Fferlex ; i. e., Athelstan, lord of Fferlex ; that is, all the lands between Severn and Wye. — W, D.]
Ffestiniog, church and parish in Meirion.
Ffichti, which should be wrote Phichti (n. pr.). They are also called Ffichtiaid, the Picts and Poictons, but rightly Phicht- iaid. Y Gwyddyl Phichti, i, e., the Irish Picts, are mentioned in the Triades (N"o. 41) to be one of the molesters of Britain that came into the island and never returned. These are the Scots that came over from Ireland to Argyleshire about the year 440 after Christ, and there mixt with the Picts, driving the princes of the land to South Britain for refuge. By the name given them in the Triades, of Irish Picts, it is probable they were painted men as well as the Pictish northern Britains. See also Vertot for Swedenland, etc.
Ffili, a man's name. Caerffili, a village and castle in Gla- morganshire ; the noblest piece of ruins in Britain, beyond all history. (E. liwyd, Notes on Camden,) Caer Ffili Gawr gynt oedd un o'r prif gaerau, canys nid allai 'r hollfyd ei hynnill tra bae fwyd ynddi. (T. Williams, Catalogue of Cities,) Camden says he doth not deny but it might have been a Boman garrison, but doth not know under what name. But what need is there to think it a Eoman garrison ? Might it not be a British ? Was it impossible for the Britains, after the Romans left them, to build a castle after the manner of the Eomans? The very name.
Caer Phili Gawr, shews it was built by a Briton. No Roman coins, etc., found here. (E. Llwyd's Notes.) See Caer VwL
Ffilin. Bryn Ffilin, in Llanfigel, Anglesey.
Ffinan Sant. Uanfifinan Chapel in Anglesey. He succeeded St. Aidan as apostle of the Northumbrians ; died a.d. 661. {Brit. Sanct, Feb. 10.)
Ffinant, a gentleman^s seat [at Llansantfifraid, Montgomery- shire ; q. d. Nant y Ffin, the boundary brook. — W. D.]
Ffiniog. Cantref Ffiniog, one of the four cantrefs of Caer- marthenshire.
Ffivion ap leuan.
Fflamddwyn, the name of the Saxon general that fought with
Urien Reged at the battle of Argoed Llwyfein, and was defeated.
Qu. whether this be the same that was married to Bun, daughter
to Culfynawyd Prydain, sister to Penarwen, wife of Owen ap
Urien. (Triades, 56.) He probably was, for in Marwnad Urien
it is said,
Pan laddawd Owain Fflamddwyn
Nid oedd fwy nog ef cysgeid. — Taliesin,
Fflandrysiaid, people of Flanders.
Ffleidur Fflam, map Godo, one of the tri unben Uys Arthur.
Fflemings. Castell Fflemings, not far from Tregaron, in Car- diganshire. The Fflemings, a nation from the Low Countries about Flanders, were settled about Milford Haven by Henry 1st to curb the Welsh. Camden says they came to England because their lands were drowned in the Low Countries ; but William of Malmsbury says that they came over because of their relation to Henry I's mother by the father's side, and to get rid of them he thrust into Ross as into a common shore, and to curb his enemies the Welsh. See FJlemysiaid,
Fflemis (r. Price), Flemings.
Fflemysiaid, Flemings.
Pan wnaeth balch odrndd bylchu Fflemysiaid Ffleimiaid graid gryd lofrndd.
Cynddelw, i H. ap O. Qwynedd.
Fflewyn Sant. Llanfflewyn Chai)el, Anglesey. Fflint (Y). Caer y Fflint, Flint town.
Print Caer y Fflint corph y wlad. — Tudur Aled.
Vixcont y Fflint, a Dyflfryn Clwyd, a Maelor Saisnig, a'r Hobeu, a Thref Euddlan, a'r Castell, ac a berthyn wrthai. {8tat. Bhudd- Ian,)
Fflint, Flintshire, one of the counties of North Wales. The town of Flint was called by the Britains Caer OalUstr, (T. Wil- liams, Catalogue) Mr. Camden has not attempted to give any etymology of it. Callestr signifies a flint stone.
Ffluk, river in Cardiganshire : hence Ystrad Ffiur, which is Latinized Strata Florida, which see. Here was the principal monastery of South Wales, where their noblemen and princes were buried, and here they recorded the acts and successions of their princes. (Garadoc.)
It appears the Britons had an ancient custom of giving the names of some famous persons to rivers, in order to perpetuate them, as the ancient Celtse gave them to stars and planets, as Saturn, Venus, etc.
Fflur was the name of Caswallon's queen, after whom he went as far as Eome. (Triades.) See Gaswallon. Severn (i. e., Haf- ren) had its name from the beautiful daughter of Lloegrin. The famous Bran {i. e., Brennus) gave a river in Denbighshire a name; others in Caermarthenshire. Meurig, a river in Ceretica, took its name from Meurig, son of Eodri Mawr, drowned there : so Braint in Anglesey ; so Afon Einion.
Fflur, daughter of Fugnach Gorr, cariad Caswallon ap Beli. (Tr, 53.) She either was a Eoman, or carried to Eome captive. I suppose the last.
Ffordun, Forden church and parish, near the Severn, west of the Long Mountain.
Drudlwyr i draffwryr i ar draffun Feirch oi drafferth rhag Ffordun,
CynddelWf i Yw. Cyfeiliog.
Ffordtn, tight or thick furred ; or perhaps Forden in Shrop- shire. GruflTydd Ffordyn ap Dafydd Vychan. See Ffordun.
Ffos, a word used in the ancient names of places, as Ffos y Bleiddiau ; Treffos ; Ffos Las in Trelech, Carmarthenshire ; y Ffos Ddu.
Ffos Golmon, a deep and long entrenchment of that name, thrown up, it seems, by some Irish general of the name of Col-
man. It lies between Bodavon Mountain and Tre Wynn in Anglesey, and is near the ruins of a town called now YCarMddi, where some treasures have been formerly dug up ; and on Bod- avon Mountain adjoining, a solid piece of gold was found about fifty years ago, as big as a man's foot.
Ffosod (n. 1.). Llyvjarch Hen in
Ffraid or Ffred Santes. This was an Irish lady and a famous nun, to whom several churches in Wales are dedicated. She died A.D. 523. Her name is Latinized Brigida. (See Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 422.) Llansanffraid and Ilansanffred. She was bom in the village of Fochart, in the diocese of Armach, in Ireland. Her English name is Brigid or St. Bride, and called the Virgin of Kildare. Her father was Diptacus (Dubtach), a nobleman {lorwerth Fynglwyd), and her mother Brocessa or Brotseach. Her life is wrote by Cogitosus, etc. {Brit Sanct, Feb., p. 91.) Her British legend is wrote by lorwerth Fynglwyd. See San- ffred.
Ffrainc, the kingdom of France, whose ancient Latin name was Gallia, and by the Britains Oalvlad, in the present ortho- graphy Gallwlad, i, e., the country of the Galls or Gauls, and more anciently Ceiliait and Geiliiaid, i, e., Celtae. So the Irish call a Frenchman GalUa, It had the name o{ Ffrainc given it about the time the Saxons came to Britain, when Clovis, King of the Franks (a German nation), conquered Gaul, or most part of it, t. e., about the year 500.
It is remarkable that the British copy of Tyssilio calls it Ffreiiic before its conquest by the Francks, which is a mark of its being since ihat conquest compiled or translated from the Latin ; and thus some author inaptly calls Britain England in the time of the fiomans. [Do not insert this to invalidate all British history. — W, 2?.]
Pezron's account of a people called Franks, living about the Seine, who were Gauls, before ever the present French came from Germany, gives a reason why our British writers call Gaul by the name of Ffraingc before the time of Clovis. See Ffranc.
Ffrainc Ddwyreiniol, Franconia.
Ffranc or Ffrangc, a Frenchman (pi. -od), and sometimes a Saxon ; any enemy from the coast of Gaul or the North called
by the Britons Ffranc, FfraTic, in the Gaulish, is free : hence the name of Franks or French.
Ai gwell Ffranc na ffrawddns Gymro
Prydydd y lUoch, i Ly w. ap lorwerth.
Ffranc ar ffo fibrdd no ofyn. — Myrddin,
Ffranc, a servant.
Mi am ffranc day am callawr.
Ffranciscinius, a saint mentioned in the Extent of Anglesey, in Hen Eglwys, com. of Malldraeth. The inhabitants say the church of Hen Eglwys bears the name of Saint Ilwydion, t. e., the Grey Saints ; and in the Extent it is said that the lands of that township are held of the Saints Franciscinius and Bacelli- nus. Who these are I cannot tell, unless the first be Francis, the founder of the Franciscan order about A.D. 1208 ; and the other St. Baglan, from whom Uanfaglan in Caernarvonshire took its name. Whosoever they were, the inhabitants of this town- ship had surprising privileges under them. See Hen Eglwys.
Ffkanco or Ffrancon. Nant Ffranco, a brook in a valley of that name in Eryri, falling, perhaps, into. Ogwen or Ogfaen [which runs by Bangor. — W, i?.]
Ffrangeg, lingua Gallica,
Ffraw (fl.) : hence AberflFraw, a church and town in Anglesey on that river, once the seat of the Princes of Northmen [North Wales]; Lat. Gadiva. {Ain,sworth,)
Ac am ddv^ylan Ffraw ffrowyll. — Llywarch Hen,
Ffrawns {Ehys Nanmor and Hyioel SwrdwaV),
Ffred Lei an (St.), daughter of Cadwtheg Wyddel. {MS,) See Sanffred and Ffraid,
Ffrever, a sister of Cyndylan. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.)
Ffridyswtdd. {MS) A gwyl Ffridyswydd y bu farw a.d. 1400.
Ffrwdwr ap Gwrfawr ap Cadien.
Ffrydlan river falls into Dyfi.
Ffuchdan, vulg6 BicMan, nomen loci in Flintshire; Angl. Beighton,
Ffwg neu Ff^c ; Angl Ffoulkes or Fulk.
Ffwyddog, in Cwm lou, Herefordshire. [F/aivyddog, heechy,
from ffor-wydd, bean-bearing wood. See Survey of Sovih Wales by W. D.— JT. JD.]
Ffyllon. Cwm Nant Ffyllon, in Powys Land. («/. D.)
Ffynnon and Ffynhon, a spring properly, though used for a well. The first springs or lakes from which rivers have their beginning, are sometimes called /ynTum; as Ffynnon Vrech, Ffjoinon Las, and Ffynnon Velen, which are lakes ; Ff3mnon Ber- than, Anglesey ; Ffynnon Fedwjrr [Llywarch Hen) ; Treffynnon (i. e., the Well Town) ; Forth y Ffjmnon, Fountain Gate ; y Ffyn- non Wen ; Pant y Ffynnon.
Ffynnon Fedwyr, in Llywarch Hen, Marvmad Cadwcdlavm. [St Peter's Well, Cardiganshire. Ffynnon y Llyffaint in Snow- don.— W, D.]
Ffynnon Las, a lake under the highest peak of Snowdon, which Mr. Edw. Llwyd Englishes the Green Fountain, and ob- serves that the water of some lakes on the Alps inclines to that colour. {Notes on Oamden,)
Ffynnon Lugwy, or Llyn Llugwy, is about a mile from Nant Ffranco. See Ffranco,
Ffynnonogion, a gentleman's seat. («/". D.) Price.
Gabriel, one of the seven archangels; according to the British tradition, the chief keeper ; Mihangel, defender of the faith ; Raffel, carrier of prayers ; Uriel hath the charge of fire ; Sariel hath the charge of waters ; Eheiniel looks after animals ; Pen- achiel hath the care of the fruits of the earth, (ff. Dafydd ap leuan.) Perhaps a Druidical notion. [It is more likely a Popish notion, as the Druids had no notion of angelical names before the use of Scripture. — W. D.]
Gadles, in Aberdar parish, Glamorgan. [Y Gadlas. — /. 3f. Y Gadlys, a seat in Glamorgan, parish of Llangynwyd. — I. M.].
Gadlys or Gadles (Y), or, as some will, Y (Jauadlys, a place in Anglesey, said to be the seat of Maelgwn (ap Owain Gwyn- edd, I suppose). See Cadlys,
Gadwy, mab Geraint. {Tr, 89.)
Gafenni, Avenna (fl.).
Gafran or Gavran, mab Aeddan. (TV. 34.) This name is
Latinized Gabranus. Teulu Gafran mab Aeddan, pan fu'r ddif- ancoll, a aethant i'r mdr tros eu harglwydd. This difancoU seems to have been that great battle where the Picts were so utterly defeated that it is said they lost their very name. (TV. 34.) Bede mentions a battle fought a.d. 603, between Ethelfrid and Edan, whom he calls "King of Scots. In the Saxon Chronicle he is called JE^\fBii, i. e.,iEgthan ; in the Latin of Bede, Aedanus. This was Aeddan Vradwg mentioned in Tr. 46, who had the civil war with Rhydderch Hael ; and was no Scot, but a British Pict. His son Gafran fought under him in this battle.
Gafran or Gavran, King of Scots ; Mac Domangard {Ogygia, p. 472) succeeded his brother Gongall, A.D. 558.
Gainor (n. pr. f.).
Gair (n. pr. v.). Geyr mab Geiryoet (TV. 50.), un o'r tri gor- uchel garcharor.
Galabes. Llyn Galabes ; Ffynnon Galabes.
Aber i'm grndd heb rym gwres
Yw gwlaw o wjbr Galabes. — Leunjs Morganwg. See Galadea.
Galades. Ffynnon Galades, yngwlad Ewias (or Evias), a fountain or well frequented by Myrddin, where he was found by Emrys's messengers when he wanted his assistance to build a tomb for the slaughtered Britains in Salisbury Plain. {Tyssilio.) Oalabes in the Latin of Galfrid.
Galath (a pr. v.) YOreal apud Tr. 61.
Galedlom (Y), a gentleman's seat {J. D.) ; q.d. hard and bare.
Galfridus Arthurius or Monemuthensis, Bishop of St. Asaph, translator of Tyssilio's History of the Britons, called Bnit yBrenhinoedd. Camden (in Monmouthshire) says that he was born in Monmouth, and corrupted the British history, and was well skilled in antiquities, but not of antique credit, having inserted ridiculous fables in that work, and was censured by the Church of Bome. This is pretty modestly said by Mr. Camden, and not of the same stamp with the character he gives Galfrid and the British History in other parts of his Britannia, to make room for his own plan. It is observable that one of the heavy charges exhibited or put by Mr. Camden in the mouths of his learned men against Tyssilio's British History translated by Galfrid, viz.,
that it (together with his Merlin) stood condemned, among other prohibited books, by the Clmrch of Borne, hath actually happened to himself as a just judgment for that invidious remark ; for we read in his life, in Gibson's edition (1695), that his zeal against Popery lost him a fellowship in Oxford, brought most of his works under the censure of the Church of Bome, and exposed him to the lash of Parsons, Possevisius [Possevinus ?] and others. Why, then, is the British History to be worse looked upon because Galfrid's translation stood condemned by the Church of Eome ?
Leland says Galfrid was a learned man in prose and verse, as learning then went; and that there was hardly any learning then but among the monks, and that he believed he was a faith- ful translator, and that he translated also into Latin the pro- phecies of Myrddin Emrys ; that he divided the History into eight books ; that in some copies there are but four ; but that the British History contained nine books. Mr. Leland was mis- informed ; for the original British History hath no divisions of chapters or books at all, which is a proof of its antiquity.
Leland says he also saw Merlinus Caledonius' Life in verse, wrote by Galfrid, etc., etc. ; and besides the British History, he translated out of the British into Latin a book of the £xile of the British Clergy.
The native Welsh know nothing of either the names of Jeffrey or Galfrid, and never heard that a person of such a name ever meddled with their history, so little has been the repute of his Latin translation among them who have the original British History under the title of BnU y Brenhinoedd, wrote by Tyssilio ap Brychfael Ysgithrog. On the contrary, among the English, French, and other nations, the history is known by no other name but Galfridus Monemuthensis, or Jeffrey or Geoffrey of Monmouth, or Geoffrey ap Arthur, or the Monk of Monmouth ; or sometimes, when it is quoted by a moderate man without abuse, it is called the British History, or the Britan History. Infinite pains has been taken to depreciate it, and its defenders but few, which shews the strength of the building at first.
See Wynne's Preface to his edition of Caradoc's Chronicle ; see also Thompson's Preface to his English translation of Galfrid 's
Latin translation of the British History ; and Sir John Pryse's Defence of the British History ; and Dr. PoweL Bishop of St. Asaph, 1151 ; died, 1165. (MS.)
Galgagus, a King of the North Britons, mentioned by Tacitus. His British name was OwdUawc or Gwallog, See Camden's blander in Caledonia. There is a place called Gwallog near Aberystwjrth in Ceredigion ; and a bank in the sea there called Sam Wallogy i. e., Gwallog's Causeway. See Qwalhg.
Galon, Oalli.
Gals, an island in the Grecian sea, where Urp Luyddog and his British auxiliaries settled after destroying Macedon and Greece and the Temple of Apollo at Delphos. This was Brennus' and Belgius' expedition. {Tr, 40.) See Avencu
Gall or Gwall (n. pr. v.). Gall, mab Dysgyfedawc, one of the three iinben Deifr a Brynych, t. e,, chief hetuls of Deira and Bemicia. (2V. 16.) He killed Gwenddolau's two birds, which were yoked together by a gold chain, and devoured two bodies of the Cymru for their dinners, and two for their suppers. Un o'r tair mad gyflafan. (?V. 37.) What the meaning of this story is is'hard to determine, unless this Gweuddolau gave the bodies of the Cambrians killed in battle to feed vultures or eagles.
Gallgo (St.): hence Llanallgo, Anglesey. See Gildaa ap Caw.
Gallgwn, the Gauls. {TyssUio.) Nant Gallgwn, Gaul-brook,
Gallgwn. Henry ap Gallgwn Ddu o Feilienydd.
Gallt y Celyn, a gentleman's seat {J. D.)
Gallt Gadwallon, where a battle was fought by Ywein Cyf-
Gwaed ar wallt rhag Allt Gkdwallawn
Yn Llannereh yn Lleudir Merviniawn.
OynddeLWf i Yw. Cyfeiliog.
Gallt y Teyfan.
Gwrdd y gwuaeth uch Deudraeth Dryfan.
LI. Br. Mock,
Gallu, father of St. Hian or Elian Ceimiad ; in the Pedigrees
called Alltud Bedegawg.
A'i gyllell y gwnaeth Galla
Torn i ben nid hir y bu. — (?. ap Gweflyn.
See mUyd and AUUid.
Gallwyddyl, in Taliesin Oallwyddely the most ancient Ganls, first planters of Britain, called by the Irish Oall Oaidelia, the people of the Hebrides. The Irish call the Hebrides {Ogygia^ p. 360) Inse Gall, i, e., Ynysoedd Gall, the Islands of the Gauls ; Cambro-British, ffeledd. Erch a Heledd, the Orcades and Heb- rides. I wish to find in what the language of those islanders difiers from the Irish.
Gam or Gam, one-eyed ; the surname of a valiant Cambro- British captain, Syr Davydd Gam, who served in France under Henry V, and was there killed a.d. 1414. His expression to the King, who sent him to reconnoitre the French, is well known : "Enough to kill, enough to be taken, and enough to run away."
Ganllwyd (Y), peth o dir Phylip Dorddu. Mae Ue o'r enw ger llaw Dolgellau. [Brenhinbren y Ganllwyd. Triugeinllath y Ganllwyd.— W. R]
Gannoc, a blundering name given by some Saxon writers to Diganwy, when rebuilt by Henry III. {Mdtth, Paris, p. 924.) See Teganwy.
Gar, qu. Uangar [Llan Garw Gwyn. — W, D!\, a church and parish in the deanery of Edeimion, Merionethshire.
Garanawg Gloywddigar ap Cwnnws.
Garanie. Gwyddno Garanir, lord of Cantref Gwaelod.
Cwynfan Gwyddno Garanir Y trees Duw y dwfr tros dir.
Q. Glyn, i Rys Abad Tetrad Fflur.
Gardd, properly a garden. Yr Ardd Ganol, one of the two commots of Gwent Llwg, Monmouthshire.
Gardd y Medd, a gentleman's seat in Abergeleu.
Garddun Arddunig, mother of Tyssilio ap Brochvael. (Cyti- ddelw)
Garddwr, a headland in the north of Anglesey (i gardd and dwr, or garth and dwr^ or rather garwddwr, i, e., rough water). A gentleman's seat in Denbighshire, qu. ? Evan Oethin of Gar- ddwr and Glascoed [or leuan Gethin of Gartheryr and Glasgoed. — W.D,-]
Gared (Y), peth arglwyddiaeth Syr Roger Vychan.
Gargoed, a place near Ystrad Fflur (q. d. gardd goed).
Garmon, St. Germanus. This was German the Gaul that came to Britain with the title of Legate from Pope Celestine I in the year 429, and was pitched upon by a synod of Gallican bishops to suppress the Pelagian heresy. He was made by the Emperor Honorius Visitor of Auxerre, made Bishop against his ^U. and succeeded Amator. In his British journey he queUed a storm at sea, stopped fires, etc., put to flight the Picts and Saxons without fighting, and having confuted the Pelagians, returned home ; but was called to Britain a second time, cured the son of Elaphius, preached, and returned home. {Brit, Sanct) There was another Gannon, Bishop of Man. Bede says he was a Prince of Auxerre in Burgundy, and his comrade. Lupus of Troyes in Champaign. It is a wonder Lupus had not a church dedicated to him as well as Gannon. [Ilanfleiddan or Llan- bleiddian, which see, was dedicated to him. He is called Bleiddan Sant in 61d Welsh MSS. — LM,] See Bede's supersti- tious account of these men. Germanus AUisidorensisj a.d. 470. [MS.)
St. Garmon ap Redcus o Ffraingc a ddaeth yma yn oes Gwr- theym Gwrtheneu. {MS.) Garmon died a.d. 435. (K Llwyd, Notes on Camden, Flintshire.) How comes he to be in Britain in the time of Gwrtheym, about the year 460 ?
Llanarmon, a chapel in Lleyn ; Ilanarmon yn lal, a church and parish in the deanery of lal, Denbighshire ; Llanarmon, a parish in Dyfliyn Ceiriog, Denbighshire ; Cappel Garmon, in the parish of Llanrwst. [Ffynnori Garmon in Mechain is Coed. — W, D.] See Nennius.
Garn (Y), one of the three commots of Bhos (Roose) in Pem- brokeshire.
Garneddwen (Y), a gentleman's seat [inLlanwddyn parish. — J. 2>., W. D.]
Garth, a word used in the composition of names, signifying a promontory generally, a mountain, or sometimes an island-hill on a river.
Garth Eryr, a gentleman's seat ; Garth Beibio ; Garth Gar- mon, a gentleman's seat ; Garth Gwidol, in Emlyn ; Garthmael, a gentleman's seat (Jones); Garth Grugyn Castle (Oararfoc, p. 308); Garth Lwyd, a gentleman's seat ; Garth Branan, a headland near
Bangor Vawr. Llanfair Oarth Branan was the ancient name of Bangor. Garth Gogo manor, Caermarthenshire ; Garth, a gentle- man's seat, Brecknockshire ; Garth, a place near Bangor Vawr ; Gogarth, a headland near Conwy; Ilwydiarth, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey and Montgomeryshire ; Garth Angharad, near Dolgelleu. Gorarth (k gor and garth), Llanvihangel ar Arth, Caermarthenshire.
Gabth Bbibo, lands given by Cynan (Wledig) to Tydecho, the abbot of Mowddwy, in atonement for an attempt to ravish Teg- fedd his sister ; he and his followers having been struck with blindness in the attempt, or lost themselves in a fog.
Garth Beibio is a church and parish in the deanery of Welsh Poole, on the river Twrch, in Caereinion Ymhowys, now Mont- gomeryshire. See Tydecho,
Garth AN, qu. ? See Arrvnjyn,
Gakth Branan, a headland near Bangor. Llanfair Garth Branan, the name of Bangor Church, which Br. Willis fancifully makes to be Edgarth Frenin.
Garth Celyn, the place where Prince Llewelyn ap Gruffyth dated his letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury in defence of his proceedings against the English who oppressed his people {IT, Llwyd, 1281.) See Abergarth Celyn.
Garth Ertr, a gentleman's seat.
Garth Garmon, a gentleman's seat.
Garth Geri, where Tudur Aled the poet lived. See TvdurAled,
Garth GtOGO Manor, Caermarthenshire.
Garth Grugyn, a castle rebuilt by Maelgwn Vychan, a.d. 1242. {Caradoc, p. 308.)
Garth Gwidol, in Emlyn, qu. ? Arglwydd Garth Gwidol See Gwidol river.
Garth Gynan, a gentleman's seat in Dyflfryn Clwyi
Garth Lwyd, a gentleman's seat. (/. D.)
Garthmael, a gentleman's seat. Jones. {J, D)
Garth Maelawc, a place in North Wales, where there was a battle fought between the Britains and Saxons, a.d.721. ((7ar- adoc) Qu. whether Garth Maelan near Dolgelleu, or perhaps Garth Meiliog, a gentleman's seat ? {J, D) Wynne of Cwm- mein and Garth Meiliog.
Garth Mathrik, nunc Brecheiniog. Garth t Neuadd^ a gentleman's seat in Bhuthyn land. Garth Orbren (n. 1.).
Garth Ynghegidfa, a gentleman's seat. Wynne. Garthyniawo (n. L). Garw. Idris Arw ap Gwyddno Garanir. Garwen, daughter of Henyn, a concubine of King Arthur. {Tr, 60.) Garwy (n. pr. v.), cariad Creirwy.
Nid wyf ddi hynwyf hoen Creirwy
Hoywdeg am hndodd mal Garwy. — H. op Einion.
Garwyn. Cynan Garwyn.
Gavelford. Here a cruel battle was fought between the Britons and the West Saxons of Devonshire, a.d. 828, and after a great slaughter of many thousands the victory uncertain. (Powel, Car., p. 25.) And the next year Egbert brought all the Saxon kings under his dominion, and changed the name of Britain into England.
Gavelkind or Gavalettum, a kind of ancient tenure in Britain where the father's lands were divided equally among the children ; a custom proper enough in a young colony, but de- structive in an ancient settlement. English antiquaries have puzzled themselves to derive the word from the Saxon tongue, when they might with great ease have found it in the British. Oavad is a hold ; and gynt, of old time ; so gavadgyrU is ancient tenure. Or if, upon the first plantation of the island, Keint (i, e., Kent) was the first country inhabited, as the name infers, then gavelgeint meant the Kentish tenure, which is still of the same signification, and means plantation tenure,
Gaulon, enw lie (Ceretica), signifying a deep shore. Dafydd Goch o Gaulon.
Gawnt, Gaunt, the metropolis of Flanders.
Gynt a'i law esgnd Gawnt a losgodd. — 8ion Tudur.
Gawen (n. pr. v.).
Gawy (n. pr. v.) {Dr. Davies.) Caer Gawy, an old British camp near Prysgage, Cardiganshire.
Gawran or Gafran, tad Ayddan Vradog.
Gefni : see Oefni, Geifr, river. Aber y Geifr. Geiriol ap Cenau ap Coel. (Rhys Ooch Eryri.) Geieionydd, qu. Uyn Geirionydd, a lake about two miles from Trefriw in Eryri Mountains. It is mentioned by TaUesin.
A wn i enw Anenryn Wawdrydd
A minnen'n trigo nglan Llyn Geirionydd.
It is ako mentioned in the eighth battle of Ilywelyn ap lor- werth, if not falsely transcribed for Meirionydd :
Engiriawl rnbeth am rybydd angerdd Ar gerddgerdd Geiryonydd.
Gelbenefin (n. pr. v.), cog Elidir Mwynfawr. {Tr. Meireh, 1.)
Geleu (fl.) : hence Abergeleu, a village, church, and parish, in Denbighshire.
Gell (Y), qu. whether contracted from Oelli. Coed y Gell (q.d.Coed y Gelli),a rock above Dulas Sand in Anglesey, fonneriy abounded with hazle-trees : the sand, in digging, is found full of them. Qu. whether it would not make good manure ?
Gelleu river runs by the town of Dolgelleu, through a valley of that name (Meirion).
Gelli Auk, the Golden Grove.
Gelli Dabvawc, a place where the men of G^yr, Brecheiniog, and GwentUwg, met the English and Normans, and fought them and put them to flight, A.D. 1094 {Caradoc, p. 153.)
Gelli Dywyll, in Cenarth, Carmarthenshire.
Gelli Felgaws, Glamorganshire. ' Gelli Gandryll (Y), The Hay, Brecknockshire.
Gelli Gar, a parish, Glamorganshire. [ffeHi ffaer, where there is an old Soman fort, from which the place takes its name. — /.Jf.]
Gelli Gariad, Love's Grove, Cardiganshire.
Gelli Gogau, Cardiganshire.
Gelli Gynan, a township. (/. D,)
Gelli Iorwerth, a gentleman's seat in Trawsfynydd.
Gelli Onnen. Mynydd Gelli Onnen in the parish of lian- gyfelach ; a monument found in a earn. {E, Llwyd,)
Gelli Wastod al. Wastrawd, in Llangyfelach, Glamorgan- shire.
Gelli Wen, in Trdech, Caermarthenshire. Gelliwig, one of Arthur's palaces in Cornwall. G^Uiswick in MiKord Haven seems to be of the same origin.
I Gelli Wig ag i'w Uys.— 2V. 46.
Y Wig, near Bangor, and another near Aberystwyth.
Gelokwydd. Cefn Gelorwydd, a place mentioned by Llygad Gwr in an ode to Lly welyn ap Gruflfydd.
Gemeirnon Hen, father of Geraint Hir. {Tr. 62.)
Genee DiNLLE, q. d. Geneu'r Dinlle. Phylip Gruffydd o Ene'r Dinlle.
Generys, verch Madog ap Gronwy.
Generys Vechan ap Rotpart.
Geneu'r Glyn, a pass on the borders of South Wales, near Aberdyvi At a place called now Uanvihangel Genau'r Glyn there was a castle of Walter Espec the Norman, called to this day Castell Gwallter. There is a manor or lordship here that goes by the name of Arglwyddiaeth Geneu'r Glyn (Powel, Oar,, p. 189); perhaps meaning Glyn Ystwyth, Glyn Eheidiol, or Glyn Aeron.
Oeneu*r Glyn is one of the three commots of Cantref Penwedig in Cardiganshire. (Price, Descr.) There are several forts or castles in the pass ; as Castell Caletwr, C&stellan, etc.
Geneu'r Glyn signiiSes the mouth of the valley ; perhaps of Glyn Dyfi.
Geneuwy, Geneva (n. L).
Genhillyn (n. pr. v.). Cadifor ap (Jenillin.
Genhylles (Lat. Venilia), daughter, or an adopted daughter, of Claudius Caesar, married to Gweyrydd, King of Britain, upon a peace and an alliance made between them ; so that this accounts for Claudius* success and short stay then in Britain, as he was assisted by Gweyrydd to subdue the northern islands, which Tyssilio calls Ore. This Gweyrydd is called in Latin Arviragus, and some British writers call him Gwerydd Anoyneddog and Adar Weriedog,
Genilijn ap Gwaithvoed ap Elffin.
Genissa ach Gloyw, married to King Gweirydd.
Genoa, Geneu wy or aw ; but rather Geneva is Geneuwy.
Geraint (n. pr. v.); Lat. Gerontius. (H. Llwyd.)
Geraint Caerwys Spaen,
Geraint ap Elidir was the 43rd King of Britain.
Geraint mab Erbin, one of the three Llynghesawg (admirals) of Britain, or owners of fleets, in King Arthur's time. {Tr, 20.) A prince or nobleman of Dyfnaint {E, Llwyd, from Marwnad Geraint by Llywarch Hen.)* Geraint ab Erbin ab Cynfawr, the 7th after Eudaf Hen, about a.d. 530.
Geraint Hir ap Gemeimon Hen, in King Arthur's court. (2V. 62.)
Geraint, a prince of the Britains who fought Ina A.D. 716. Kil Charan in Scotland. Gil Geraint (n. L), Dyfed.
Gerardus, Bishop of Llandaf.
German, or St. Garmon, a disciple of St. Patrick and the first Bishop of Manaw (the Isle of Man), a Briton brought from Bri- tain by St. Patrick, a.d. 447. {MS. Ghron, ap. Usher, p. 335.)
Gernerth Castle. {Jo, Major, 1. i, c. 5.) This is Gwrtheyrn- ion Castle, where Aurelius Ambrosius burnt Gwrtheym and his family.
Gerontius. {BedCy 1. i, c. 11.) He is called Count Gerontius, and belonging to Constans, son of Constantine, was Qwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu, who is called by Tyssilio larll ar Went ac Erging ac Euas ; and who killed (or contrived the death of) Constans, whereby he got the crown. {TyssUio) Bede was quite in the dark about this affair, though the next king of Britain he names is Vortigem, who called in the Saxons. Why would Count Gerontius kill Constans, after he had made him king of a monk, but to succeed him as king ? And so the British history says Gwrtheym Gwrtheneu did, which was the real name of this person called here by Bede by the names Of Gerontius and Vortigem. Others say Gerontius kiUed himself after he had killed his friend Alanus.
Gerwerth, qu. ? IlanvihaDgel Gerwerth, a church and parish in Gaermarthenshire.
Gerwryd (n. 1.). Gorthir Gerwryd, a place where Llywelyn ap lorwerth encamped with the prime men of Gwynedd.
Qorthoei drai draws a hjd
Gorthir y gelwir Gerwryd. — Cylch Llywelyn,
Gerwyn ap Brychan Brycheiniog.
Gerwyn Fawr (Y), a gentleman's seat. (/. D)
Geta, the 81st King of Britain.
Gethin : vide Cethin.
Gevenni or Gavenni (fl.), Gdbannium : hence Abergavenni, now Aberganni (Lat. Abergennium and Abergavennium), i. e., Os- tium Gobanii, the fall of Gevenni into the Wysg.
Gevisse, Bede's name for the West Saxons Q.. iii, c. 7); whe- ther from Suas or Eimas ?
Gilbert (n. pr. v.), a.d. 600. Gilbert mab Cadgyffro, one of the three yscymydd aeran. {Tr, 29.)
GiLDAS (n. pr. v.), a name famous among the ancient Britains, of which there were four.
GiLDAS, the British poet and historiographer. He is men- tioned by TyssQio in his British History, by Ponticus Virunnius, by Lilius Greg. Giraldus, and by Leland. He lived in the time of Claudius the Emperor, a.d. 47 ; conveyed to Italy by Blasius, says Robert Vaughan {Gomman-Place Book, MS,).
Ponticus Virunnius says (p. 10) that Gildas the poet and his- torian turned the Molmutine Laws into Latin, and King Alfred into English. So Galfrid's Latin edition in the reign of Belinus ; but in the British copy only plain Gildas. The same Ponticus Virunnius says that Gildas, the noble British poet, who lived in the time of Claudius, turned certain verses out of Greek into Latin, — " Diva potens," etc. He also (p. 14) says the account of the contention between Lludd and Minniaw is wrote by Gildas the famous poet and historian ; and also (p. 7) says that GUdas the poet wrote of the prophecy of the partridge which spoke in the
Gildas, a British monk, who, being of the Medrawd faction, retreated over to Armorica after the battle of Camlan, and there wrote that bitter invective against the princes of the insular Britains which is called his epistle [de] Eoscidio Britannia, though, from several marks in it, it appears that the succeeding monks have fingered it to their own purpose. He was the son of Caw o Brydyn, i, e,, Scotland, bom in the valley of Clwyd, near Dun- britton, says Caradoc ; and Medrawd's sons, who were killed by Cwstenyn, were his ne^liews, which was the real cause of his venom . in that epistle against the British nation in general.
Either that epistle hath been corrupted, or else Oildas did not understand the British tongue ; for Cuneglas doth not signify Yellow Butcher, as that epistle says ; and Mr. E. Ilwyd hath, out of compliment to Gildas, made Cynglas of it.
He is called Gildas Badonicvs because he mentions the battle of Mons Badon to have been the year he was born, which Usher says was in the year 520 ; others, 493 ; and by his epistle it appears that he was cotemporary with Gwrthefyr ap Erbin, King of Demetia, whom he abuses sufl&ciently : — ** Tu Vortipori**, etc. ; so that he was alive in the year 564 (-B. Vaughan), and died A.D. 570 {Usher), 50 years of age. Arthur died 542, when GLI- deis Badonicus was 22 years of age, and under the instruction of Iltutus in Glamorganshire.
His father. Caw, was a Prince of Scotland, or of the royal family, and had a numerous family. He was brought up by St. Iltutus, as some say ; others, by Cattwg. Thence he went to Ireland, where he taught in the school of Armagh ; thence he went to Armorica, and founded the monastery of Eewys or Buys, and made him an oratory on the banks of the river Blavet, where he is supposed to have writ his epistle.
Englynion y Clywed mentions Gildas ap Caw, nulwr adgas ; and Bangar ap Caw, milwr clodgar ; and Huail ap Caw Cym- mwyll arail. Henwau'r Seintiau hath one ... Wrlai ap Caw. The Triades mentions one Huail ap Caw €is one of the chief npble oflScers in Arthur's army, — " un o*r tri taleithiawc cad"; i, «., one of the three diademed or crowned generals. In an ancient British MS. I find a note, — " Gildas mab Caw arglwydd Cwm Cawlwyd", i e., lord of Cwm Cawlwyd. Tyssilio quotes one Gildas who wrote the wars of Emrys Wledig. Usher quotes the
same on the authority, I suppose, of GaUrid, if not of , and
Bishop Iloyd seems to like the quotation.
There is an abbey in Bretagne at this day which bears his name. Some think there was another Gildas aYicienter than this, viz., that died about the year 5 1 2, called Gildas the Albanian, of which number is Usher. {Brit, Sanct)
Gildas ap Caw b Brydyn, commonly called Gildas Albanius. This Gildas' Life was wrote by Caradoc o liangarvan. Caradoc says he was the son of Naw, King of the Scots in the north, who
bad twenty-four sons, valiant and warlike, one of whom was Gildas, who applied himself to the study of sciences. In one copy of Caradoc, which John Bale had, he is called Navus, King of the Picts (not Scots). In Capgrave's Legend he is called Oariy £jng of Albania, which should be wrote Cau, In an anony- mous writer of some Gildas' life, found in the Florence Library, by J. k Bosco [it is stated] that Gildas' father is called Oaurnts, and his country Arecluta, which joins on the river Glut (pro- bably the Clwyd) in the North. Usher says it is Argetheliam (Argyleshire). The same anonymous author says Caunus had four other sons besides Gildas, and a daughter. This, therefore, is not the same with the first Gildas that had twenty-three brothers ; or he was misinformed about the number of his children. The eldest son was Cuillus, a great warrior, who suc- ceeded his father in the kingdom ; Maelocus, a religious, who built a monastery at Lyuhes in Elmael ; Aegreas, Allseco, and Peteona, a sister, had their oratories in the extreme part of the region. {Usher.)
This Cuillus is rightly called by Capgrave Howehis; by others, Hael, Hud, and Huelinus. For that in the monastery of Glas- tonbury it is wrote in an old register there that King Arthur defeated Haelus the King of Scotland, and subdued the country, whose brother the great historiographer was. Gildas Albanise m^ht be a historiographer. Caradog, in Gildas Albanius' Life, says that the twenty-three brothers of Gildas rebelled against Arthur, and that Huel, the eldest, a famous warrior, obeyed neither Arthur nor any other king. He often made descents from Scotland on Arthur's subjects. Arthur, the supreme king, hearing of this^ made war on him from place to place, and at last killed him at Mynaw, and was glad to overcome such a powerful enemy. This Mynmjo is Anglesey, says Usher; and the author of Mona ArUiqua follows him, and says young Arthur, A-D. 505, killed Howel ap Caw in Anglesey. Upon this Gildas came from Ireland, and pacified King Arthur with his tears and the petitions of all the British clergy, etc. Usher places this Gildas from a.d. 425 to 512 ; died 87 years old ; he had a great school in Ireland ; concludes he is a diflTerent person from Gildas the authpr of the epistle De Excidio BritannicB, published
by Pol. Virgil, and commonly surnamed Badonicns. But Bishop Nicolson will not allow this, and says that Gildas has been split into three. {Hist. Libr)
Gildas Nennius. Sir John Pryse in his Description of Wales, before Caradoc's Chronicle, quotes Nennius' book by the name of Gildas. In his Defence of the British History he also quotes Nennius and the rasures, in some numbers, of an account of time in it, by the name of Gildas, and says that Leland gives it to Nennius. This is the Gildas MS. in the Cotton Library, called there Gildas Minor. Humphrey Lloyd, in his Descrvpt Brit., p. 32, quotes Nennius in it by the name of Gildas, about Caer Vortigem. In Hengwrt Library the MS. of Nennius, wrote by the great antiquary Robert *Vaughan, and collated with all the copies in the public libraries, is entitled Gildas Nennius, In the account of the tombs of the warriors of Britain, wrote by Taliesin, one Caw is mentioned among the great warriors ; and in Englynion y Clywed three of his sons are mentioned. His son Gildas is there called the " hated warrior" (" Gildas ap Caw milwr adgas"), or perhaps the father was " adcas".
Lewis Glyn Cothi, who flourished about 1450, makes Caw, the
father of the Cambrian saints, to have resided at Twrkelyn in
Cynhedda fab Gwrda gwyn,
Caw eilwaith o Dwrcelyn. — Goxoydd Ynys Mofi.
These were two of the three Gwelygordd Saint Cymry ; and in the Grenealogies in the Iflyfr Goch o Hergest, in Jesus College, I find the three Gwelygordd to be Plant Cynedda "Wledig, Plant Brychan Brycheiniog, and Plant Caw o Frydain; which "Fry- dain" is a mistake of the transcribers for Prydyn, now called Scotland; called formerly the Unconquered Britain. But in enumerating the last Gwelygordd, the same Genealogies make them the children of Caw o Twrkelyn, which is in Anglesey. Is it not plain, then, that Caw came from North Britain with his family, and settled in Anglesey, at Twrcelyn, since we know that Cynedda's children, who came from Scotland, did settle over all Wales, having whole counties to their shares, as Cereticus had Ceredigion, etc., from whence they had drove the Irish Scots ? GiLEK (Y), a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. Kobei-t Price,
one of the Barons of the Exchequer in King William's time, w^ owner of this place ; as was Rhys Wynne ap Cadwaladr of Giler, who disputed in poetry with Thomas Price of Plas lolyn. See Price's Poems (MS.).
GiLFACH (Y), a house in Creuddyu, Caernarvonshire.
GiLFACH Wen (Y), a gentleman's seat. {Ow. a/p leuan Hen.) Gilfach Afal, a place in Cardiganshire.
GiRALDUS Cambrensis : see Silvester Giraldus,
Glais. Blaen y Glais, Glamorgan ; Pen Glais^ Cardiganshire.
Glam Hector, a Prince of the Irish Scots, whose sons invaded Britain about the year 440. Ysgroeth took Dalrieuda, part of the Alban ; Builke took the Isle of Man ; Bethoun took Deme- tia, with Gwyr and Cydweli. (Price's Append. Nennius.) Mr. Camden, in his first edition (1586)^ calls this person, out of Nennius, Ilam Odor ; but in Gibson's edition (1695) it is wrote Elam Hodor, and in the margin Clan Hodor. Strange incohe- rencies ! (See Gale's Nennivs.) See Clam Hodor.
Glamorgan, an English name corrupted from Gxolad Morgan or Morganwg, a county in South Wales, part of the territory of the Silures, as they were called by the Romans for Iselwyr. See Morganwg.
Glann, an ancient Celtic word signifying the side or bank or margin of a river, prefixed to the names of several places ; as, Glann Hafren (n. 1.) ; Glan Gwy (n. L) ; Glan'r Afon (n. L) ; Glann Alaw, Anglesey ; Glann Bran, Caermarthenshire.; Glan y Meichiaid in Meivod [this is Nant y Meichiaid — fF".2?.]; Glan Uyfni, Breknockshire. In Scotland: Glen Luce Bay; Glen Shield ; Glen Elg ; Ruther Glen.
Glan Wysg gwae galon ei wyr. — Bhisiart lorwerth.
[Glann, in South Wales, is a hill. — L M.]
Glan Alaw, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey, on the banks of the river Alaw.
Glan yr Annell. (i. G, Cothi)
Glan Cynllaith.
GlaS, blue, pale, or green, in the names of men and places, and as cognomens. C)mog Las, i. e., Cynog the Pale, a prince men- tioned by Gildas.
Y Marchog Glaa o Wynedd [o Wenlr- JT. D.], Sir William [ab] Thomas [of Ehaglan— W. !>.].
Y Bardd Glas o'r Gadair.
Brutus Darian Las, i, e., Brutus with the blue shield.
GrufiFydd Ms ap Grufifydd Frfts o Ddyfei
Ehiwlas; Bryn Glas; Glasgrug; Cruclas; y Maes Glas; y Uwyn Glas ; y Las Ynys ; and perhaps ClGlasgrug, a round gi*een hill within two miles of Abeiyst- wyth, where encamped, a.d (Potvel, p. 179.)
Glasvre (n. L).
Glasvyb, a river, qu. ? or perhaps glas voroedd.
Gorvn gwynt gwaeddian uch glan glasvyr Gorddwy clan tonnau Talgarth Ystyr.
Gleddyf Hir. Gwilym Gleddyf Hir, the surname given by the Britons to William de Longa Spata.
Gleis (n. pr. v.). Trioedd y Mdrch, 1. Hence Penglais near Aberystwyth.
Gleisur o'r Gogledd, father of Aedenawc. {Tr, 27.)
Glenfrinacht, in Antrim, Ireland.
Glengevin, a village near Londonderry.
Glessych, a river. Cwm Glessych.
Gyrryd eifr bran deifr bry dufrych a'th ffon Gwynion a gleision o flaen Glessych.
D. ab leuan Du, i S. Eorych.
Glewisig, a lordship in Deheubarth, from Glywis ap Tegid. (E. Llwyd, Notes an Camden!) Myrddin Emrys was found by King Vortigem's messengers in the country called Glevising. Nennius, c. 42, "Ad Campum Electi".
Glewlwyd Gafaelfawr. This seems to be a nickname of him that was King Arthur's chief porter or officer of the gates. He escaped alive from the battle of Camlan because he was so strong and big that nobody would venture to strike him. (2V.85.)
Gloddaith, enw Ue. Madog Gloddaith.
Gloyw. Caer Loyw {Triades) ; another copy, Caer Loyv ; Dr. Thos. Williams {Catalogtie), Caer Loew, which he Englishes . Glocester.
Tyssilio says there was a city called Caer Gloew, built by Gloew Kessar, the Emperor, on the river Hafren, on the confines of liOegria and Cambria, in memory of the marriage of his daughter, Genhylles, with Gweyrydd, King of Britain ; and that other writers say it was built by his son (i. c, grandson), Gloew Gwlad Lydan, who was born there, and who was Prince of Cam- bria after Gweyrydd. See Genhylles.
Gloywddigar: vid. Garanawg.'
Gloyw Imerawtr or Ymerodr, Claudius the Emperor. Caer Loyw, Gloucester.
Glyder, a mountain in Eryri ; perhaps Y Gludair.
Glyn, a very ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of
several places, signifying a little valley. Glyn in Dyfynnog
parish, Brecknockshire. Glyn in Ardudwy, a gentleman's seat.
Glyn Ebron, the valley of Hebron. {Bibl) Glyn Tawy. Gen-
eu'r Glyn, Cardiganshire, a lordship. Glyn Rothney, a lordship
in Morgannwc. Glyn Ilechog, the Abbey of Aberconwy here.
Glyn Wysg.
Glyn Tawy galont heol,
Glyn Wysg a wyl glaw yn ei ol. — D. Eppynt
Gl3mWrthaf ; yno 'r ymladdodd Goreu fab Cystenin Heusor fab Dyfnedig dros Arthur. {E. Llwyd) leuan y Glyn ap Moms.
Glyn Achalch or (as some copies) Glyn Achlach, a place in Ireland where Murchert, King of Ireland, and Gruffuth ap Cynan, afterwards King of Wales, had a meeting to settle the Welsh and Irish music. This was about the year 1097. Here the twenty-four measures were made for the harp and crwth. The four masters who composed them were Welsh and Irish : Alban ap Cynan, Rhydderch Foel, Matholwch Wyddel, and Alofif Gerddwr. And these measures had Irish names given them, which we find in our ancient music books in Wales to this day. Our Welsh books call this Murchert Mwrchan Wyddel; and some Irish writers call him Murchertacus, and Murchardo- cus, and Mariardachus. This seems to have been when Gruff, ap Cynan and Cadwgan ap Bleddyn were retreated to Ireland, Hugh Earl of Chester and Owen ap Edwyn having taken pos- session of their lands and of the Isle of Anglesey.
Glyn Ceiriog.
Glyn Clwyd.
Gwychder galon cler Gljn Clwyd a Thegaingl Ar wyth ng^in aelwjd. — Tudur Aled, See Dyffryn Chvyd. Glyn Cuwch : see Cuwch. Glyn Cyffin, terfyn Gwynedd a Phowys. (Dr. Davies in voce
Glyn Dyfrdwy, one of the three comots of Cantre 'r Barwn in Powys Vadog, now in Meirionyddshire. Hence Owen Glyn Dyfrdwy, who was lord of this place, took his name. He gave the English a great deal of trouble in the reign of
Glyn Glanoc (enw'r gwr), idem quod Glanec ; taid Pasgen ap Helic.
Glyn Ieithon, one of the four comots of Cantref Melienydd, between Wy and Hafren. See Ieithon river.
Glyn Lufon (enw lie), in some places writ Cwm liifon. liifon, avon.
Glyn Nedd, a gentleman's seat in Glamorganshire.
Glyn TwYMYN,.in Cemaes, a gentleman's seat, Montgomery- shire. See Tuyymyn river.
Glywis ap Tegid, who gave name to Glewisig or Nennius' Gleuising.
GoBANNiUM (Latin) ; Gefni or Cefni river. {E. Uvryd.)
GoDDAU. Cad Goddau or Gwaith Goddau, one of the three frivolous battles. (TV. 47.) It seems Goddeu was the name of a country in the north of Britain, the country of the Gadeni. John Major, in his Hist, Scot, 1. i, c. 15, mentions a battle of this kind between the Scots and Picts ; for that the Picts stole a (molossus) mastiff from the Scots, and would not restore it From words it came to blows, and to a most cruel war, in which all the neighbouring princes were engaged. Major makes Carausius (or, as he calls him, Carentius) to be the mediator between them about a.d. 288, and that they then turned all their arms against the Komans. The Triades says the battle of Cad Goddeu was fought on account of a bitch, a roe, and a lapwing ; and Tudur Aled calls the battle Oioaith Colwyn (the lapdog battle).
Taliesin hath an ode under this title, which is a battle of trees, — a banter ridiculing the insignificant cause of it.
Dygryeswyfl Fflamddwyn Ooddan a Beged i jmddulla. — Taliesin. See Owaith and Gad Ooddau.
Gwaith colwjn yn dwyn y dydd. — Tudur Aled,
GoDiR, borders of a country {E. Llwyd) ; perhaps godrey the skirts of a country. It is wrote also Ooddir or Oodhir.
GoDiR Dyfnaint, the borders of Devon {E, Llwyd), mentioned by Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Geraint.
GoDiB Pennog, the place where Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks Urien Beged lived.
GoDEBOG neu Godhebog (n. pr.). Coel Godhebog, a Prince of North Britain ; some say Hawk-faced.
GoDFBYD, son of Harald the Dane, subdued to himself the whole Isle of Anglesey, A.I). 969 (Powel, Oaradoc, p. 62) ; but did not keep it long. At this time the Princes of Wales were butchering one another, lago and leuaf and Howel and leuaf.
GoDO (n. pr. v.), father of Ffleidur Fflam. {Tr, 15.)
GoDBis ap Wiliam Goodrider, arglwydd Elbeth jm Normandy.
GoEDTBE (Y) parish, Monmouthshire.
GoGABTH, a headland at the mouth of Conwy river, whibh Mr. Camden calls a vast promontory with a crooked elbow, as if Nature designed there a harbour for shipping ; and here, he says, stood the ancient city of Diganwy, which was consumed by lightning ; and he supposes it to be the Dictum where, under the later emperors, the commander of the Nervii Dictenses kept guard ; and he says that Ganwy is a variation of Conwy. But the city Diganwy was several miles from that promontory, and Nature could not design a harbour where it was impossible to make one. There remains of it a gentleman's seat called Dig- anwy, and a tower called Castell y Fardi*e or y Faerdref. See Gannoc.
GoGEBDDAN, enw lie.
GoGERTHAN, a gentleman's seat, q. d. Gogarth Ann. Castell Ann just by.
GoGOF. Llywelyn Gogof ap leuau Uwyd.
GoGOFAU, a noted place in Caermarthenshire for its vast niunber of caves or drifts in the rock, in the nature of levels for mines ; but some think them to be the station of some army or legion who made these surprising caverns to secure themselves.
GoGOFAWG, full of caves. Ty Crogofawg, a place mentioned by Asser Menevensis, in Alfred's life, to be in the country of Mer- cia, which he interprets " speluncarum donius".
GoGON (idem quod Gwgon) ap Idnerth.
GoGYRFAN Gawk, or, according to the Triades, Ogyrfan Gawr, was father of Gwenhwyfar, the third wife of King Arthur, who was dethroned and ravished by Medrod; pronounced by the vulgar, in their traditional stories, Gogfran Gawr, for Gogrfan, the letter y being but a mute thrust in by the ancients, as Lloegyr for Lloegr. He was a Prince of some part of Cambria, as appears by his title of Cawr (for Prince), which was not com- monly used in Albania, Loegria, or Cornwall, unless removed there. (TV. 59.)
GoLEUBRYD verch Meredydd ap Ivan.
(iOLEUDYDD vcrch Brychau, Santes yn Llanhesgin, Gwent.
GOLIDAN Fardd, killed with an axe. (TV. 39 ; E. Lhoyd,) Gol- yddan Fardd, Cadwaladr*s poet, an. 660.
GoLVA, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) [Moel y Golfa or y Glol- fa.— W. 2?.]
GOLUCH : see Ihjffryn Goluch.
GoLUN. Caer Golun {Triades) ; Caer Colun in Nennius ; Caer Colwn in Usher, which he interprets Colchester. Galfrid makes it Colchester. Hence Ehoscolun in Anglesey.
GoLW^c ap Paun ap Meirchion.
GOLYDAN. (TV. 75.)
GoLLWYN (Pymtheg Llwyth) ap Gellan.
GoRARTH (k gor and garth), Uanvihangel Orarth, Caermar- thenshire.
GoRAU (n. pr. v.). Gorau fab Custenin, King Arthur's cousin- german, who released him Irom three prisons {Tr, 50) : from Caer Oeth ac Anoeth ; from Gwen Bendragon, who had him three days and three nights in a concealed prison under the stone. {Tr, 50.)
GoRBONiAWN, the 30th King of Britain.
GORDDINAM (n. 1.).
GORDDINOG, enw Ue 'n Uwch Conwy. Wynne Gorddinog.
GoRDDWFYN ap Gwiriawn ap Gwynnan ap Gwynfyw Frych.
GoBDDWK, enw He.
Y gwr o Orddwr a nrdda meneich Yn Maenan a Benna.
GuttoW Olytij i Rys Abad Ystrad Fflup ag Aberconwy.
GoRDDWR ISAF, one of the comots of Cantref Ystlyc in Powys Wenwynwyn.
GoRFYW (n. pr. v.). Cappel Gorfyw at Bangor Fawr.
GoRGORN : see Gwrygion.
GORGYRN : see Ovn^theyrnion,
GoRLECH, a river that falls into Cothi at Abergorlech.
GoRLLAis, qu. or Golles ? Cappel y Gorllais, near Holyhead.
GoRLLWYN. Llanvair Orllwyn, Cardiganshire.
GoRLLWYN (Y). Mynydd y Gorllwyn, one of the three heads or points of the top of Eifl Mountain in Caernarvonshire. See Eifl.
GoROLWYN (n. pr. v.) ; perhaps CoUwyn. See Colwyn,
GoRONAUT, id. quod Gronant,
GoRONWY (n. pr. v.). Goronwy niab Echel VorddwytwU, one of the tri unben llys Arthur. (Tr. 15.)
Goronwy Pefr o Benllyn. {Tr, 35.)
Grouwy mab Pefr Garanir
Arglwydd Penllyn hoyw wyn hir. — D. op OwUym,
GoRSEDD Orwynnion, mentioned in Lly warch Hen*s Marwnad Cyndylan. See Oorwynion.
GoRTHiR Gerwryd, a place where Uywelyn ap lorwerth en- camped with the prime men of Gwynedd.
Gorihoei drai draws a hyd
Gorthir y gelwir Gerwryd. — Gylch Llywelyn,
GoRWLEDYDD, foreign countries.
Caer lydan rhag gorwledydd.
' Huw Oae Llwyd^ i Gasiell Nedd.
GoRWYN. Mr. Stukely, author of the Palceographia BrUan- nica, A.D. 1752^ thinks this to be the Gaulish or British name of Onuna, the wife of Carausius, who, Zarabella says, was a Gaul or of Gaulish extraction ; but if he had understood the Celtic tongue he would have known that Gorwyn cannot be the name
of a woman, being of the masculine gender. It should have been Gorwen, anciently Gorven.
GoRWYNNiON, an ode of Uywarch Hen.
GrOBWTKiON, One of the sons of Lly warch Hen : hence pro- bably Gorsedd Orwynion in Marwnad Cyndylan Powys.
GossELiNUS. (Jo. Major, Hist. Scot, L ii, c. 3.) This Ls Cyhelyn, the Bishop of London, that took care of the sons of Constantine, — a strange transformation into Gosselin !
GosGOBDDFAWB, a sumame. See Ulidir,
GOTLOND (Tyssilio) ,GotlAnd or Gothland, an island of Sweden, in the Baltic, Ghthlandia ; and also the country of Scandinavia : in Latin, Ootiscomdia. {Mareri.)
GouANUS and Elga. (John Major, L i, fo. 20.) These are Gwynwas and Melwas, said in Tyssilio to have intercepted the virgins sent to Armorica.
GowEB, qu. ? Llangower, a parish and church in the deanery of Penllyn ; some say from Gwar y Llyn, as Llanuwllyn from Uwch y Uyn. [Others from Gwawr, mother of Llywarch Hen.
— W.'R]
GowEB Land : see Ov^.
GowBES. Ilys Gowres. See Cawres, [Llys Gowres, in L Gl. Cothi, etc., means Cans or Caurse Castle, near Westbury, Salop.
— W.D.'\ Gbadivel Sani
Gradivel y del o*i dy. — 0, M.
Gbaig Coch (Y).
Graianog, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire, in Uwch Gwirfau ; once a lordship given by King Cadwaladr to the Abbey of Clynnog Vawr yn Arvon. (Wyn., Hist, p. 11.)
Gramel ap Bhiryd ap Rhys.
Grasiak, the 92nd King of Britain.
Gbauch or Grauth. Caergrauch in Nennius, by the mistake of transcribers. See Cfravmt,
Gbawnt or Grant, a river in Lloegria, England.
Grawnt and Grant. Caergrant. (TV.) This is, by mistake of transcribers, called in Nennius Caer Grauch for Caer Grawnt {T. W,) ; by Usher, Caer Grawnt. Dr. Th. Williams makes it Cambridge, from the river Grant or Grawnt.
Greal, Sain Greal and St. Greal ; St. Gregory, says Mr. Edw. Ilwyd, p. 265. This is a supposed saint, and author of a book of divers stories wrote in the British tongue about Arthur, etc., wrote in the romantic style for winter nights' entertainment. I have formerly seen it in MS. at Hengwrt Library, and it is called Llyfr y Oreal ; very fair wrote on vellum, and in good languaga Dr. Davies mentions it in his Dictionary, in the word Oreal ; and by Mr. Edw. Ilwyd in his Arch. Brit, p. 262 and 265. In an ancient table once belonging to Glastonbury this book is quoted : "Ac deinde secundum quod legitur in libro qui dicitur Greal, Joseph Arimathea," etc. Usher, Primard, (Dub. edit.), p. 16 ; Capgrave, in the Life of Joseph of Arimathea, quotes a book, "Qui Sanctum Greal appellatur"; and Vincentius, in his SpeciU, Hist., mentions the same book of histories, and says it was called Gaal from a Oallice word (Welsh, I suppose), gradalis ot gradate, signifying a little dish where sonie choice morsel was put; and that it was not to be found in Latin, but common in GaUice. It is also mentioned in the Triades, 61. But hear what Archbishop Usher says of it : " Multa vero inde in fabulosa regii Arthuri acta. Lingua Anglicana a se edita transtulit Thomas Mailorius qui Sangreal vocem hie usurpat ad sanguinis realis notionem proximo accedentem." (Usher, Prim., p. 17.)
Greddyf or Greddf.
Greidiawl Galofydd, one of the three Galofydd of Britain.
{Tr. 24)
Argae Greidiawl wrhydri.
Llygad Qwr, i L. ap lorwerth.
Greiglas (Y).
Greiglwyd (Y).
Greigwen (T).
Gresfford or Gresford (perhaps in the British, Croesffordd), a church and parish in Denbighshire. Holt Chapel is in this parish, but in the diocese of Chester. (B. Willis.)
Greu, Caergreu, qu. (Tr. 35), the place where Gwrgi and Per- edur were killed by Eda Glin Mawr, their men having deserted them. The death of Gwrgi and Peredur is placed by the ^r. Catnlyr, in 584, and by the Vn. copy, 596.
Griccyll, a river in Anglesey, now Grigyll. Porth Grigyll.
Eowlands says from J. Agricola ; but rather from craig hyll, q. d. Oreigyll,
Griffki, a man's name ; Bishop of Menevia. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 175, A.D. 1113.) Tre Eiffri in Anglesey; also an inscription on a stone at Penrhose Bradwen in Anglesey. Griffri and Bryn Grifiri in Powys. {Tr. 63.) In the battle of Meigen, between Cadwallon and Edwin, a,d. 620, qu. ? Griffri ap Heilin o'r Frou Goch Ymhowys.
Grifft. Aderyn y grifft, griffon. {E, Llwyd.) See Gniff.
Grisli verch Dafydd ap Meyric.
Groeg, Greece.
Groeg Vawr, Italy {E. Lhvyd), Magna Grcecia, It was only- some skirts of Italy which had Grecian towns along the sea-coast.
Gronant, a river in Anglesey, and a gentleman's seat ; and a village in Englefield, from a river there. It belonged, in William the Conqueror's time, to the manor of Bhuddlan. {Doomsday Book.)
Gronw, Gronwy, and Goronwy (n. pr. v.).
Goronwy, Gruffadd, gwyr o anian plaid. — L, 01, Cotht.
Grudneu (n. pr. v.), un o'r tri glew. {Tr. 27.) Gruffudd, non Gryffydd (n. pr. v.), k gruff and tidd; some think from Gryphtis or Gryjps, a griffon, and udd, and not from cry and ffydd. Ffydd is a provincial Latin word, and so is gryps^ and not from BufinuB, as Camden thinks. Hence Griffith, Grif- fiths, Gruffin, Griffin, etc. It is also wrote Gruffydd ; but mostly by the poets wrote Gruffudd.
Gruffudd, qu. Glyn ap Dafydd ap leuan ap Einion.
Brig gwydd Syr Gruffydd a'i sal. — Sion Cleri. Rhybndd i Rnffadd ryffol. — D. ap Qwilym. Gruffadd wallt melynrhudd vakn. — 8wn Ceri. Gruffydd awenydd nniawn. — D. LI. ap LI. ap Gruffydd. Gruffudd Beisrudd Bowysran. — Tudur Penllyn.
Gruffudd ap Cynan, Prince of Wales, was cotemporary with William the Conqueror. He died a.d. 1137, after reigning vic- toriously fifty years. He was a great warrior, and a worthy, Ivise, and valiant Prince. I find in an old MS. noted that he was Owyn Gwyarchau that Myrddin prophesied of. His life
was wrote in Welsh by and translated into Latin by Nic.
Robinson, Bishop of Bangor {J, D), and is extant. He was father of Owain Gwynedd.
Gruffudd Llwyd ap Dafydd ap Einion Lygliw, o Bowys, a poet anno 1400 ; athro Ehys Goch o Eryri.
Grug, enw lie. Salbri o Rug yn Sir Feirion. Recti Rug ; but qu. ? See Trefy Grug,
Grugor (n. pr. v.), Lat. Qregorius, Gregory.
A'u gwragedd hwy (myn Grugor). — 8ion Oeri.
Grugor, the name of a place in Anglesey. Creigiau Si Gru- gor, St. Gregory's Rocks, near Aberffiraw.
Grangcod, cimychod y m6r,
O Greigiau'r hen Sain Grugor.— -H. BemaMt,
Grugunan, mentioned by Cynddelw i Ho. Owain Gwynedd. [GreginoD, qu. Gregynog ? — W. D.]
Grwst or GWRWST, the 14th King of Britain.
Grwst ap Clydno, the 55th King of Britain.
Grwst vel Gwrrwst ap Cenau.
Grwst Sant. Ilanrwst, a town, church, and parish, in Den- bighshire.
Grwyn (Y), Groeningen, or perhaps Graveling, in Flanders ; some seaport town. The Groine in Galicia.
Aethau oddiar greirjau'r Grwyn, — Syr Dafydd Trefar,
GuALH vab Dissyvyndod, un o'r tri unben Deifr a Brynaich. (E. Lhvyd) ; a Northumbrian poet of the 6th century.
Guic, old orthography, in composition uicy now Gwig, a thicket of wood ; hence the names of several places in Britain ; as, Wic Wair, near St. Asaph ; Gwair Wic, i. e., Warwick
Gumi {Bede, 1. i, c. 12), a city on the east arm of the sea which divided the Scots and Kcts from the Roman part of Britain. It was in an island (by Flaherty Caergreic), See Oaergrek,
GuiRlGON. Caer Guirigon in Nennius. See Wrygion.
GuissANEY, rectfe Gwysanau, a place in Denbighshire.
GuoRANGON. Caer Guorangon. Mr. Camden, out of Nennius, for the city Worcester ; and so Usher {Prim., c. 5). Guorcon, Caerguorcon. Mr. Camden, out of Nennius, for Worcester. But
neither of these names are to be found in the Cambridge nor Cottonian copy of Nennius, nor Mr. Vaughan's : and Usher makes Guorcon to be either Warwick or Wroxeter. (Notes an Camden.)
GuoRTHiGiENE : See Owerthrynion,
GUOTODIN. (Nennivs) See Manau OtLotodin and Oododin Aneurin.
GuRGYRN : see OwHheyrnum. [Caer Chirgym, the old name of Llanilltud Fawr, according to some MSS. — L M!\
GUMCON. Oaer Guricon in Nennins. See TVyrangon.
GuKN Ddu (Y) and Gurn Gogh (qu. whether it should be wrote y Geym Ddu, etc.), two mountains in Caernarvonshire. [Y Gum, Pen y Gym, Cum Moelfre, Cym y Bwch : W. Owen would say Civm, v. Geiriadur. — W. D,'\
GuRMOND, a captain of the Danes, called Godrun ; afterwards King of the East Angles, A.D. 877. (Garadoc in Anarawd.)
GuTMOND (n. pr. v.), by Tyssilio called King of Afiric ; by Sir John Price, Gurmond from Ireland, who came hither from Afiric {Dr. Powel, note, p. 6) : Gurmundus, arch-pirate, captain of the Norwegians, a.d. 590.
GuTTYN Owen, a herald, poet, and historian, anno Domini, 1480.
GwAEDERW (n. 1.), now Gwedir or Gwydyr, near Llanrwst, where Gr. ap Cynan fought a battle. {Meilir Prydydd.) [Where Sir John Wynn, the first baronet of that name, lived, who wrote the history of his ancestors, etc. — W, D.]
GwAEDNERTH. Gronw ap Gwaednerth.
GwAETHYRN (n. pr. v.), a Saxon name, at the battle of Bangor is y Coed. {Tr. 67.)
GwAiN, a river in Dyfed ; hence a town called Abergwain, Fis- card, in Pembrokeshire.
GwAiR. Caer Wair, Warwick {Th. Williams) ; q. d. Gwair Wig or Gwig y Gwair. Uwyn Gwair in Pembrokeshire.
GWAITH, an ancient Celtic word signifying a battle ; when pre- fixed to the names of places, signifying the battle of such a place.
GwAiTH (fl.) ; hence Abergwaith.
GwAiTH. Ynys Waith, the Isle of Wight. H. Llwyd, in his Brit Descr.y p. 22 (ed. 1731), says the Britons call it Ynys Wydd, i. e.y the Conspicuous Island. Ifennius (c. 2) or his interpolator
calls it With, which he sajrs the Britons call Oweid or Owith, and that it signifies in Latin Divartium, L e., separation. It is true 6v;th, in British, is a thrust ; but are not all islands thrust from the continent ?
GwAiTH Ardbrydd, a battle fought between Ehydderch Hael of Alclud, in Scotland, and Aeddan Vradwg, both North Britons, about the year 557. This battle, in the Trictdes, is called one of the three trifling battles of Britain ; that is, occasioned by trifles. Cad Goddeu was one of them, which see. Cad Gtemlan was another ; and this was the third, and occasioned by no greater a matter than two shepherds falling out about a lark's nest; where one killed the other, and the quarrel spread itself from two families to two principalities. See Owenddolau ap Ceidio.
A morose critic may observe upon this, that it is no wonder the Britons have lost their land and power to the Saxons, Danes, and Normans, when they could be such great idiots as to have a national quarrel about a bird's nest, a bitch and buck, or a box on the ear. But history will shew us several instances, among other nations, of great wars and revolutions in empires occasioned by as little trifles. The most prodigious armament in history, which was Xerxes's war against the Greeks, had no greater a beginning than a Greek, who was the Queen's physi- cian, having a longing to see his country, represented this expe- dition in such a glorious light to his mistress, that the King had no rest of her- night or day till he undertook it.
The occasion of putting all Greece in arms to destroy the kingdom of Priam and his Trojans, was an youthful Queen gave hints that she might be run away with, while the husband thought she was taken away by force.
Count Julian's daughter's amour with Boderic King of Spain was the cause of bringing over from Africa an army of above two hundred thousand Moors, who subdued the country in eight months, and kept possession of it eight hundred years, in which were fought 3,609 battles.
And to conclude this head, Voltaire, in his Age of Lewis 14th, says that the Duchess of Marlborough refusing Queen Anne of England a pair of gloves which had been sent her from abroad, and by an affected negligence spilling some water on Lady
Marsham's gown, gave a decisive turn to the affairs of Europe ; for upon this the Duke of Marlborough was called home from the command of the army, and all the British schemes knocked in the head. (Pens^ Diver, scr. d un Dod, de Sorbonne,)
GwAiTHFOED (n. pr. v.). Gwaithfoed Fawr, arglwydd Cer- edigion. From him the Pryses of Gogerthan, etc., derive them- selves.
GWAITH Gabth Maelawc or Garth Meiliog, a battle fought in North Wales by Bhodri Molwynog and the Saxons, in which he got the day. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 14.)
GwAiTH GoDDAU and Cad Goddau, the battle or action of Goddau. (Tn 47.)
GwAiTH Llanfaes, in Anglesey, a.d. 818 {MS.) ; I suppose with Egbert, King of the West Saxons, who at this time spoiled Eiryri. (Caradoe in Mervyn.)
GWAITH Llwtn Dafydd, Ceredigion.
Dyfod at Waith Llwyn Dafydd
Da fan gan bob dyn a fydd. — D. ap leuan Du.
GWAiTH Machawy, a battle fought by Gruffudd ap Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, with Bandulph Earl of Hereford, when Gruffudd destroyed Hereford, and burnt the Cathedral, and killed the Bishop, A.D. 1055. It seems there were two battles then fought, one at Machawy, where Bandulph might be an auxiliary with Gruffudd ap Rhydderch ap lestyn ; and the other within tWo miles of Hereford, as above. But. qu. whether Machawy doth not fall into the Wy near Hereforf ? See ^r, Cambr,
GwAiTH MoELFRE, the battle of Moelvre. [Tal Moelfre, Mon, qu.?— TV, D.]
GwAiTH Pencoet : see Pencoet,
GwAiTH Vaddon, A.D. 520 (^r. Cambr, M. W.), the battle of Mons Badonicus in Gildas. This battle is mentioned in an ancient MS. chronology in these words : " oes Gwrtheym Gwrthene hyd waith Vaddon pan ymladdodd Arthur a'i hyneif a'r Saeson ac y gorfu Arthur*'; i. 0., From the age of Gwrtheym Gwrthene to the battle of Badon, when Arthur and his elders {majores, lieutenants or inferior princes) fought the Saxons, where Arthur overcame, etc.
GwAL Sever, Severus's Wall ; called also Mur Sever ^ and by the English the Picts' WalL Jno. Major calls it Muro Tiroali (1. i, fo. 9) ; and in 1. ii, c. 3, he says that some say it was built by Bilemis, a British King, meaning, I suppose, Beliniis,
GwAL Y ViLiAST, a crpmlech in the parish of Ilanboydy, Caer- marthenshire, called also Bwrdd Arthur. (R Llwyd)
GwALCHMAi (n. pr. v.), literally the Hawk of May. I am sur- prised how Galfrid and others could Latinize it Walganvs, Men noted of this name were —
GwALOHMAi AP GwYAR, One of King Arthur's generals, and, I suppose, his sister Anna's son by Gwyar, a second husband, and so but haK-brother to Medrod, who was son of liew ap Cyn- farch. He is often mentioned in the THades as a great orator, Aurdafodiog {Tr, 82), deifniawc (2V. 10). He was killed in a battle between Arthur and Medrod, on Arthur's landing in Britain. (Tysdlio,) He was lord of Castell Gwalchmai yn Ehos ; i. e., Eoose, near Milford Haven. About the year 1080 the sepulchre of Walwey (Gwalchmai), King Arthur's sister's son, was found upon the sea-shore in the country of Eos (now called Eoose), and the place is shewn between the Isles of Skomar and Skokham in Pembrokeshire. The body, by estimation, upon viewing of the bones, was thought to be 14 foot in length. He ruled that country which to this day is called Walwethay. He was a noble and valiant warrior of good reputation. (Matth. Paris, p. 17, apud Garadoc, Dr. PoweL) Ymddiddan rhwng Trystan a Gwalchmai.
Gwalchmai [ap] Meilir o Fon, son of Meilir Brydydd, both excellent poets and warriors. Meilir was cotemporary with Gr. ap Cynan, and wrote that famous poem on the battle of Mynydd Cam, when Trahaearn, reigning Prince of North Wales, was killed by Gr. ap Cynan, a.d. 1079. It was by way of prophecy after the event had happened, — the safest way of prophesying. Gwalchmai, son of Meilir, wrote in the time of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North WjJes. His description of the sea-fight on Menai is inimitable, and it seems he himself had a share in the action. We have several poems of his to Owain Gwynedd, who began to reign a.d. 1138, and died 1169. In one of them he brings him from iEneas. This seems to be one of his first poems
to Owain Gwynedd, for he says as a reason to come in favour with him, that his father had sung the praises of wain's father.
Prydodd fy nhad ith fraisg frenhin dad.
GwALLAWG, GwALLAwc, or GwALLOG (u. pr. V.), Lat. Galgacus; hence Sam WcUlog in Ceretica, a spot of foul ground in the Bay of Cardigan, where it is said the country of Gwyddno was drowned. See Oalgacus.
GwALLOG AP Llienog or GwALLAWG AP Llebnawc, of Salis- bury, a general of King Arthur's, was killed in the battle fought in Gaul between Arthur and the Somans, a.d. 541. {TyssiUo.) [This was the Galgacus of Tacitus, and not Arthur's general. — W.D.'\ He is called by Camden (in his Description of Caledonia in Scotland) Gralauc ap Uiennauc, and which he Latinizes Gal- ^cus. He was not the Galgacus mentioned by Tacitus, as he (Camden) would have it. He quotes in Caledonia the Triadwm Liber, which by Gibson, his translator, is called the Book of TripUcities. But neither of them knew anything of this book ; and it would have been more to Mr. Camden's credit if he had totally denied the authority of it, rather than giving it the highest encomiums in some parts of his works, and denying in other places that very Arthur who this book so aggrandises throughout the whole, that it appears to have been wrote purely to describe Arthur's greatness. But even the great Camden, when he acts out of his sphere, is but like another man. See Vaughan's Genealogical Tables at Hengwrt, where Onion Greg, daughter of Gwallawc ap Ueenawc, is said to have married Meurig ap Idno ap Meirchion ; and Uy warch Hen, one of King Arthur's privy council, was a grandson of the same Meirchion.
Tri phost cad Ynys Prydain (i. «., the three pillars of battle of the Isle of Britain) ; Dunawt Fur mab Pabo Post Prydain ; Gwallawc ap Lleenawc ; a Chynfelyn Drwsgyl. Thus the Triades. " PwyUe Wallog marchog trin." {Llywarch Hen in Urien's Elegy.) See Galgacus.
GwALLTER. Walter Mappseus, otherwise Calenns, a Cambro- Briton, Archdeacon of Oxford about the year 1150. Leland {Script Brit,, c. 157) mentions him with honour as the person that brought the copy of the British History over from Anno-
rica, and that he made a translation of it as well as Galfrid See some sayings of this Gwallter in Camden's Bemains,
GwALLT EuKAiD. Llewelyn Wallt Euraid ap Madog ap Llew- elyn.
GwALLTWEN, merch Afallach, a concubine of Maelgwn, and mother of Bhun ap Maelgwn.
GwANAS, a place in Meirion. Here one Gwrgi was slain.
{D. J.)
Bhifo gwawn rh'of a Gwanas. — L. Gl, Cothi,
See " Englynion y Beddau."
Y Beddau Einion Gwanas.
GwANiA, Chirkland, Tref y Waun.
GwiR. Elidir War.
GwANAR (n. pr. v.), Gwanar mab Lliaws ap Nwyfre, a general of the Britons, sister's son of Caswallon, that reigned here when Julius Caesar invaded Britain. (Tr. 40.)
Bbli Mawb ftp Mavooar, King of Britftin
Llvdd, King Nthviaw, Llevblts, Caswallon, ABiABBH0i>==LliftW8
of Britain, killed by killed in King of j ap
killed by his Julius Gaul Britain I Nwjfre
brother, Cas - Caasar J
wallon I . I
GwAHAB, GwBirwTirwTV or Gwbnwtn, the two generals.
Cfiesar, in his Commentaries, says that the Britons had assisted the Gauls in their wars with the Bomans before he invaded Britain. The Triades says that Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, of Arllechwedd, sons of Lliaws ap Nwyfre and of Arianrhod their mother, daughter of Beli, went with their uncle, Caswallon ap Beli, beyond sea after the Cadsarians {i. e,, the Bomans, or Caesar's people), with an army of 61,000 men, and that they all settled in Gwasgwyn, and never returned. (2V. 40.) This was when Caesar warred with the Gauls, before the invasion of Britain. Mr. Edw. Llwyd, in his Archceohgia BrUannica (Brit. Preface), having hit upon a bad copy of the Triades, was not able to imderstand this passage, nor that of the auxiliaries granted to Urp Luyddog. See Urp, But yet it raised his curiosity to ex- amine into the language of Gwasgwyn (i. e., Gascony), and he
found a very great affinity between it and the British, which corroborates this passage in the Triades, and also that passage in the British history where it is said that Llefelys, a son of Beli Mawr, had the dominion of a country in Gaul by marriage ; and it is natural to think that this very Llefelys was him who Caesar calls Divitiacus, who had property in Britain, or at least a son of his.
GwAREDDOG or GwAREDOG, in Arvon, where Beuno began to build a monastery, but was hindered by a woman. Qu., Gwt- edog ?
GwARTHEFYN Beo Dynod. (Llywo/rch Hen in Marwnad Cad- wallon.) Whether Gw8u*thefin be not the name of the place ?
GwARTHENioN, in Nennius. See Choortigem,
GwABTHRENiON, One of the three commots of Cantref Ar- wystlL (Price's Descript) See Owrtheyrnion.
GwARTHTJNioN, a name coined by Nennius [or] his interpolator, out of Gwrtheymion, the name of a country, to favour a silly fable of a country given to St. German.
GWAS (Y) Teilaw o Went
GwASANE or GwYSANE, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire. Davies, a noted botanist and antiquary.
GwASGWYN, Grasgoigna The Triades mentions an army of 61,000 Britons that w^ent to this country to assist the Gauls against the Eomans under Caswallon ap Beli Mawr and his nephews, Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, but never returned. (?V. 40.) See Gwanar.
GWATCIN, Watkin.
GwAUN Breuan, in Llanrhaiadr, Denbighshire [pronounced Breton, — W, 2>.].
GwAUN Farteg, in Badnorshire.
GwAUNYNOG, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) Middleton's. Qu., Gwenynog (^ gwenynyi
GwAUNYSGOR, a church and parish (R.), Flintshire.
GwAUNYTTYD (n. L). Here a battle was fought, ad. 1074, between the sons of Cadwgan ap Bleddyn and Bhys ap Owen, King of South Wales, where Ehys was defeated, but still kept the land. {Oaradoc in Trahaiam.)
GwAWR verch Brychan, gwraig Elidir Lydanwyn.
GwEDiR, a gentleman's seat near Llanrwst {S. Tudur), com- monly pronounced Gwydyr, but rightly Grwaedei*w [or Gwaed-tir. See Gwydir, — W, -D.].
GwEDRAWS or GwEDROS, probably Gwaedros, a place in Car- diganshire ; though I find Deio ap leuan Du writes it Gwedraws,
Ei gampaa'r gwyliau wr gwiw liaws frjd O frodir Caerwedraws
Ai gjwydd oedd gaws.
See Oaerwedros,
GwEFLHWCH. Elgan Gweflhwch ; in another place, Gwefl Ffloch.
GwEHELYTH, a family or clan. Gwehelythau a llwythau Cymru.
GwEiLCHiON, the people and lands of GwalchmaL {Givelygordd- au Poivys.)
GWEIR (n. pr. V.) [Trioedd y Meirch, 1); hence Llwyn Gwair, Pembrokeshire. GwEiRGURYT Fawr. (TV. 87.)
GWEIRVYL, GWERFYL, GWERFUL, and GWEIRYL (n. pr. f.). Bet- tws Gweirvyl Goch, a church and parish in Merionethshire, in the deanery of Edeirnion, St. Asaph diocese.
Gorwedd ym Mettws Gwerful Goch, hen oedd y wraig a chal.
GwEiRYDD ap Cynfelyn ap Teneuan ap Lludd ap Beli Mawr. This Gweirydd is Latinized by Galfrid, Arviraffvs, which makes me suspect the name might be also wrote Arweirydd, By some of our British writers he is also called Gweirydd Arwyneddog,
GWELW GwiNFFRWD ap Davydd Ddu Taerus.
Ac y ar welagan gynnif rjssed.
Gorh/]ffedd H. ap 0, Gwynedd,
Qu. whether a place where a battle was fought between Gwynedd and Powys, where H. ap Owain Gwynedd behaved gallantly ?
GwBLL ap Llywarch Hen, buried at Rhiw Felen. {Llywarch Hen)
GWEN (n. pr. v.), one of Llywarch Hen's sons killed by the Saxons [on the banks of Morlas. — W. 7).].
GwBN ap Gronw.
Gwyrda oedd Wfin a B^n-^^yn. — L. Q, Cothi.
GWENABWT (n. pr. v.).
A cbyssul a rofi i Wenabwy
Nad fid ieaangc serchog eyberw vaocwy. — Hoi. Myrddin,
GwANASSEDD verch Eeun Hael.
GwENDRAETH Vechan, a river in Cydweli. (Camden's BrUan^ nia in Caennarthenshire.)
GwENDDOLEN, Queen of Britain, and widow of Locrin. See Lloegrin Gawr.
GwENDDOLAU, a Prince or general of the northern Britons of Celyddon, in the civil war when the great battle of Arderydd was fought in Scotland. He was an auxiliary of Aeddan Vrad- awg. Myrddin Wyllt, in his Hoiane, calls him his lord. He is mentioned in the Triades by the name of Gwenddolau ap Ceid- iaw, iin o^r tri tharw cad Ynys Brydain (one of three bulls of war) ; and in the 34th Triad it is said that his clan or army maintained their ground for six w^eeks after their lord's death. This battle was fought at Rhodwydd Arderydd, in Scotland, about the year 557, between Aeddan Vradog and Khydderch Hael of Alclud, etc. Gwenddolau had two vultures which he fed with the bodies of South Britons. They were killed by GaU, mab Dysgyfedawg. {Tr. 37.)
GwENDDWR, a parish and village in Brecknockshire.
GwENDDYDD (n. pr. f.). Also the morning star, Venus.
GwENDDYDD, sister of Myrddin Wyllt, some of whose poems are by way of dialogue between him and her. Some hint that she was not his sister, but his mistress, which I believe is a mistake.
GwENDDYDD verch Brychan, Santes Tnhowyn Meirionydd ; eraill a'i geilw Gwarddydd.
GwENEDOTA {Nennitis), Gwynedd.
GwENER (n. f.), the name of several of the princesses of the ancient Celtse, adored by the Romans^ &c., by the name of Venvs; genitive case. Veneris; and is derived from gwin bSr, i. $., a sweet smile, — the smiling goddess : hence Dydd Owener in the British, i. e., Du$ Veneris. If her name came fropi gwefna^^
white or fair, it would have been Gwenner or Gwenno» which in the name of Juno.
Doeth ooeth cywrennin gwin a Gwener (wine and Yenus).
Ein. ap Gwgan, to Lhi. ap lorwerth.
GwENEU ap Edvedd o Frecheiniog.
GwENFKEWi Santes, daughter of Biychan, abbess at Gwyth- erin (MS,) ; in English, Winifred Saint. Eobert, Prior of Shrews- bury, hath wrote her life, and before him Elerius, Abbot of Gwyth- erin, as saith Brit, Sanct She is said to have lived in the time of King El with (qu., who was he ?), and was daughter to a British lord, Thewith or Trebwith, who granted Beuno lands to build a church, under whose care she was brought up a nun. Caradoc, son of Alain, Prince of that country, cut off her head, because she would not consent to lie with him. Beuno put it on, and brought her to life. A well (Holywell) — Ffynnon Gwenfrewi — sprung out where her head feU^ etc. In her time Deifer was an anchoret at Botaver (Botvari), and Satumus at Henthlant (Hen- Uan) ; and Elerius Abbot of Gwytherin, who buried her, and where St. Kebius and St. Senan were buried, and the Abbess Theonia, after whom Winifred became abbess. {Brit, Sand,)
In the legend of the British Saints we have the life of a lady of this name, called Santes Gwenfrewi ; but no author of note mentions any such a woman. Tudur Aled, the poet, about the year 1450, hath versified her legend as believed in those days. We have no such name in our ancient British history as Gwen- frewi. See Winifrtd and Beuno,
GwENFFRWD, a river in Pervedd.
GwENFEUON, daughter of Tutwal Tutclut, noted for her chastity. {Tr, 54.)
GwENHWYFACH or GwENHWYACH, the Wife of Mcdrawt ap Llew ap Cynfarch. A quarrel about two nuts (says Tudur Aled) between Gwenhwyfar (verch Ogyrfan Gawr), King Arthur's Queen, and this Gwenhwyfach {Tr, 47) gave Medrawd a colour of dethroning Gwenhwyfar {Tr, 46), King Arthur having left him lieutenant of Britain while he followed his Gaulish con- quest. (Tr, 90.) This quarrel or pal/awd (t. e., a box in the ear) about two nuts was the occasion of the civil wat-between King
Arthur and Medrawd, and both were killed at Cad Gamlan. {Tr. 47.)
King Arthur had three wives successively of this name. The first was daughter of Gwythyr ap Greidiawl, probably a Nort4i Briton ; the second, the daughter of Gawryd Ceint, which seems to have been a Loegrian Briton of Kent ; the third, the daughter of Ogyrfan Gawr, a Cambro-Briton (TV. 59) dethroned by Medrod (2V. 46) ; Cawr, in Wales, then signifying a prince or great com- mander, — Cawr Idris,Cawr Othrwm,Benlli Gawr, and Rhuddlwm Gawr (Tr. 32). My reason for the first being a North Britain is that Arthur, when he followed his conquests in the island, left her at home, and she having a former intimacy with Melwas, a Prince of North Britain, they contrived it so that she with her maids of honour went to the wood a Maying, where Melwas was to lie in wait for her among the bushes with a suit of clothes on him made of green leaves of trees. When the Queen and her maids came to the place appointed, Melwas started up and carried the Queen away in his arms to his companions ; and all the maids of honour ran away in the fright, taking him to be a Satyr, or wild man of the wood. He took the Queen with him to Scot- land, and kept her for a while. Our English writers (MUton, etc.) wonder how a little Prince could take away by force the Queen of such a valiant King as Arthur is said to be ; but the wonder ceases when it is considered that the King was abroad, and the Queen willing to be ravished by an old acquaintance.
Fal Melwas yn y glas gl6g. — B, ap Gwilym.
See Caradoc's Life of Gildas.
GWENHWYNWYN ap Ywain Cyfeiliog, rectfe Gwenynwyn (alias Gwynwenwyn), ap Owain Cyfeiliog,
GwENHWYSEG, the dialect or language of Gwenwys.
GwENLLiAN and GwENLLiANT, euw merch ; from lliant, the flux or tide of the sea or stream of a river. " Idem quod Gwenllinan yidetur." {Dr. Davies.)
GwENLUW, enw merch.
6.\VENi.{.w.G, recti GwentUwg, one of the cantrefs of Mor- ganwg, now in Monmouthshire. (Price's Descr-ijyt,)
Pob man blaenan Morgan wg
A deunaw llan hyd Wenllwg. — L. Gl. Cothi,
GwENLLWYFO or GwENLLWYDDOG Saint. Uanwenllwyfo, a church, Anglesey. • GWENN (n. pr. f.), dim. Gioenno, Juno.
GwENNAN, King Arthur's favourite ship of this name, cast away on a bank of sand near Bardsey Island, whence the place is called to this day Gorffrydau Casivennan, i e., the streams of Caswennan. See Gasrvennan,
GwENNi. Brogior [Aberogwr — /. M,] wrth Wenni.
GwENOG Sant. Ilanwenog in Cardiganshire. Fairs kept here. [Uanwnog in Montgomeryshire. — TV, I).]
GwENONWY (n. pr. f.). B, ap Gwilipn,
GwENOLWYN. Bodwenolwyn, Mon. Abergwynolwyn. Also a river in Brecknockshire.
GwENT, Lat. Venta SUurum, one of the six parts or swyddau of tlie territory of Dinefwr, now (with Eadnorshire) called South Wales. Gwent is now in Monmouthshire, and contained three commots, viz., Cantref Gwent, Cantref Iscoed, and Cantref Coch. (Price's Descript) Caerwent, Chepstow. {Thos, Williams) Os Dwy-went is y deau {J. D.). The Upper and Lower Gwent. Gwent is Coed (Tr. 30) ; Gwent uwch Coed. Castell Gwent and Casgwent, Chepstow. See Giortheym.
GwEN Teirbron verch Emyr llydaw.
GWENSI verch Howel ap Gronw.
GwENW^EUN Befr, a place where llywelyn ap lorwerth had his fourth camp. {Gylch Llywelyn)
GWENWYN, the same with Gwenwynwyn. See Gwanar.
GWENWYNWYN (n. pr. v).
Gwenwynwyn ap Naw or Naf, one of the three admirals of Britain in King Arthur's time (Tr. 20) ; also a Prince of Powys (part of) of this name, whence Powys Wynwynwyn.
Gwenwynwyn ap Lliaws ap Nwyfre, a general of the Britons under Caswallon ap Beli Mawr and his nephew. {Tr, 40.) See Gwanar.
Gwenwys. Cadwgan Wenwys. Gwenwys, arglwydd Bron- iarth.
Gwenwys, name of a country, GwentlanJ or Monmouthshire.
Mathafam, in Montgomeryshire, seems to be in one Gwenwys, for liywelyn ap Quttyn calls D. lioyd of Mathafarn,
Wrfch hwnnw, arth o Wenwys. — LL ap OtUtyn,
GwENWYS, the inhabitants of Gwent, q. d. Gwent weision, Gwent men ; as Lloegrwys=Lloegrians,or the people of England.
GwENYNOG or GwAUNYNOG, a gentleman's seat near Denbigh; likewise a place in Anglesey. [Another in Caereinion in Powys. — W.D.]
GwEPPRA, a gentleman's seat, Flintshire. Cwtter Weppra. Llyn Gweppra.
GwERCLYS, a gentleman's seat. Hughes. [Near Corwen, Meri- oneth.— W, D,]
GwERN, a place of alders, in the names of places, as, Gwyddel- wem ; Pengwern ; Glan y Wern ; Pen y Wern ; y Wern Ddu, etc., etc. [ Y Wern Las. — W, J9.]
G WERN AN or GWERNEN (n. 1.).
GwERNAN ap Ifan.
GwERN Y Brechdwn, a gentleman's seat. (/. 2>.) [Robert Llwyd Wern y Brychdwn. — W, D.]
GwERNEN ap Clydno, al. Clydro, an ancient poet. (E. Llwyd.^
GwERN Y FiROGL {Vinogyl in E. Evans* transcript of Llyfr Coch Hergest), a battle fought between Owen Amhadawg and the sons of Owen Cyfeiliog. It is near Castell Carreg Hova in Shropshire, near Oswestry, A.D. 1187. Owein was killed by fraud in that castle, in the night, by Gwenwynwyn and Cad- wallon ab 0. Cyfeiliog. {Caradoc, p. 241.)
GwERNGWY. Ilys Gwemgwy in Dyfifryn Clwyd, the seat of Efnydd ap Gwemgwy.
GwERNGWY {Pymtheg Llwyih) ap Gwaeddvawr neu ap Gwaedd- gar (Gwaeddgawr).
GWERNGWYGID, where Gruff, ap Cynan fought a battle.
Qwern Gwygid gwanai bawb yn ea gilydd.
Meilir Brydydd^ i Gruff, ap Cynan.
GwERNLAN, Watliugford, qu. ?
GwERNYFED, Gwern Hyfed, Gwern Hyfaidd, or Gwem Nyved, a gentleman's seat in Brecknockshire. Sir Herbert Mackworth. GwERSYLLT, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire.
GwERTHEFiN. CacT Werthefin, a town in the Forest of Cale- donia, in Scotland, the native place of Myrddin ap Morfran or Myrddin Wyllt, the Pictish poet ; supposed to be Dunkeld in Scotland. See Cyfoesau Myrddin a Gwenddydd. (JE, Llwyd)
GwERTHRYNiON, a castle and a territory on the river Gwy, first built by Gwrtheym Gwrtheneu, and should be wrote Gwrth- eymion. It hath been often in the hands of the Normans, English, etc. In the year 1254 it was taken by Llewelyn ap Gruflfudd from Sir Eo. Mortimer (Powel, a.d. 1201), says Cam- den, and erased This is that which in Usher's Catalogue is called Caer Gwrtheym ; and in the Triades, Caer Gorgyrn and Caer Gurgym ; and in Nennius' Catalogue, Caer Guorthigime. Mr. Camden^s account of it, out of Nennius, is a monkish tale pretending a grant of lands to St. Garmon because of the like- ness of the name Gwrtheymion to Gtmrth Union, two words which cannot be wrested to signify anything but reproach right or right reproach, which is nonsense.
Gwrthrynion, in my MS., is also one of the three commots of Arwystli, once in Meirionydd.
GwERYDD ap Rhys Goch, lord of Tal y Bolion, in Anglesey, in the time of Davydd ap Owain Gwynedd, anno 1170. Bore argent, three leopards' heads or on a bend sable.
GwERYSTAN ap Gwaithvoed Fawr.
GwESTUN. Twr Gwestun, a castle so called.
Dinas gwestifiant gostyngws mal gwr Owestun dwr dorradwy.
GynddelWy i Tw. Cyfeiliog.
Gwestun or Gwestyn, a place mentioned in Hirlas Ywein
Ar lawr Gwestun vawr gwelais irdant.
GwESTYD (Y), nomen loci.
A gair o ben gwjm y byd Gwyr gystal ag o'r Gwestyd ?
8ion Ceri^ i Ifan Goch o Gmg Bryr.
GwBSTN or GwESSiN, a river. Abeigwesyn in Brecknockshire. GwEUNLLWc, qu. GwentUwg ? GwEURFTL, enw merch.
GwBUEUL verch Gwrgeneu, the wife of GruflFudd ap Meredydd, and mother of Ywain Cyfeiliog.
GwEWENHYR: see Wewenhyr.
GwEYRN Mawr (nomen loci).
GwEYRYDD ap Cynfelyn, the 76th Kiug of Britain; rectA Gwairydd or Gweirydd.
Nith gair yn llai na Gwairydd Ni mynnai dwyll mewn y dydd.
D. M, Tudur, i How. Colanwy.
GwEYTHAN, GwiTHAN, or GwiDDAN, a battle fought at Gweyth- an, between the Britons and the Saxons, A.D. 867. Tre Weithan, in Montgomeryshire ; qu., whether Forth Gweythan in Cardi- ganshire ? See Blaen Forth Gwithan and Tre Weithan.
GwGAN, GwGAWN, GwGON, an ancient British name of men.
GwGAN (Prince of Cardigan) ap Meuric ap Dyfnwal ap Arthen ap Sisyllt, drowned by misfortune, A.D. 872.
GWGAN, the son of Gwyriad, the son of Rodri Mawr, died A.D. 958. {Caradoc, p. 16.)
GwGAN Cleddyfrudd, One of the tri Tscymydd aerau (7V.29); Porthawr gwaith Perllan Fangor {Tr, 66) ; Gwgon Gleifrudd [Tr, y Meirchy 4).
GwGAN Wawd Newydd, a poet. [A founder of a new metre or tune, qu. ? — W. D.]
GwGAWN GwRAWN, mab Feredur, one of the tri Ueddf unben. {Tr. 14.)
GwHiR (ap Owein ap Ceredig), brother of Fedrog Sant.
GwiAWN ap Cyndrwyn, un o dri phorthawr gwaith Perllan Fangor. (TV. 66.) The same with Gwion, brother of Cyndylan. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.)
GwiniGADA (nomen loci). See Widigada.
GwiDOL or GwiDAWL, a river : hence Rhos Widol. [Tr, 69.) See Garth Qvndol,
GwiG, a river on the borders of Scotland, that falls into the Tuedd (Tweed), where the ancient Britons had a town called Aberwic (Berwic). Hence came the terminations of the names of many towns in England : Greenwich, i. e., T Wig JA& ; Sand- wich, Gwig y Tywod ; Keswick, in Cumberland. And hence, no doubt, came the termination xiyick in the names of places in
Germany, and towards the Baltic, where the Cimbriana once abounded. Brunswick ; Sleswick ; Bolwick ; Danswick (Dant- zick) ; Larwick ; Hud wick's Wald, etc., etc. [ Vide Cluverius, or some such author. — TF. ]).] And this throws a light on that passage in our British history which says that one Gotmiont, King of Affiric, who had come with a great fleet to subdue Ire- land, was called by the Saxons to their assistance after the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd. And Gotmwnt overran the whole island of Britain, and gave all Loegria to the Saxons, and drove Ceredic over the Hafren (Severn) into Wales. This Gotmwnt is called by Giraldus Cambrensis OermuTidvs, and [he] says he was a Norwegian. (Top. Ireland, c. 24 ; see Ogygia, p. 13.) The above Ceretic is the same name with the Oerdec Elmet of Nennius, Elved being the name of his country. Aflfric or Afferwic, there- fore, was the name of some country upon the Baltic ; or else transcribers, not used to those northern names, might mistake Afiric for Sleswick or Larwick, etc.
[Gwig Fair, a gentleman's seat in Flintshire, vulg6 Wickwer. Wickwa/r (L n.), a town on the river which runs from Chipping Sodbury to Berkley, and so to Severn. Wdcewar in another map. — W, D!\
GwiLi (fl.), that runs through Cwm Gwili, and falls into the Towi, Caermarthenshire. Hence Abergwili, a village, and the palace of the Bishop of St. David's ; q. d. Gwy lif. See Aber* gwUi.
GwiLTM, a name used among the Britons since William the Conqueror's time, and is always Latinized Oulielmus. It seems to have been formed from the Germ. Wilhelm or Guildhdm, now William, if not from the British Owaywlym. I don't remember ever to have met with it in any ancient MSS. older than the Norman conquest. It is also wrote Gwilim. PI. Gwilymiaid*
Gweled gan Rhys a Gwilim
Abid du heb wybod dim. — L. Oh Oothi,
GwiNAU Daufreuddwyd.
GwiNER (n. pr. v.), a Saxon name, at the battle of Bangor is y Coed. GwiNFFRWD. Gwelw Gwinffrwd.
GwiNiONYDD, a parcel of Cardiganshire.
Trown yno trwy Winionydd
Clera defeitia da fydd. — D. cup lewm Du,
The borders of the river Gwy, q. d. Ovnjonydd.
GwiNLLiw, a parish in Monmouthshire. Fairs kept here at Stow. See Gwynlliw Filvrr,
GwiON and Gwiawn (n. pr. v.).
GwiON Bach, a poet mentioned by Taliesin in his transmi- gration.
GwiON AP UCHTRYD {Rhys Ooch JEryri). Croes Wion in Anglesey. Gwydd Gwion, Montgomeryshire. [Celli Wion in. Glamorgan. — J. if]
GwiRFAi, a hundred of Carnarvonshire. Uwch and Is GwirfaL Bangor Fawr uwch ben GwirfaL (0. LI, Moel,)
GwiRiAWN ap Gwynnan ap Gwynfy^ Fr^ch.
GwLAD, a country ; the people of a country ; the government of a country ; the same with the Saxon set, as Somerset, Gwlad jT Haf; Westset, Gwlad Gwent Hence Gwledig, a king or governor : Cynan Wledig, Emrys Wledig, etc. Gkiir y wlad, the common report; i. e., the country's word. Rhoi ar y wlad, referred to a jury ; t. e., to put it on the country or people. Dif- ferent from bro.
Ach gwyr oil, wlad Fro Gadell. — Bhys Nanmor.
GwLADUS (n. f.), from gwlad, a country. Several worthy British women of this name. So gwledig, an appellation in the Loegrian dialect, signifying a prince or ruler, comes from gwlad; that is as much as to say, one that owns a country or governs a country. Emrys Wledig, Cynan Wledig, etc. But Camden squeezes it from Claudia ; but might not Claudius and Claudia come from Gwledig and Gwladus ?
Gwlad yr Haf, Somersetshire. Also a province in France of that name.
GwLEDic or Gwledig, a surname or title ; " beUicosus*'. (JE. Llwyd) Emrys Wledig, Aiirelius Ambrosius. Cynedda Wledig, Cunedagus. Cynan Wledig, Aurelius Conanus. Macsen Wledig, Maximus. Cylyddon Wledig. Gwerthmwl Wledic o^r Gogledd, and Gyrthmwl {Tr. 69). Oeuroswydd Wledig (Tr. 50). Am-
lawdd Wledig, sign. teym. Casnar Wledig. (MMnogi) . See Prtodawr and Carvr and Yrth.
GwLYDDiEN ap Howy ap Arthen.
GwNDA or GwYNDA Sant. lianwnda^ Caernarvonshire. Bod- gynda in Anglesey.
GwNLLB, a gentleman's seat. (J, D) Price's. , GwNNE (n. pr. v.). Davydd ap Gwnne Ddu. {Extent of Anglesey in Tre Ddestiniet.) Hence Melin Gwnne in the said township.
GwNNEN. Llanwnnen in Cardiganshire. Fairs kept here.
GwNNiOG Sant. Llanwnniog, qu. St. Winoc, a Britain bishop, a follower of St. Patrick in Ireland. Another, a cotemporary of Gregory of Tours, which he ordained priest. (Hist IV,, 1. v, c. 21.)
GwYNNW, vid. id. quod Cwnnws.
GwNNWS Sant. Llanwnnws in Cardiganshire.
GwONNO or GwiNlo. Uanwonno, Glamorganshire ; Llanwinio, Caermarthenshire.
GwoRTiGER Mawr : See Gfwortigem and Oaer Gwortigem.
GwoRTiGERN. Caer Gwortigem in Camden's Britannia^ which he makes to be the city of Vortigern in Maelienydd, in a great wilderness which never existed; and there, he says, he W6is burnt by a fire from heaven, having married his own daughter. These are heavy charges without proper proof. Tyssilio says he was burnt in his castle of Gwrtheymion ar Ian Gwy by Emreis and Uthur, the sons of Cwstenin, who claimed the crown from him. So Gwrthrenion, Gwarthenion, and Gwortiger Mawr, are mere dreams, the latter being a plain corruption of Gwortigem- iawn.
GwRAN ap Cynedda Wledig, father of Maelor, who gave name to Maeloron^ the two Maelors.
GwRANGON: see Wyrangon,
GwRDDFAN G AWR (n. pr. v.). (Dr. Davies in Bann) See Ogyr- fan,
GwRECSAM, in English Wrexham, a town and church dedicated to St. Silin ; perhaps the same with St. GUes. The situation of this town makes it beyond doubt that the Britons, in ancient times, had a town here ; but its ancient name is lost. [I have an ancient name of it. — W. -D.]
GwREDOG or GwABEDOG, a chapel and parish, Anglesey. B. Willis says it was Locus refugii, "which is a mistake. Noddfa is a place of refuge, or sanctuary. This Gwai-edog seems to be a proper name of a man.
GwREi ap Cado of Bennystrywed yn Arwystli.
GwRFAWR ap Cadien ap Cynan.
GwRFYWDYGU, the 18th King of Britain.
GwHFYW ap Pasgen ap Cynfarch.
GwRGAN (n. pr. v.).
GwRGENEU. Eirid Flaidd ap Gwrgeneu.
GwRGAN Farfdwrch, or Farf Twrch, a King of Britain ; the 23rd King of Britain. Camden writes him, Owrind harmtruch, and says it is spade-beard. This shews his entire ignorance of the language, and he ought not to have meddled with it. The meaning of it is Gwrgan with the hog-beard.
GwRGAN ap Rhys died a.d. 1157, the be^t poet of his time. (Caradoc in 0. Gwynedd.) I never met with any of his works.
Gwrgeneu (n. pr. v.), commonly wrote in English Vrgeney. It is of the same origin with Gwrgan and GwrgL
Gwrgeneu, Bishop of St. David's.
Gwrgeneu ap Sitsyllt, a nobleman of Wales, killed by the sons of Ehys Sais. {Oaradoc, p. 114.)
GwRGi (n. pr. v.).
GwRGUNAN, qu. an idem Gwrgeneu ?
GwRGi Sant. Church at Penystrowydd, Montgomeryshire.
GwRGi ap Hedd Molwynog.
GwRGi Garwlwyd, the name of some Pict, it seems a great enemy of the Southern Britons, who made it a custom to kill a Briton for every day in the week. He was at last killed by Diflfedell ap Dysgyfedawc (2V. 37), and this was reckoned a notable good deed.
GwRGi and Peredur, twins, and sons of Elifer Gosgorddfawr (Tr. 35), killed in a battle with the Saxons, A.D. 584. {^ra Cambr.)
GwRGON, father of Etheu. {Tr. 62.)
GwRGON Verch Brychan, gwraig Cadrod Calchfynydd.
GwRGUSTU, or Llanrwst, where a battle was fought a.d. 952,
between North Wales and South Wales men for the government of Wales. [Note. — ^Llewelyn buried at Llan Ewst. — JT. 2>.]
GWRIG. Caer Gwrig {Usher), Warwick. See Wair.
G^BiN Sant. Ilanwrin, a church and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog.
GWKISNYDD ap Dwywelyth, or Grisnydd ap Dwywylith ap Tegawc.
GwRLAis, larll Kemiw.
GwRLi or GwRLBU. Caer Owrh, a castle and town in Flint- shire ; in English, The Hope. Fairs are kept here. A room under ground, and coins and books found there, February, 1767.
GwRNERTH (n. pr. v.), A.D. 610. {JE, Llwyd) Ymatgreg Llew- elyn a Gwrnerth.
GwEON (n. pr. v.).
Gwrawl gleddyfial gwrial Gwron.
Cynddelw, Marwnad Cad. ap Madawo.
GwRTHEFYR Fendigaid, the 96th King of Britain, son of Gwrtheym Gwrtheneu, who called in the Saxons. Gwrtheym was dethroned, and Gwrthefyr set upon tha throne. Latin writers call him Vortimerus. {Tr. 45.)
Gwrthefyr, the 103rd King of Britain.
GWRTHEYRN GwRTHENEU, the 95th King of Britain, Earl of Gwent, Euas, and Erging, on the death of Constantino, King of Britain, brother of Aldwr, King of Armorica, took Constans, his son, out of a monastery, to have a colour to reign, and to main- tain his power called in the Saxons against the Picts and Scots on one side, and the Armoricans on the other, who got at last the government of the whole island after a struggle with the Britons of above 700 years. He is called in one copy of Nen- nius Gworthigem mac Guortheneu, and in the Triades Gwrth- eym mab Gwrtheneu. He had, perhaps^ some claim to the crown after Eudaf, who was Earl of Euas and Erging also, whose daughter married to Maximus the Emperor. He built the castle of Gwrtheymion in Wales, wherein he was burnt by Emrys and Uthur, the other sons of Constantino. He is caUed by Latin writers Vortigemue. Zosimus says that the Britons cast off the Boman government, and settled a commonwealth after their own liking (Zosim.f 1. vi), which Selden says was in the year 430.
(Selden, Mar, Olaus., p. 248). So they only changed Bomans for Saxons ; and these Sttxons were diiven out by the Danes, and they by the Normans.
Most writers say that the Saxons came first to Britain in the year 449, which doth not agree with the time of Gannon's being here to confute the Pelagian heresy ; therefore Camden (in Bri- tannia, p. 95) places their coming in a.d. 428), which, as Mr. Selden says upon better consideration may, perhaps, be allowed. (Mar. Glaus,, p. 232.)
OwBTHGAiN ap Bhys; perhaps the same with Gwigan ap Bhys. See Owrgeneu.
GwRTHKYCHLAD, properly Gwrthddrychiad, an heir. Spelman, in his Glossary, in AdelingvSy reads this out of a MS. of the Laws of Howel Dda, by mistake, Vrch/richiad. See JSdlin.
GwBTHEYMUS. Idnerth arglwydd Elfael, Maelienydd, a Gwrth- rymus ; id. q. Gwrthynion, qu. ?
GwBTTD Sant, qu. ? Uanwrtyd, Brecknockshire.
GWRWARED ap Cyhelyn Fardd ap Gwynfardd
GwRWARED ap Gwilym.
GwRYDYR Drwm ap Gwedrawc ap Geraint ap Garanawch (an id. quod Caranawc ?) ap Glewddigar ap Cynwae Eychwain o Fed Rychwain yn Rh6s (i gii^ and hydr),
GwRYAT (n. pr. v.).
GwRYAT fab Gwryan yn y Gogledd ( JV. 76) ; one who ad- vanced himself from a native tenant or slave to be a King of some part of North Britain.
GWRYGION: see Wrygion.
GwTHERiN, a village in Denbighshire. Fairs kept here.
GwY, the name of a river in Wales, rising in Plumlumon mountain, so to Bhaiadr Gwy, to Buellt, and to Boss in Here- fordshire, and emptying itself at Chepstow ; by the English called Wye; hence Dyfifryn Gwy, Glyn Gwy.
Mr. Edward Llwyd says that guy, uy, uys, ey, y, and i, are as often the final syllable of our rivers as Tarn or Tau is the initial. In the Gothic and modern Swedish aa is a river ; and in the French, eau is water, to which the British word answers. He further adds that, seeing the water between Anglesey and Caer-
narvonshire is called Meneu, and that St. David's is called Meneu, it, according to that sense, signifies narrow water, because there is a narrow water at Kamsey, near St. David's. But if Mr. liwyd had been better acquainted with our ancient poets, he would have seen that the water of Anglesey is always called Menai, and not MeTuu. I agree with Mr. Ilwyd that wy and gwy signified water in the Celtic, as appears from the names of several rivers, as Llugwy, Colunwy, Elwy, y Vymwy, Dourdwy, Cynwy or Conwy, Mawddwy, Mynwy, Trydonwy, Dyfrdonwy, Duwyfawr,Duwyfach,Edwy,Pnwy,Machawy,etc.,etc.; and from awy or aw : Manaw, q. d. Monaw ; Alaw. But in nothing plainer than water-fowl : gwydd, hwyad, gwylan, gwyaeh, gvryrain, gwylog^ givylym. Therefore this takes off the strength of Mr. E. Ilwyd's argument that the Gwyddelian Britons and us had different languages (see Wysg and Zlwch), for Gwy is a river called by the name of water, as he says the river Wysg is. Should not we rather conclude from these things that the Gwyddelian Britons were colonies sent from the country now called South Wales to Ireland, as several words in their language agree to this day not to be found in North Wales ; as ysgadan, a herring ; llwch, a lake or lough ; eagair, a ridge of mountains ; arann, a kidney ; clebair, a babbler, etc., etc. [Tsgadan, plural, and ysgadenyn, singular, is always used in Montgomeryshire for herrings. — W, i>.]
GwT, a river mentioned by Uywarch Hen in Marwnad Cad- wallon.
GwYAR, father of Gwalchmai, nai Arthur, second husband of Anna, qu. ? See Ghvalchmai.
GwYDiON or GwDTON, SOU of Don, Lord or Prince of Arvon. This Gwdion was a great philosopher and astronomer, and from him the Via Lactea, or Milky Way, or Galaxy, in the heavens is called Caer Gwdion. His great learning made the vulgar call him a conjuror and necromancer ; and there was a story feigned
that when he travelled through the heavens in search of 's
wife that eloped, he left this tract of stars behind him. (D. J,) See Math and Don, and Qronwy Pefr,
GwYDYR ap Cynfelyn, the 75th King of Britain.
GwYDYR Dbwm, husband of the chaste Efiliau. (Tr. 55.)
GwYDD, Gweith, the Isle of Wight.
GwYDDAiNT, cousm gennan to King Cadwallon. (E. Llwyd, ficom Vaughan's MS. Notes on Oamden.)
GWTDDALUS. Llanwyddaliis in Cardigandhire. Fairs kept here.
GwTDDEL, Hibemicus, an Irisliman (from grvydd, wood) ; plur. Chvyddyl, the inhabitants of Ireland. Ireland was originally called by the Britons Qwydd Ynys, the Woody Island (by the natives^ in their own dialect, jiiobimj*; t. e., Insula Memorosa^ — Flaherty p. 18) ; and it was natund enough for the Britons, from whom they were descended, to call them Owyddyl or Gwydd- elod. Wood Men, though they named the island Y Werddon, i. e,, Y Werdd Ynys, the Green Island, which is the British name of it to this day ; and yet the inhabitants are never called in Welsh Owerddoniaid, but Owyddelod or Gwyddyl. Owyddd (pL Owyddyl) signifies also foresters, wild men, woodmen, out- laws, wood-rovers, thieves of any nation. In the legend of St. Elian a Saxon wood-rover is called gwyddel, from gwydd.
I Iwyn o goed dan len g^l
Efo'i gwjddai 7 Gwyddel, etc.
Gwedi'r Sais o'r g^aed ar sam. — O. Owyn.
And Owyddelyn is the diminutive of Gwyddel.
Gwyddelyn mewn gwe ddalwyd.
HwD Oae Lhoydy to the Ape.
Gwyddel is also used as a cognomen. leuan Wyddel. Gwyddel in the names of places; as, Pentre'r Gwyddel, in Ehoscolyn, Anglesey ; and Cerrig Gwyddel, near Malldraeth, Anglesey ; Pont y Gwyddel, in Llanvair, Denbighshire ; Pentre'r Gwyddel, in Llysfaen, Denbighshire ; Cerig y Gwyddel, near Ffestiniog, Meirion ; Cwm y Gwyddel, in Penbryn parish, Ceretica; another in Llanbadam Vawr, Ceretica ; another in Glamorganshire; Cam Phylip Wyddel, in Ilanwenog, Ceretica. See Iwerddon,
GwTDDELEG, Kngvu Hibemica, the Irish tongue ; called also laith Werddonig, Flaherty {Ogygia, p. 63) makes it consist of four dialects ; i. e.. Law Dialect, Poetry, Picked, and Common. So the language of the poets in the British differs much from common speech, which accounts for the obscurity, at this time, of some poetical writers.
GWYDD Elen or GwYDDELEN. Uanwyddelcn, parish and church in Cydewain deanery. See Dol Wydd Elen,
GwYDDYL GoRR, the same with Eiddilic Gorr, a noted hudol or magician mentioned in the Triades (31).
GwYDDELiG. llysiau Gwyddelig. Dyn Gwyddelig, a brutish fellow (Cardiganshire), or a morose, unmerciful fellow.
GwYDDELWERN, a place in Powys Land, where Beuno built a church, the ground being given him by Cynan, King of Powys, ap Brochfael Ysgithrog ; called Gwyddelwern from an Irishman that Beuno raised from the dead, who had been murdered by his wife. {Buchedd Beuno, Jes. Coll., Ox.) Q. d. Gwern y Gwyddel.
wyddyn or Llanwydden, a parochial chapel in the parish of Han- rhaiadr ym Mochnant, county of Denbigh and Salop. [A church in Montgomeryshire. — W. D.] Llanwydden, a house in Creuthyn, near Conwy ; but no church near. Qu. whether Glan Wydden ?
Gwyddfa Rbnfawn Pefr. — H. cup 0. Qwynedd.
GwYDDFARCH (n. pr. V.) is Marchwydd transposed, says Mr. R Llwyd. Gwyddfarch Gyfarwydd. (Dr. Davies in Proverbs.)
GwYDD GwiON, a gentleman's seat in Bro Wyddno. (0. Gwyn- edd)
GwYDDNO (n. pr. v.).
GwYDDNO GoRONiR or Garanir was lord of Cantre Gwaelod, a large flat country overflown by the sea about the year 500.
Cwyufan G wyddno Garanir Pan droes y donn dros ei dir.
Mwya Gwyddno Garanir was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. Meat for one man, when put into it, would be meat for a hundred when it was opened. This is generally taken for some kind of vessel ; but I suppose it was some new contrived weir for catching fish. See Dr. Davies in Mwys, [This is con- firmed by Taliesin comforting Elphin, the son of Gwyddno Gor- onliir, when his weir was robbed. " Elphin deg, paid ag wylo", etc.— W. D,]
Forth Wyddno yn y Gogledd, or Gwyddno's port or harbour in the north, one of the principal harbours of Britain. See Ys- ceu^yn and Gwygyr,
CoTtA Wyddno is in the mouth of Conwy river.
Caer Wyddno is a spot of foul ground in Aberystwyth Bay, which cornea dry on spring tides. See CaTUref Gwaelod, Taliesin, and Elphin.
GwYDDNO ap Emyr Llydaw.
GwYDDYL (anciently wrote Gwydyl or Chvytyl), the inhabitants of Ireland, the Irish. In the Irish tongue, GoaidhU is an Irish- man ; Odoilag or Goidheilg, the Irish tongue. But the original of the name is not found in the Irish. These people, being the first inhabitants of Britain, were called by the conquerors Gwyddyl, from gwydd, wood, as being obliged to skulk in wood ; or from gibydd, wild or savage ; and from hence were drove to Ireland, or obliged to transport themselves in colonies.
Gwyddyl Alban (in Irish, GaoidhU Alban, the people of Ire- land that planted themselves in Alban, now called Scotland. (Flaherty, Ogygia, p. 346.)
GwYGYR (fl.), the rivers Gwygyr and Mathanen, in Anglesey, \
go to Kemaes harbour. Qu. whether the Forth Wygyr of the Triades (No. 5), one of the principal harbours of Britain ? Beau- maris rather. See Forth Wygyr, Rhyd Wygyr, and Yseewyn.
GwYL (n. pr. f.), one of King Arthur's concubines. {Tr, 60.)
GwYLATHR, larll Desmwnt. Vid. Osbwm.
GwYLAWC ap Beli ap Mael Mynan.
GwYLFA. Bryn Gwylfa, a gentleman's seat. (/. D)
GwYLiiON Celyddon, the names of the Caledonians.
Can Wyllon Celyddon cerddant.
Prydydd Mock, i Lin. ap lorwerth.
GWYN (fl.) : hence Abergwyn. Gwyn (n. pr. v.). Triad 62. GwYN, appellative ; as Rhys Wyn ap Ehys. Gwyn ap Cyndrwyn. (Llywarch Hen, Marwnad Cynddylan.) Gwyn ap Golly^yn : vid. Ywain.
Gwyn ap Nudd. Adar Gwyn ap Nudd ydynt i'r elyrch. Gwyn Gwyarcheu, mentioned by Myrddin. See Qruffydd ap Cynan. Gwyn, father of Coleddawg. (TV. 62.) Gwynda Gyoet (n. pr. v.), and
GwYNDA Keinyat. {Tr. Meirch, 1.)
GwYNDODES, a North Wales woman.
GwYNDODTDD, a North Wales man.
GwYNDYD, North Wales men.
GwYNDOR, i. e.. White Breaks, the name of a river in America, said to be given it by the Britons who settled there under Madoc ap Owain Gwynedd, a.d. 1144.
GwYNEDD, North Wales ; Lat. Gwyneddia and Ouinethia, Vene^ dotia, and Venedocia. (Zeland.) Mr. Camden thinks it to be the Oermania of Pausanias, who, in his Arcadia, says that Ant. Pius had chastised the Brigantes for making inroads into G«r- mania, a province of the Bomana
Owen Gwynedd, etc.
Llywelyn ei enw o eisaillydd
Gwynedd gwr dygorbydd. — Hoi, Myrddin,
GwYNFA (n. 1.), in Caermarthenshire. Mathraval Wynfa. See Maihraval, Peillged o Wynfa i frenin Aberffraw. {Gyfraith,)
GwYNFRYN (nomen loci).
GwYNGAD ap Nos ap Hoyw.
GwYNGREGYN (fl.) ; hcncc Abergwyngregyn. See Garth Celyn,
GwYNHYFAR (n. pr. v.), maer Cernyw a Dyfnaint. {Ystori K, ap Kilydd,)
GwYNLLiw (n. pr. v.).
GwYNLLiw ap Cjmgor.
GWYNLLiw FiLWR, King of the Demetians ; in Latin, Gund- leus, confessor. See his Life in John of Tinmouth. Qu. whether Cynllo, Llangynllo ? He divided the kingdom with his six brothers ; married Gwladus verch Brychan Brycheiniog, who was father of St. Cynog and St. Keina. (Brit. Sanct, Mar. 29.) Gwyn- lliw's son was St. Cadoc. He was attended at his death by St. Dubricius and his son Cadoc. {Brit, Sanct.) See Cattwg,
GwYNNAN ap Gwynawc Farfsych.
GwYNNAWC ap Gildas ap Caw, arglwydd Cwm Cawlwyd. (MS,)
GWYNNOG Sant. Llanwynnog in Arwystli ; also the church of Aberhavesp. Idem quod Gwynnawc ap Gildas ap Caw, ar- glwydd Cwm Cawlwyd.
GwYNODL Sant. liangwynodl in Lleyn. Qu. whether Guinolo in Vertot.
GwYNOGiON. Swydd Wynogion, a commot (from Oicyn, or Owyn ap Cyndrwyn in Llywarch Hen, Marwnad Cynddylan, or Churynnog St. Llanwynnog).
Amgylch cyminawc cymynai Saeson
At Swydd Wynnogion yd wynnygai. — Oyndddw,
GwTNOLWYN (fl.). Abergwynolwyn.
GWYNT. Caer WytUy Winchester {Th. Williams), A-D. 520. jEr. Oamb, (M, Williams) See Wynt and Caermy^tU.
GwYNWAS (n. pr. v.), fair man (i ffTvyn and gwas),
GwYNWYS. Madog Gwynwys.
G^YR was one of the three commots of Eginoc in Carmarthen- shire, but is now in Glamorganshire. (Price, Descript)
G\Vyr, Tir G^yr, in English Oower land ; by Nennius (Gale'3
copy), Ouhir, where he says the sons of Keian, a Scot, seated
themselves till they were drove out by Kynedhav, a British
Prince. (Camden, Glam^organshire.) But this Keian is called
by Sir John Price, in his Desaiption of Wales, Olam Hector, See
Glam Hector,
Aberllychwr yn nhir Gwyr.
G^YR. Maen G^^, a stone near Cappel Curig in Caer yn Arfonshire, and a cist vaen near it (E. Llwyd, Notes on Camden in Gaennartheiishire), where he seems inclined to think they got that name from gwyro, bowing, because places of worship in the Druidical times, or else because they are crooked, i. e,, bending or inclining. But aU stones set on end do bend or incline one way or other. [Hence also cromlech, from crymmu, to bend in worship. — W, 2>.]
GwYRANGON: sce Wyrangon,
GwYRFAi (fl.), a river near Llanfaglan in Arfon : hence Is Gwyrfai and Uwch Gwyrfai, two commots in Caernarvonshire ; in Cantref Arfon.
Gwyr Werniaion, {Gwelygorddau Powys,)
GwYS. Castell Gwys, De Guise's Castle, a castle in Cantref y Coed, Dyfed, taken by the famous Howel ap Owain Gwyneth as an auxiliary to the sons of GrufTydd ap Rhys, who made use of battering-rams and machines to cast great stones, etc. {Cara- doc in 0, Gwynedd,)
One of the commots of Cantref y Coed. (Price's Descr)
Cost oil yw gwin Castoll Owis
Coety yw lie i ceid dewis. — lor, Fynglwyd,
Ag ar Oastell Gwys gogwys yd orfu Godwrf Uu llachiad gwrys.
Cynddelw^ i H. ap 0. Gwynedd.
Gwys, the pi. of gwas^ a servant or a youth. In the termina- tion of the names of places and people : Lloegrwys=Lloegrians; Argoedwys= people of Argoed, etc. According to ancient tenures the lordships and the inhabitants were bought or sold together. So in the Saxon tenures in Doomsday Booh we find there were in the lordships more or less of these kinds of inhabitants belong- ing to them, — servi, villani, bordarii, presbyteri, radmani, bova- rii, faber, molinarius, francigenae, praepositus, picatores, ancillse, etc., etc.
G\Vyth. Bryn Gwyth, a hill near Salop, where Llewelyn ab lorwerth encamped when he took the town.
Pebylhvys Llywelyn
Ym Mryn G^yth yn Amwythig. — Cylch Llywelyn,
Gavtthelyn (n. pr. v.) Caer Gwythelyn, Watlingaceaster. {E, Llioyd.)
GwYTHERiN Sant yn Rhyfoniog. (MS.)
GWYTHERIN, a parish and village in Denbighshire. The church is dedicated to St. Winifred, as B. Willis says.
Gyfarllwyd (Y).
Gyffylliog (Y), a chapel in Denbighshire.
Gyfylciii : see Gyfylchi
Gymwynas (Y),or YFilltir GymioynaSy a road in Caernarvon- shire, through very rocky ground, supposed to be a continuation of the military way of Sarn Elen made by Helena, mother of Constantine the Great. (E. Llwyd, Notes on Oamden in Meirion,)
Gyrthmwl or Gwerthmwl (n. pr. v.), mentioned by Lly warch Hen.
Gyrthmwl Wledig, penhyneif ym Mhenryn Ehionedd. [Tr.l.)
Haer, verch y Blaidd Ehudd o'r GSst. Haer, daughter of Gyllyn or Gillyn, wife of Bleddyn ap Cyn- fyn. {Caradoc in Bleddyn.)
Hafais (fl.). Aberhafaifi. [It is Hafea (baf heap) = Summer- gild, or dry.— W, R]
Hafabt. lenkyn Hafart.
Hafod {k haf and bod), a summer habitation, a summer dairy- house. Several places named from hence ; as, Hafod y Bwch, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire, — ^Robeits; Hafod Uchtryd, a house in Cardiganshire, once a seat of the Herberts ; Hafod y Goven, a house; Hafod y Brain, a gentleman's seat; Hafod Lwyddog, a gentleman's seat ; yr Hen Hafod ; yr Hafod Lorn ; Hafod y Grarreg, a gentleman's seat, — ^Thomas ; Hafod y Maidd, a gentleman's seat, — ^Wynne's.
Hafod Lwyfog, a gentleman's seat. (J, D.)
Hafod Unnos, a gentleman's seat (/. D.). — Mr. Lloyd ; in Denbighshire.
Hafod y Wern, a gentleman's seat. (J. D)
Hafon, qu. ? Llanhafon.
Hafren (fl.). The British historian's account of the naming of this river is this : Lloegrin or lAocrin, the eldest son of Brutus, having met with Essyllt, a daughter of a King of Germany, among the spoils of Humer, King of Hunawt, who had made a descent upon Britain about 1,000 years before Christ, he kept her in a place under ground, unknown to his Queen, Gwenddolen, and had a daughter by her, which he called Hafren [q. d. Hafn- ain, queen of May — W, D,'\ ; and when Corineus, the father of Gwenddolen, died, he advanced Essyllt to the throne, and dis- carded Gwenddolen, who going to Cornwall, her father's king- dom^ got an army, and gave her husband battle on the side of the river Furam, when Locrin was killed, and Gwenddolen ordered Essyllt and her daughter Hafren to be drowned in the river ; and ordered by proclamation through her whole kingdom that the river should hereafter be called Hafren, in eternal remembrance of the fair daughter of her husband Locrin. Hafren seems to be derived from Hafriain, i. e., the queen of summer ; from whence the Latin Sabriana, now Sabrina; in English, Severn. Camden says he could never learn whence this name came, for that it seemed that the story of a virgin being drowned in it was of Jeffrey's invention. He might have seen it in the British copy of Tyssilio, before Jeffrey's time. This river is also
mentioned by Uywarch Hen in Marwnad Cadwallon and Marw- nad Cyndylan.
Hafren. Cwmmwd Hafren, one of the two commots of Can- tref Cydewaiu in Powys Wenwynwyn. (Price, Descr)
Hafren, enw merch Llocrin Gawr.
HAIA.DEN. Llanhaiaden in Pembrokeshire. Fairs kept here. Qu. whether Uawhaden ?
Haiarnwedd, wife of Gleiaiar o'r Gogledd, and mother of Aedenawc. {Tr. 27.)
Hair ap Llewelyn ap Dafydd Llwck.
Halawc. Penardd Halawg. Bod Halawg. Coed Halawg. See Tcdog.
Halchdyn, Halchdun. leiweith Hilfawr o Halchdun. [Now Haughton, near the influx of the Vemiw and Severn. — W. Z>.]
Halken, church and parish in Flintshire, E. ; rectA Helygen. Pentre Helygen.
Halterennes, a place mentioned (in PowePs Oarad^, p. 142 and 148) to be in Ewyas land. It is surprising that AlU yr Ynys should come out of the learned Dr. Powel's hands in this shape. What can we expect from Speed, Camden, and other strangers to the language, when a man so well read in our anti- quities could commit such a blunder ?
Hamladd. Uanhamladd, a manor in Brecknockshire. Qu., Hammwlch ? Ilan Hammwlch parish in Brecknockshire. See Ty nitud.
Hamon. Caer Hamon, North Hampton. {T. Williams.)
Hamtwn. Tir Hamptwn, Hampshire.
Magwyd wr llwyd o'r He hwn A'th rent ynn na thir Hamtwn.
Hanker, a church and parish in Flintshire, in Chester diocese. Sjrr Gruflydd o Hanmer.
Haran. Llanharan, a church in Glamorganshire.
Hardd. Cadrod Hardd. , Harddlech. {T. p.)
Harfyn, one of the three commots of Cantref Ffinioc in Caer- marthenshire.
Harlech or Arlech, a town and castle in Meirion. See Llech Ardvdwy.
Haba Sant, i, e., St. Asaph, of noble British stock : hence Ilanhasa in Flintshire ; and in English the town of Llanelwy is called St. Asaph, after his name, because he succeeded Cyndeym Garthwys (Kentigem) in that bishopric and abbacy, and whose disciple he waa (Brit. Sand,, May 1.) He had 965 monks ; 300 were labourers out of doors, 300 were servants within doors, and 365 learned and religious. {Brit. Sanct)
Hayarden, a church and parish and village and castle, Flint- shire (in Welsh, Pen at Lac, but rightly Penardd Halawc), in Chester diocese.
Haves, R Aberhaves ; qu. Haf Hesp, dry in summer ? Aber- hafesp, Montgomeryshire ; parish and church in Cedewain, St. Gwynnog. [This gave name to Bedo Hafesp, a poet. — W. 2>.]
Hawau, Hawai, or Hawi, a place in Badnorshire, where fairs are kept [close to Llandrindod Wells. — W, D\
Hawcwn or Howcv\rN, a river which falls into Malldraeth, at Aberhawcwn, in Anglesey.
Hawdd-dre, in Baglan, Glamorganshire. Canhawdre in Car- diganshire.
Hawff. Tir yr Hawflf (probably Ehalff), peth o arglwyddiaeth Sir Eoger Vychan.
Hawstyn. Penrhyn Hawstin, a promontory in Cornwall.
Hawys (n. f ., qu. an idem Hawystl ?) ; hence Caer Hawys or Caerwys. Several noted British ladies of this name in ancient times ; as, Hawys Gadam, etc. [hence it came a proverb for a gigantic female, "0 yr Hawys fawr !" — W, D.] Hawys is derived from haf or hav, summer.
Hawys Gadarn, i. e., Hawys the Proud, daughter of Ywein ap GruflFudd ap Gwenwynwyn. Hawys Gadam, canys balch oedd. {MS^ She was married to J. Charleton, a Norman, who gave her relations great disturbance.
Hawystyl (n. pr. f.), a Saxon name. Hawystl Drahawc, un o dri phorthawr Perllan Fangor o barth y Saeson. (TV. 67.)
Hawystl ferch Brychan Brychelniog, santes ynghaer Hawystl. Qu. whether Caer Hawys, i, e., Caerwys ?
Hay, a town in Brecknockshire ; in Welsh called Tre Gelli, or Gelli OandrylL Camden says it was well known to the Eomans, for their coins are found there. It was burnt by Owen Glyndwr.
Hedd MoLWYiJOO, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, lord of Uwch Aled, and lived at Ilys Maes yr Henllys. (D.) Bore vert, a hart passant argent.
Heddwch, a cognomen. Madog Heddwch of Bhiwlas. (J. D.)
Heiliarth, nomen loci in Powys.
Afal yr holl filwyr ben
Dros Heiliarth draw o Sulien.
leuan Da/ydd Ddu, i Fred, ap Rhys o Geri.
[Qu. Yr Heniarth, near Llanfair ? — W. D.]
Heilyn (n. pr. v.), k hail. {Dames.) Bryn Heilyn. Gwaith Heilyn, which see.
Heilyn ap Llywarch Hen. {Llywarch Hen.)
Heilyn Frych ap Cynfrig Fychan. [Pentre Heilyn. — W.JD.]
Heilyn (Gwaith), a battle fought in Cornwall between Adel- red, King of Westsex, and Ehodri Molwynog, King of the Britons, A.D. 720.
Helchenb, in Doomsdai/BookyGheslme ; corruptly for Helygen, a village in Englefield.
Heledd (n. pr. v.), un o*r tri thrwyddedawg ac anfoddog. {Tr. 71.)
Heledd, a sister of Cyndylan. (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.)
Heledd {Triad), some northern islands ; I suppose the Heb- rides. O Erch a Heledd {Triad), which see.
Heledd Wen (Yr), Namptwich (i haUn, salt). Gyrru halen i'r Heledd.
Helen : see Ekn,
Heli, brine, pickle, salt water. Heli 'r mfir, sea-salt water (i halen, salt). Qu. whether hence Pwll Heli, a seaport in Caer- narvonshire, or from EU ? One of the mouths of the Ehine is called Helium, perhaps from heli, salt water; but is not the others also salt water ?
Heug ap Glyn Glanoc (vel ap Glanoc).
Hbn. Yr Hen lerwerth. Llywarch Hen.
Hendref, in the names of several places, signifying old tewn, old dwelling, old habitation, anciently inhabited ; but is properly the inhabited country distinguished from the uncultivated mountains. There are many places of this name in Wales, or
with Hendref prefixed. Mynydd a hendre', i e., common and freehold ; the same with gwyllt a dof, i, c, wild and tame, or uncultivated and cultivated.
Hendref, name of a house in Uandyfrydog, Anglesey ; Hen- dre Gadog, near Malldraeth; Hendre Velcn; Hendref Howel, Anglesey ; Hendref Mur, Meirion, a gentleman's seat ; Hendre Bippa, a gentleman's seat (J. D.) ; Hendref Mynych ; Hendref Urien, a gentleman's seat, — Iloyd ; [Hendref Hen. — W, 2>.]
Hendre Vigill, a gentleman's seat («/". D,), See Gorsedd VdgiUy Anglesey. See Elian.
Hendwr (n. 1.). Madog o'r Hendwr.
Heneglwys, a township in Anglesey, and now a parish church. It is mentioned in the Prince's Extent (Edw. Ill, 1352) to be a/ree villa held of the Saints Franciscinus and BaceUinus. The inhabitants were remarkably free, for they were exempted from bearing arms, and owed the Prince no services, or suits, or rents, except a suit to the two grand turns [circuits — W, JD.] of the Lord Prince yearly, and a suit to the Prince's mill at Tin Dryvol. See Francisdnvs and BaceUinus,
Henfache, a gentleman's seat. (/. D) [Ilanrhaiadr Moch- nant.— W. 2>.]
Hen Fynyw, Eglwys Hen Fynyw, near Aberaeron in Cardi- ganshire, which I take to be the Old Menevia ; so that instead of BvJyus Vetus (Leland in Dr. Davies' Dictionary) you must read Hvdiis Veins, i. e,, the old rubbish or ruins of Mynyw, or the ruins of Old Myny w. See Hen Fenyw.
Henffig, near Margam (in Modlen), Glamorganshire.
Henffordd, the town and county of Hereford, also called Hereford East It signifies Old Way.
Henffordd (GwAiTH),the battle of Hereford, between Gruflfudd ap Llewelyn ap Seisyllt and Eandolph, nephew of Edward the Confessor. He burnt the Cathedral, slew the Bishop, Loeger, spoilt and burnt the town, and killed 500 Saxons, a.d. 1054. See M^acJiarvy.
Hengwrt, a gentleman's seat near Dolgelleu in Meirionydd- shire. Here is a great collection of curious British MSS. con- taining poetry and history, collected by that great British anti- quary, Mr. Robert Vaughan of Wengraig, ancestor of the present owner, Mr. Vaughan.
HenotSj one of the commanders of the first Saxons that came to Britain (TV. 48) ; by English historians called Hengist; by Verstigan, Hengistus.
Henllan^ near Denbigh, a church and parish (V.) dedicated to St. Sadwrn. {B, WUlis.)
Henllan, on the river Gwy, where Dyfrig had a college of 1,000 scholars, among whom were Teilo, Idan, Sampson, etc. (Dubricius? Life.)
Henllan, Cardiganshire.
HenliIan Amgoed, a church and parish, Carmarthenshire. A Eoman inscription there.
Henlleu (n. 1.). {Einion ap Qwalchmai, i Dduw.)
Boed ef yn diben bod yn diblen
HeU yn Enlli hyd yn HeiiUeu. — (I Qrist,)
Henpen (n. pr. v.), un o'r tri glew. {Tr. 27.) - Henwen (n. pr.). Henwen, hwch Dedlweir Dalben. {Tr, 30.) This seems to have been the name of some ship which Coll ap Collfrewy went captain of, etc. (TV. 30.)
Henydd, an id. quod Hunydd ? Sain Henydd, enw lie.
Henyn (n. pr. v.), father of Garwen, King Arthur's concubine. (TV. 60.)
Henyr : see Ynyr.
Herast (n. 1.).
Herast. Llewelyn ap Herast ; hefyd arglwydd Herast.
Herbert, a surname of several noble families in Britain. This name was here far before William the Conqueror's time, and probably not Norman. It is naturally enough derived from the British, and may be originally a British name. Sirberth, in British, signifies tall and beautiful; anciently wrote Hirhert Herbeirtion is the plural formed after the manner of the ancients, as Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr in William the Conqueror's time, in naming their clans ; so from Tyngyr, Tynghyrion ; fi'om Gwalchmai, Gweilchion.
O Herbardiaid aur bnrdaL
Hercles {J. D)y Hercules. See Ercwlff.
Hergest. Tomas ap Eoger, arglwydd Hergest.
Hergest (n. 1.), in Glamorganshire. [There is a place of that
name in Glamorgan ; and another, I believe, in Montgomeryshire. — /. M, Herefordshire, from whence came the Llyfr Coch MS. in Jesus College. — W. D.'\
Hergyn, some place in Caemarvoushire. See Ergirvg and Eifl.
Herwnden (n. pr. v.), a Saxon, father of Gweattyrn.
HiLFAWR, a cognomen. lorwerth Hilfawr ap Mael Meilien- ydd. {J. D,)
HiRADDUC, nomen loci [near in Flintshire. — W, B.\
Dafyddd Ddu o Hiraddue.y a learned poet and grammarian. We have his Grammar of the British tongue and several of his poems extant, but not in print. His translation of the Te Deum is curious. He lived about the year 1380, and from his know- ledge in natural philosophy and chymistry he got the name of a conjuror among the vulgar, and abundance of strange stories are to this day told of him and the Devil. His shewing artificial snow in summer-time made them insist that he was just come from the Alpes on the DeviVs back. His erecting of bridges in difficult places by the Devil's help, and cheating him of liis pay, and his outwitting the Devil in everything, even when he expected his body when he was dead, made the poor Devil, in the hearing of all the congregation, cry out at last, "Dafydd Ddu, ffals yn fyw, ftals yn farw !" i. c, false alive, and false when dead. These are stories that very well suited the age he lived in, when the monks made learning a crime.
HiRADDUG (GwAiTii), a battle fought at this place, where Cws- tenin Ddu, son of Idwal Foel, was killed. (MS.) It was fought between Uowel ap leuaf and Cvvstenin Ddu, son of I ago, who had liired Godfryd, captain of the Danes, A.D. 970. (Caradoc.)
HiRFLAWDD. Icrwerth llirflawdd, yr hwn yn yn 'r ach newydd a elwir lerwerth liirymladd.
HiRFRYN, a lordship in Ystrad Tywy. (Caradoc, p. 274.)
HiRFRYN (Caer), Longcaster {Th. Williams).; rather Luncas- ter, from the river Lune in Lancasliire.
HiRiETH, a river. Aber Hirieth on the Dyfi river. Rhiw Hirieth, a gentleman's seat [in Caereinion. — JV, Z>.].
Hirnant, church and parish in the deanery of Welsh Poole.
HiRYMLADD : see Hirjlawdd,
Hispaen, Hespacn, Spain.
HiRAETHOG, one of the two commots of Cantref Ystrad in Denbighshire : from hence Grufludd Hiraethog, a sound poet of the 16th century, took his name. He was the teacher of Wm. Lleyn, Sion Tudur, William Cynwal, Simwnt Vychan, poets that flourished in Queen Elizabeth's time.
HiKELL, Uriel, an angel. See Gabriel.
HoAN, a King of the Britons (probably the Northern Britons), mentioned by ¥LQheTiy,Offygia, p. 478, in the year 642, who beat Domnal Brec, King of the Scots, in the battle of Ystrad Car- maig.
Hob (Yr), the Hope. Mredydd o'r H6b.
HoBEU (Yr). Stat. RJmddlan, See Flint,
HoDNANT (n. 1.), qu. a river ? Llywelyn Brydydd Hodnant,
a poet anno Domini 1360. [The little river of Llan-Illtud Fawr
in Glamorgan.
Hyd y nant loy w Hodnant Iwyd.
Cywydd Ultud 8anU — J. If.]
H'oDNi, a river which falls into the Mynwy, and together fall into the Wye. In Giraldus Cambrensis called Hodeni. It runs by the abbey of Lantony, which was probably Llan Ilodui, or, as Giraldus thinks, Nant Hodni. This is often confounded with Honddu, and even by Mr. Edw. Llwyd on Camden (a marginal note), and by Dr. Towel, Dr. Th. Williams, etc. See Honddu and Bliodni.
HoEDLYW ap Cadwgan ap Elystan Glodrudd. Gorsedd Hoed- 11 w ar dir Carrog, yn Llanbadrig, Mon.
HoFA and HwFA (n. pr. v.) : hence Carreg Hova, Castell Car- reg Hova, and Caer Carreg Hova, in Shropshire, mentioned in the tenth battle of Llywelyn ap lorwerth.
Pobyll Llywelyn, etc.
Ynghacr Yngharreg Hova. See Ilivfa.
Holt, in Denbighshire, a town and castle, where fairs are kept ; called })y the Komans Leonis Casti^m. So called, as Cam- den thinks, from the " Legio vicesima victrix", which kept gan-i- son a little higher on the other side Dee. He means Westchester , called by the Britons Caerlleon Gawr and Caerlleon ar Ddyfr- dwy ; but Camden had a mind to throw a veil over the Leonis
Castruyn, lest the Welsh antiquaries should claim it for Caer- lleon. Leonis Oastnim is literally Caerllean, in spite of all glosses and shifts, where the name of the ancient King Lleon is still retained.
HoNDDY or HoNDDU (fl., hence Aberhonddu), falls into the Wysg at Brecknock ; hence the town of Brecknock or Biych- einiog. (Price, Descr.) This by English writers is called Hodni. Caer Hodni, Brycheiniog. (Th. Williams, Catalogue.)
Hodni a'i fraint hyd nef fry. — Huw Cae Llwyd, Aber hydrfer Hodni. — Prydydd y Mochy i Llywelyn.
See Bhodni and Hodni.
Hope (called in Welsh Yr Hob), part of Powys Vadog, one of the three commots of Cantre 'r Ehiw, now part of Flintshire. Hope Castle, Caergwrle.
HoRAN. Llanhoran or Glan Horan, a gentleman's seat in Caer- narvonshire. Timothy Edwards, Esq.,^ a captain in the royal navy.
HoRS,one of the Saxons' first commanders in Britain. (TV. 48.)
HowEL, HoEL, or Hywel (n. pr. v.), k hy and wSl, i. e., sharp- sighted. There have been several famous men of this name. Hywel, by some made the same with Huw or Hugh.
Howel wyd Haw o Ladin Haelaf o'r gwyr, heiliwr gwin.
HowLBWCH neu Howlbwrch, qu. whether Old Burgh f Uow- arch Goch ap Llowarch Howlbwch.
HowLFFORDD {GuitoW Glyn), Haverfordwest or Herefordwest.
HowNANT, in the parish of Penbryn, Cardiganshire.
HoYW ap Gloyw ap Caw ap Cawrda.
HowMON (n. 1.). Yn Adis [?] y bu varw Dafydd ap Owain Gwynedd ac yn Howmon y claddwyd ef. {MS) See Adis [?].
Hu Gadarn, an Emperor of Constantinople that held the plough, and would eat no bread but from corn of his own raising. (Jolo Goch)
HUADAIN : see Llanhayaden, Ilanhuadain, vulgo Llanhaden,
South Wales.
Pen ar ddigrain
A chan Haw llndwaw Llanhnadain.
Ein, ap Qwgan^ i Ln. ap lor worth, Anno 1230.
HuAlL, mab Caw, un o dri thaleithiog cad Ynys Prydain. {Tr, 26.) A hu and ail, i, e., Hywel ; Hugo Secundus. (Br. Davies) See GUdas ap Caw,
Hubert, esgob Mynyw, a.d. 876.
HuDWYDD or Hydwydd (n. 1.). Carreg Hudwydd, a place men- tioned by Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan. Mr. E. Llwyd thinks it to be Beny, a hill in Shropshire, near Wroxeter. Hud- wydd, as Mr. E. Llwyd reads it, is in Llyfr Coch Eergest wrote Hytwyth, i. e., Hydwyth.
Stafell Gynddylan nid esmwyth heno
Ar ben Carreg Hydwyth
Heb ner heb nifer heb amwyth. — Llywarch flow.
HuGANUS, lord of Dyfed.
Hugo de Lacy.
Hugo Lupus, ad. 1092.
HuGYN ap Pagan o Gaenan H&l tuhwnt i Lwdlo.
HuNAWD, Hungaria. (MS.)
HuNYDD, daughter of Efhydd (Einudd, MS.) ap Gwemgwy, lord of Dyffiyn Clwyd, wife of Mredydd ap Blethyn, Prince of Powys. (J.D.)
HuNYDD verch Eoger arglwydd y Drewen.
Huw, Hew (n. pr. v.), Engl., Hugh ; but is a contraction of Hugo. Huw Conwy.
Hywel wyd Hnw o Ladin.
HwcH, qu., whether a river or a man ?
Dym cyfarwyddiad yn hwch
Ddywal, dwedyd yn ddrws llech. — Llywarch Hen.
See Unhwck.
Hwen Hir, a woman's name, qu. ? (Gr. Zl. D. ap Einion)
Huan, qu. ?
HwFA (n. pr. V.) ; hence Carreg Hova. Ehos Tre Hofa, in
Nid er da i Hwfa hen
Namyn er maws im' fy hnn.
Hwfa ap Cynddelw, lord of Llys Llifon in Anglesey, lived at Prysaddfed, in the time of GrufFudd ap Cynan and Owain Gwyn- edd, AD. 1100. One of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales. He bore gules, a chevron or between three lions rampant of the second. See Mona Antiqua, p. 130.
HwLFFORDD, Haverford West, Pembrokeshire; wrote also Hereford West ; a town and castle on one of the branches of Milford Haven, one of the three commots of Cantref y Khos (now Roose), formerly inhabited by Flemings.
HwLKYN. Llywelyn ap Hwlcyn.
HwLKYN ap Bleddyn.
HwNTYNTWN, Angl. Huntington.
HwYSGiN Hwland, neu Hwysgyn ; in another I read it Hwysgwyn ; qu. an id. Ysgwyn ?
HwNDRWD, corrupt ior Hutidred, Tir 3m Hwndrwd, one of the three commots of Cantref Cronerth in Morganwg. (Price, Descr.)
Hyarthwy, a place in South Wales where a battle was fought for the Principality of South Wales, in the year 1031, by Howel and Mredyth, sons of Edwyn ap Einion ap Owain ap Hywel Dda, and the sons of Bhydderch ap lestyn, who they first had killed in another battle. {Caradoc.)
Hychan Sant. Llanhychan, Denbighshire.
Hydwn Dwn ap Ceredig.
Hyfeid, or rather Hyfaidd (n. pr. v.).
Hyfeid ap Bleiddig yn Deheubarth {Tr. 76), one who, from a slave, became King of South Wales. Pentre Hyfaidd, a gentle- man's seat. (f/. D.) See Maes Hyfaidd,
Hyfeidd. Ilowarch Hyveidd ; signifies beiddio'n h^f, or bold adventurer.
Hymye, the Humber. {Tr, 4.)
Hynap, an elder, or the oldest in the family, tribe, clan, or society. Hence brenhyn or breienhyn, a king (i h-aint and hynaf, i.e., privilege and eldership) ; and so Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan Powys :
Stafell Cynddylan ys araf heno Gwedy colli i hynaf, etc.
Hywel ab Emyr Uydaw {Tr. 83), called Brenhinol Farchog, royal knight, in Arthur's court. Camden derives it from Ilmlius, sun-bright.
Hywel Dda, King of Wales, about the yejur 940, began to rule over all Wales, being Prince of Po^vys since 914. He revised
the Welsh Laws, and adapted them to the circumstances of the time he lived in. We have several copies of these I^aws in MS. in Welsh and Latin, and they were lately published by Dr. Wot- ton. A little before this, Alfred, King of the West Saxons^ with the assistance of his tutor Asserius, a Cambro- Briton, translated the Laws of Dvfnwal Moel Mud into the Saxon, or at least picked out of them what he thought fit.
The ancient Saxon laws were rather customs and traditions, such as are among the North Americans and other illiterate nations, the laws of Ethelbert, King of Kent, being their first written laws, which was above a hundred years after their coming to Britain ; and those reached no further than Kent. Then the West Saxons, about a hundred years after that (a.d. 714), under King Ina, had written laws. Then, soon after, the Mercians had written laws. Lastly, Alfred, grandson of Egbert, who in 827 reduced the Heptarchy, did about the year 900 give them a written general law composed from the ancient laws of the island ;, and this was about 400 years after their conquest of Loegria^ now called England.
Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd, brother of Madoc ap Owain, who first discovered the country called now America, which should have been called Madoca, This Hywel was an excellent British poet and a great general. We have several of his works extant He flourished about A.D. 1140. See Powel's Caradoc in Owain Gwynedd.
Hywel (Castell), in Gwinionydd, qu. ?
Hywel (Cebrig) or Crug Hywel, where Hywel ap Caw, brother of Gildas, was killed by King Arthur or by his orders, which wajB the occasion of Gildas's inveteracy against the Britons in his Epistle. See Giraldus Cambrensis, and Sir Jo. Price, Defence of the British History. See Huail ap Oaw.
[Hywel Ystoryn, an ancient bard of the fourteenth century, lived at Cjmffig in Glamorgan. — I. M,]
HrwYN ap Gwyndaf Hfen o Lydaw, Periglor yn Enlli.
Iabn (n. pr.). [laen and Twymyn, two riveA in Cyfeiliog. —
W. D.] Plant Cyndrwyn a laen.
Iaco or Iago (n. pr. v.). This is rendered in the Bible trans- lation for James or Jacobiis, and is by some of the old poets used for Jacob the son of Isaac ; and the 16th King of Britain being of this name shews it to be purely British. There was a Prince of Wales of this name in the year 948 ; cmother, a.d. 1021 ; and yet the name is not common in Wales, nor in manu- scripts, nor in names of places or churches.
Rhyd Iago; T^ Iago; Digwyl Iago; crogen Iago, condia Veneris, Myn Iago, an oath.
Iago, the 16th King of Britain.
Iago, mab Beli, killed with an axe. {Tr. 39.)
liL, the name of a country ; in English, Fa/« ; one of the com- mots of Cantref y Ehiw, part of Powys Vadog. {Dr. PoweL) It is in Denbighshire. Camden thinks 1^1 has its name from the river Alen. Why not from la, ice ? [Is not Idl, cultivated, anial, the negative, being uncultivated ? — W, D.]
Ian, qu. an id. quod Jane ?
Ian, OwBD, hi aeth yn ddydd.
The last is pronounced in English, eean.
Iancyn, idem quod Siangcyn, qu. ?
Ianto, dini. ab leuan, and leutyn.
Tarll, an earl ; in the Danish, eorla, erle ; a degree of nobility among the ancient Britons. This title Camden (in Rem,, p. 67) says came hither with the Danes. The Saxons might receive it from the Danes, but the Britons always had it; and [it] is a con- traction of arghoyddj i. e,, a supreme leader ; and from aril came iarll and earl. But the Saxon word earl was anciently no more than an elder. See Canute's grant. Spelman says the English borrowed the word, but not the degree, from the Danes, and that the title begun in Canute's time, who was a Dane.
Iarll y Mjmydd Cadarn, in the time of Arthur.
Iarll ar Went ag Erging ag Euas oedd Gwrtheym (Tyssilio), about A.D. 400.
Iarll ag larlles ; pi. leirll. Eorla in Danish is the same with alderman in Saxon.
Ystori larlles y Ffynnon. Galfrid translates Iarll Cernyw, Ditx CornvMce. Iarll Caer Lundain a swydd Geiut, Dux Trino* vanti.
Iarddub (n. pr. v.), wrote by the ancients Yarthur and lardur.
Iarddur ab Mervyn, ad. 952. {Oaradoc in leuaf.) Moses Williams, in Notes on H. llwyd's Brit, Descr. Com,, would have it that the words in Llywarch Hen's Marwnad Geraint should be read *' Yn Dongborth Has Yarddur", which Sir John PryBe in his Def, Brit, Hist,, and Mr. Edward Llwyd, reads y Arthur, and which last reading is backed by the Triades, which makes Geraint ab Erbin one of King Arthur's three admirals. Moses Williams is wrong in placing G. ab Erbin in the time of Ina.
Tre Iarddur, a house near Holyhead.
Iasedd neu Iaseth ap
Iau or lou (signifying young), Jupiter, Jove, son of Sadwni, a Prince of the Celtic nation before the foundation of the Greek and Boman empires. This is him who his own people having deified, imposed upon those nations afterwards as their supreme god by the name of Jupiter or lou Pater. The oblique cases, Jovis, Jovem, etc., shew him to be the same, and answer that famous question of Cornelius Agrippa which puzzled all the grammarians, why Jupiter makes Jovis in the genitive case ? The Britons and Armoricans to this day call Thursday, or Jupi- ter's day, Dydd lou, Dydd Iau, Difiau.
Cwm lou, a parish in Monmouthshire.
See Pezron's Antiquities.
Ibranc. Nennii\p (Li. Cantab.). See Efrog.
ICENi, a people of Britain inhabiting Suffolk, Norfolk, Cam- bridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire. They are called in Welsh Uwchcynniaid, See Keint or Cdnt.
IcH DiEN, the motto of the Princes of Wales, which they use under tliree feathers. Spelman, in his Glossary, says it is from the Saxon Ich Thien, I serve. Bailey deriyes it from the Ger- man Ich Diennan, But if it is British it is Ych Ddien, you are young ; or perhaps Eich Dyn, your man. Qu. whether it was not to please the Welsh this was contrived by Edward I ? Or whether it was taken, not by Edward the Black Prince, son of Edward III, after the battle of Cressy, ad. 1346, it being said to be the motto and arms of John King of Bohemia, who served in the French wars, and was killed in that battle ? [Yes. — W. D,'\ Verstegan, p. 259, says Ih Thian is ancient English, and sig-
Difies / serve. But if it is true that John King of Bohemia had this motto, it is the Slavonian tongue, the proper language of Bohemia, and is neither German nor Saxon ; and it is not very probable that a son of the King of England would make use of a Slavonish motto, or that a King of Bohemia would use a Ger- man motto to shew that he served under France.
Iden, Idan, or Aidan ; but qu. ? Llaniden, a church and parish, Anglesey. If it was from Aidan of North Britain, it would have been pronounced Aeddan ; but this is Iden Sant, in some MSS. Nidan.
Idgwyn, neu Iddon, o enw arall. Vid. Iddon.
Idlos and Idloes Sant. Llanidloes yn Arwystli.
Eos Tref Idlos tra fti. — Sion Phylip, i lenan Tew,
who resided here with Lewis Gwyn ; died old.
Idlos ap Gwyddnabi ; rect^ Idloes.
Idnbrth ap Hwfa. (Rhys Goch Eryri)
Idno ap Meirchiawn.
Idman Amherawdyr, Adrian. (B. Lhuyd.)
Idris (n. pr. v.) ; hence Cader Idris, a mountain fortified in ancient times. Cader Idris Gawr. (Leland.) Idris Gawr. (Dr. Tfios. Williams, Caerydd.)
Idris, the third son of Llewelyn Aurdorchog, lord of liL Hence Bodidris, a gentleman's seat, laL
Idris Arw ap Gwyddo Garanir ; unde Oadair Idris.
Idwal (n. pr. v.), falsely wrote Edwal.
Idwal ap Edwin, the 41st King of Britain.
Idwal Iwrch, son of Cadwaladr, last King of Britain. See Cadwaladr,
Idwallawn ap Morgant Mawr.
Idwallon, a nobleman of Wales, who died a.d. 841. (Powel, Oaradoc, p. 27.)
. Iddawg (n. pr. v.). Iddawg Com Brydain a wnaeth brad Arthur. Hist, (J. D.)
Iddig (n. pr. v.). Madog ap Henri ab Iddig, a poet.
Iddon ap Ynyr Gwent. In Tr. 75 a battle is mentioned to be fought by Maelgwn, where the blood turned the colour of the river Severn, where this man is mentioned ; but the passage is dark and obliterated, but in Trioedd y Meirch the name is entire.
Ieithodd (fl.). Aberieithodd, qu. ?
Ieithon (fl.). Aberieithon. Falls into the Wye. Glyn leithon. (Price, DescT,)
Ierwerth, Angl. Edward. lorwerth, ait Dr. Davies. Chwaer John Edward un fam un dad oedd Elen verch Ierwerth. (Llyfr Achau, fol. 70b.) Ierwerth Swdyrgrin.
Iestyn Sant Llanie8t)m in Ueyn and Anglesey.
Iestyn ap Geraint ap Erbin.
Iestyn ap Gwrgant ap Ithel ap Idwallawn ap Morgan Mwyn- fawr, Prince of Morganwg, that lost it to the Normans, 1090. Camden tells this story differently from Dr. Powel and Caradoc. (Camden, Britannia, Glamorgan.)
Ieufaf, Ieuan, Iefan, Ifan, and Ivan (n. pr. v.), commonly Latinized Johannes. It signified originally youngest ; the same with leuangc, q. d. nxitu minimus \ and there are now family names of Evan and Evans that should not be translated John. Hence Evan, a modem name, which by Anglifying is turned to Evans, as William is to Williams, Owen to Owens.
Ieuaf and Griffri were generals of the Powys forces in a battle fought between Cadwallon Fendigaid and Edwin King of the Saxons, and were both killed, and succeeded by Myngan. {Tt. 63.) See Tr. 75 ; and see Belyn, 49.
Ievanawl ap Einion. • Ieuan y Coed. Gwyl Ieuan y Coed : qu. what St. John's Day ? [John the Baptist in the wilderness, a festival to celebrate his retiring beyond Jordan. — W. D!\
Ieuan, Eang of Alban, before Brennus' time.
Ieuan ap Howel Swrdwal, a poet of Ceri, an. 14G0.
Ieuangc. Rhys leuangc.
IvoN (n. pr. v.). Camden says the Welsh and Slavonians use Ivon for John ; but he was quite out, for the Welsh never had the name Ivon in their language. The name Ieuan, which is the same with Evan, looks like Ivon, but is not sounded the same. It is true the name of St John is pronounced by the common people in Wales Ifan or Ivan, which would be in English Yevan; and St. John's Day is called Dygwyl Ifan. But John, as a com- mon name of men, is always pronounced as if wrote in English Shone ; and St. John's Gospel is translated Efengil loan, in two syllables, as if made from Johannes. But Howel ap Syr Mathew has
Matbe, Ifan, maith ddefod, Marc a Lac, cjmer eu clod.
(To Davies, Bp. of Menevia.)
Ifor or Ivor (n. pr. n.).
Ifor Hael, lord of Maesaleg, was Dafydd ap Gwilym's patron. If or Hael is Ifor the Liberal
Ifor, the eldest son of Cadwaladr Fendigaid, the other two being Alan and Idwal Iwrch. See Ynyr.
Ivor ap Severws.
Igmond, a captain of the Black Nation, or Danes, who made a descent at Bhod Meilon, near Holyhead, a.d. 900 ; now Pen- rhos Meilon, vulg. Y Feilw.
Ikenild : see Ystrad Ychen.
Ilar or Iler Sant, probably St. Hilarins or Elerius, abbot and confessor, of whom there is mention in the Acts of Winifred ; educated at Llanelwy and Ad Vallem Clutinam; founded a monastery, of which he was abbot; and a nunnery, of which St. Winifred was abbess. (Leland and Pitta, Brit Sand,, June 13.) He was abbot of Gwytherin, where he buried Gwenfrewi.
Llanilar, Cardiganshire, where their fairs are kept on St. Hilary's Day.
Illan (n. 1.), Glamorgan.
Illtud, Illdud, or Elltud Sant, appointed by St German head of a college in Glamorganshire. His scholars, Daniel, etc. His name is Latinized Iltutus. Llanelltud, Meirion, and near Neath. See Elltyd and LlanelUyd, See Oerman Sant.
Indeg, merch Afarwy Hir, a concubine of King Arthur. {Tr, 60.)
Inerth verch Edwyn. (Caradoc, p. 183.)
Ingl (wrote also Eingl), Angli, Saeson Doegr ; the English nation.
Inglont, the manner of writing the word England by the Welsh poets :
Ba yn Inglont tenont taer,
Bid i Inglont byd anglaer. — L. OL Cothi.
Inse Gall, i.e.,Ynysoedd Gall, the Hebrides {Flaherty, p. 323), inhabited by Gall Wyddyl, i e., the most ancient Gauis, or first inhabitants bf Britain, who were thrust there by later colonies.
lo (n. v.), Job. Golud lo.
I6-AN (in two syllables), from Johannes.
Ail yw Idan laa lonydd. — lolo Ooeh.
loDDiON ap Idnerth ap Edryd.
loHN Dafydd Ehys, author of the printed British Grammar, in foL, 1592, and of a Dictionary in MS. ; also of a printed Italian Grammar which he published in Italy when he followed his studies there, and read lectures on physic. He commenced Dr. of Physic at Sienna^ professed Physic at Padua, was practitioner in divers parts of Italy, afterwards in England, and had been reader to most of the Colleges of Physicians ; was about sixty years of age in 1606. Fe ddywedir mai mab i glochydd Uan- faethlu ym Mon oedd ef. See note on Winifred! % Life.
loL-LO and loLO (n. pr. v.).
Achau lolo ni cbelir. — QuttoW Olyu.
loLO Gogh, a famous poet that flourished a.d. 1400, of whose works we have several Pronounced lol-lo and lolo. lOLYN (n. pr. v.).
Gair lolyn gwych wrol naf Gwr gwiwnerth gwir a ganaf.
Hywel Kilan^ i L. ap Gr. v. ap Gr.
lOLYN ap Gronw Gethin : hence Plas lolyn, in Denbighshire, the seat of Thomas Prys, Esq., an ingenious poet in Queen Eliza- beth's time.
lONAVAL, son of Meuric, right heir to North Wales, a.d. 984, killed by Cadwallon ap leuaf.
lORDDWFN : vid. Bywyn.
lORWERTH (n. pr. V.) (2>. ap Owilym) From I6r,
lORWERTHlAWN {Owclygorddau Fawys), lands of lorwerth in Powys.
lotJ and Iau : hence leuan, lefan, Ifan, Ivan, leuaf (n. pr. v.), commonly Latinized Johannes.
Ippo, Hippocrates. {leuan Tew,)
Irwon or Irfon, a river near Buellt. Qu. whether Dr. Powel's Orefwyn f [Vide Casrau, — W, D.]
IsAERON, the country to the south and south-west of the river Aeron in Ceretica. See Aeron,
Isc : see ^Vysg,
IscoED, one of the four commots of Cantref Gwent. See Ban^- gar is Coed.
IscoED is also the name of one of the four cantrefs fonnerly of Gwentland, containing the comraot of Bryn Buga,Uwch Coed, y Teirtref, Erging ac Euas. (Price, Descr,)
IsELWYR, Inferiores ; hence the Silures in Latin writers. Ise- lures, because below the river Dyfi. [Essyllwyr ; Bro Essyllt. — W. D.]
IsGENENY, one of the three commots of Cantref Ffinioc in Caermarthenshire.
IsGENNEN. {LevHs Olyn Cothi.)
IsGWYRFAi, a commot.
ISLONT (Tyssilio), Iceland, an island in the North Frozen Sea, belongs now to Denmark, about 300 miles long and 150 broad ; said by some to be the Thule of the ancients, t. e,, tyinell, dark. It belonged to Britain in the time of King Arthur, a.d. 520 ; and Melwas, or Gillamwri, was king there, which, by the name, seems to have been from North Britain or Ireland. Quaere whether their language be Teutonic or Celtic ? Probably the latter. [Teutonic : see Von Troil's account, and that of Sir Joseph Banks. — /. if.]
ISMYNYDD, one of three commots of Cantref Elfael, between Wy and Severn.
IsYRWON, one of the three commots in Cantref Buellt. (Price, Descr,)
Ital (Yu), Italy. See Eidal.
Itguallon, wrote anciently for Idwallon. {E. Llivyd,)
Ithel and Ithael (n, pr. v.). This name seems to be derived from vihr and hd, that is, a wonderful hunter ; and probably by the ancients was pronounced Uthel.
Aeth Ithel fal mab Elen. — J. op Howel,
Hawdd gyda'm gwahawdd im' gael
I ihreth a bath Hryr Ithael.— L. Gl Oothi.
Ithel ap Ueien, the 52nd King of Britain.
Ithel 6am ; neu letbell and IthaeL Tthon, river, recti leithon.
A chad Abergwaith a chad laithon. — Ho. Myrddin,
luDDEW, Judceus, a Jew.
luDDEWES (feem.), a Jewess.
luDDEWiG, Judaictis.
lUNO, the sister and wife of Jupiter ; in the Celtic, Ghvenno. See Venus,
IWERDDON, the kingdom of Ireland ; wrote also Exverddon and Y Werddon by the "Welsh; anciently y Werdd Ynj/8,i,e,, the Green Island ; by Orpheus, Aristotle, and Claudian, it is called lema (Orph.lepvisi)] by Juvenal and M-els,, Juverna; by Diodorus Sicu- lus, Iris ; by Martianus Heracleota, lovepvia ; by Eustathius, Ovepvia and l&epvui ; by the inhabitants, Erin ; by the English, Ireland {Caniden) ; by Nennius, from a captain csdled Irnalph. (flamden!)
PriiTyrdd cerdd o I werddon. — Owilym ap leua/n Hen, Bbdn ac Iwerddon i gyd, i'th arfoU. — I. op H. Cae Llwyd,
See Ewerddon and Y Werddon.
Lacharn (now Lam) : see Talacham.
Lar^s, the spirits of the hearth, etc. Duwiau'r Llawr, qu. ?
Larina, a noble woman in Viigil, En, ii ; in the Celtic, Zloer- wen.
Lasar, Lazarus.
Lavan (Y), Traeth y Lavan or Olavan, the sands between Beaumaris and Penmaen Mawr, which some opinionately derive from oer levain, which they back with a tradition that all that tract of ground from the entrance of Conwy river to Bangor was once dry land, but for the wickedness of the inhabitants was overflowed by the sea ; and they pretend to shew the ruins of houses now under water, in a spot of foul ground over against Penmaen Mawr, which they call Llys Elis ap Glanmor. Such accidents have been caused by earthquakes in many places ; and there are at this day, in the Bay of Port Royal in Jamaica, the
ruins of houses and a fort to be seen under water, and great valleys where mountains once stood in the memory of man.
Lawarian : vid. Llaw.
Lawnselot (n. pr. v.), a Gaulish name. Lawfiselot di L&c. {Tt. 61.) Camden thinks it is no old name, but was invented by the writer of Arthur's history, meaning the history of the Eound Table, wrote by some foreigner. But it is 1200 year old at least.
Legion : see Llion.
Leil : see CaerleU,
Lein, the British name of Leinster in Ireland. {Camden in Lagenia.)
Leiuion ^ see Lyrion.
Leri, a river in Cardiganshire ; rectfe, Eleri. Aberleri, a creek near Aberdyfi. Glan Leri, a gentleman's seat.
Lerion : see Lyrrion,
Lethrigh, a battle in the year 590, in which Aeddan ap Gaf- ran was victor. {Ogygia^ p. 475.)
LiGACH, the name of some Irish general or prince who once had possessions in Anglesey. His gravestone was shewn me in the high-road near Dulas, and called Bedd Ligach, where tradi- tion had it that he was buried there erect in his arms. Kot far off, near Bodavon Mountain, there is a place called Ffridd Ligach, and also Ffos Golmon.
LiGUALiD. Caer Ligualid is the name in the Cambridge copy of Nennius of one of the twenty-eight cities of Britain ; but in the Oxford copy it is Lualid. Usher hath it Caer Lualid, and says it is Carlisle. It is not in the catalogue in the Triades under this name. If LugavalUvm ad Vallum be Carlisle, the similitude of the name Ligualid would make one think it to be the same ; but there is very little dependence on the names in Nennius or any Latin writer, the transcribers having murdered the British names ; besides that the orthography of that age blinds the matter very much. Qu. whether Luguvallum from Llyw river in Ilywarch Hen ?
LiMNOS {Ptolemy), supposed to be the Isle of Kamsey near St. David's or Menew. Leland calls this island Limerms, and says the name is of Greek original ; but why not from the British Mynyw ?
LiRlON : see Lyrrion,
IisiDiT. Caer Lisidit {Tr,) ; another copy, Lesydit, one of the twenty-eight cities, qu. ?
LoNT and Lond, for the Teutonic Land in the names of Islont, Gotlont, Esgottlont, and Inglont, t. e,, Iceland, Gotland, Scotland, and England, etc.
LoYW. Caer Loyw. See Oloyw,
LocRiN : see Llocrin.
LowRi or LoWRY (n. feem.).
LovAN Lau Dhifro (n. pr. v.), Archceol, Brit, p. 260. Thus Mr. Edward liwyd writes this name in Uywarch Hen's Marw- nad Urien Beged, which is the same as is wrote in the Triades, Llofan Llawddino, The person who killled Urien Beged. [Llaw DdifrOy the desolating or lay- wasting hand. — W. D.'\
LUALID : see Ligvxdid,
LuDWAL. Mr. Camden, out of William of Malmesbury, says King Edgar imposed a tribute of three hundred skins of wolves on Ludwal, Prince of Merionethshire, or those countries ; but, as is observed in the margin, there has been no prince of that name in Wales ; and it was leuaf and lago, sons of Edwal, that were Princes of North Wales in the time of Edgar, about ad. 960. And I also desire it may be observed that no such a man's name at all occurs in Wales as Ludwal, either in MS. or elsewhere. So this story wants a bottom. [Son oiEdwaL Camden might take it for LudwaL— W. D.]
Luna, a town and port of Tuscany, from the Celtic Llwym
LUNED (D. wp QwUym) ; perhaps the same with Elin, qu. ? See Muned.
Lutatia, the ancient name of Paris in France, from the Celtic Llaidwysg or Laitusc, i, e., muddy water.
LwLEN, dim. of Lowri.
LwNDRYS, Londres, a Norman name of London ; as if you would say lAongdref, or the shipping town. See Llongddin.
LwYT Coed. Caer Lwyt Coet (Triades) ; in Nennius, Caire Lwit Ooite ; in Dr. Thomas Williams' Catalogue, Caer Lwyd Coed, Lincoln. [Llwyd Coed: Llwyd o Lwyd Coed, Llangadfan. — —W. D.]
Lymnos of Ptolemy : see Lleyn and Enlli.
Ltbrion. Caer Lyrrion. This is in the catalogue of the British cities in the Triades. In Nennius it is Oaire Lerian ; in Usher's catalogue, Caer Zeirion ; in some copies of the Triades^ CcterZmon, i. e., the city of the people of Uyr, t. e., Ilyrion ; but I presume it is the same vf ith Caer Llyr in Tyssilio, which he says Llyr built on the river Soram, and called by the Saxons Leyrcestyr ; now Leicester. Caer Lyr, Lyrcester. (Th. Williams, OatalogvA^
Llaethnant, a river.
Chwecbant hyd at Laethnant Iwyd. — Tudut Aled.
Llafyr, father of Ussa, a.d. 943. (Oaradoc in Howel Dda.) Llai (fl.). AberUai. (Llywarch Hen) Qu. whether not Aher» llitv; or qu. whether Elay of Mordens Map, Glamorganshire, and Lay of Price's Description, if to be read Llai ? [Llai is the Welsh name of the river. — L M.] Coed y Llai in Flintshire, Englished Leasewood, as if wrote Llau, lice. Qu. whether there is a river Llai there ? Then it should be Lesswood or Greywood.
Yn Aberllai lladd Urien. — Llywarch Hen.
Pont ar Lai, Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here.
Llamiwrch, a gentleman's seat. (/. D,) Moi^gan's.
Llam Mwri, a place in Anglesey.
Llambe, enw caseg Arthur. (E. Lhvyd,)
Llam yr Ebol, a place in Anglesey.
Llam yr Ewig, a place in Powysland. See Lbvchayam,
Llan, an ancient Celtic word used in names of places in Britain, etc., and signifies a spot of ground or inclosed area for any use (as corlan, a sheepfold ; pcrllan, an orchard ; ydlan, a place of corn ; ffmnllan, a vineyard, etc.), but chiefly consecrated for a church, and is the same with the Latin fanum, a plat of consecrated groimd ; as, Llanvair, St. Mary's Church ; Llanbedr, St. Peter's Church ; Llandeilo, St. Teilo's Church, etc. And qu. whether Lambeth, on the river Thames, was called so for being St. Peter's Church (the Welsh calling it Llanbed to this day), and Languedoc in Gaul ? For Llanfair see Mair; Uandeilo, see Teilo; and so for the rest.
Llanamddtfri Castle, anno Domini 1204.
Llanbadabn, a collegiate church near Aberystwyth, a.d. 1144. John, archpriest of Llanbadam, sainted a.d. 1138. Sulien ap Bythmarch, of the College of Llanbadam, a.d. 1143.
Llanbleddian, a lordship in Morgannwg. [Llanbleiddian, in Welsh Llanfleiddan, a parish and lordship. In the laige and fine village stand the church and two castles in ruins. In this parish is the town of Cowbridge, with another church and a grammar school, a member of Jesus College in Oxford. Cow- bridge has two markets weekly, many fairs, quarter sessions, etc. At Aberthin, a village in this parish, Owain Glyndwr defeated the forces of Henry IV. Annual races. — L if.]
Llaxdaf or Llandav, wrote in English Landaff, a town and bishop's see on the river Tav in Glamorganshire. The Cathedral is consecrated to St. Teilaw, once Bishop thereof ; and, as Cam- den says, erected by Germanus and Lupus when they suppressed the Pelagian Heresy, But here was an archbishopric before the time of Germanus. See Price's Defence.
Llanddinam, a church and parish in Arwystli and Tre New- ydd Ynghedewain. Here Owain Gwynedd came to chastise Howel ap leuaf, a.d. 1162.
Llanddtjlas, a church and parish (R.), from the river Dulas ; dedicated to St. Cymbryd. (B. Willis,)
Llanddwy, in Breclmockshire.
Meibion myr llenwyr Llanddwy,
Meddiant teg mae iddynt hwy. — Bedo Phyltp Back,
Llanddyn, a gentleman's seat. (J. D) Llandeilo Fawe, a town in Caermarthenshire. Llandudoch, a village in Pembrokeshire, on the river Teifi, between Cardigan and the sea. Here a battle was fought be« tween the sons of Cadivor ap Collwyn of Dyfed, Grufifudd ap Mredydd, and Rhys ap Tewdor, their lord, a.d. 1088. Rhys defeated them. Eneon fled to lestyn, lord of Morgannwc; which Eneon was the cause of bringing an army of Normans there, and had battle near Brecknockshire, where Rhys was
killed ; who, after assisting lestyn and Eneon, took possession of the country of Glamorgan, or Gwlad Forgan, and whose issue mixed with the Britons^ and remain there to this day. This happened a.d. 1090. {Oaradoc, p. 119.)
Llanbgwbst or Egwestl, an abbey called also Valle Cruets, built AD. 1200 by Madoc ap Gr. Maelor, lord of Maelor in Brom- field, near Llangollen.
[LlanfeithTn, still standing, the College or Monastery of St. Cadoc ap Gwynlliw in liangarfan in Glamorganshire. It is mentioned by Aneurin in the Gododin, — L Mi]
Llangadog Castle, ad. 1204.
Llangarfan, Glamorgan. [See LlanfeUhin above. — L M.'\ Caradog or Cradog, the faithful and impartial author of the His- tory of the Princes of Wales, which he wrote by the order of -Galfrid Archdeacon of Monmouth, an. 1155, was of this place. Fairs kept here.
[Nine villages in Llangarfan, viz., Llangarfan^ Pennon, Moel- dwyn, Ilanbydderi, Dangadell, Tre Gof, Tre Wallter, Castell Moel, and Heol Las. — I. M!\
Llangewydd [a village in the parish of Trelalys in Glamor- gan, where lived Uywelyn Sion o Langewydd, a very ingenious bard, author of the best treatise on Welsh poetry extant. — L if.]
Llangoed, a parish and gentleman's seat in Anglesey. Wil* liams. Also a gentleman's seat in Brecon. Sir Edward WiUiams. See Oaihgoed. See Tanwyn Sant.
Ilakgollen, in Denbighshire, where Sawyl ap Lly warch Hen was buried.
Llangors, a castle in Brecknockshire, near Brecknock town.
Llangwm, a church and parish in Roose, Pembrokeshire, where a battle was fought between Mredydd ap Owain and Edwal ap Meyric, ad. 992, and Tewdor Mawr slain.
Llangwm Dinmael, a church and parish in Ehose Deanery in Denbighshire.
Llangymwch Castle, erased by Llewelyn ap Grufifudd, a.d. 1256. S. W.
Llangwstenyn, in Creuthyn, near Conwy, a church where
the Abbots of Aberconwy and Cjrmer summoned King Henry III to appear before them by a commission from the Pope about a dispute between him and Dav. ap Llewelyn concerning the Principality of Wales. (Powel, Caradoc, p. 309.) But the King bribed the Pope.
Llanhafon. Qu. Llanhafon or Uanafon ?
Llanhayaden, one of the two commots of Cantref y Coed, in Pembrokeshire.
Llanhuadain, a castle burnt by Llewelyn ap lorwerth.
A chan Haw lladwaw Llanhaiaden. — Einian ap Otogan.
Llanllwch, Caermarthenshire.
Llanllwchayarn (V.), in Cedewain, Powysland.
Llan y Meichiab.
Llanmeli, a gentleman's seat {J. D.), Denbighshire, qu. ?
Llaknerch, a word prefixed to the names of places, signifying an area or spot, a bare spot. (D. ap Owilym)
Llanerch, one of the commots of Cantref Dyffryn Clwyd. (Price, Bescr)
Llannerch Bennaf.
Llannerch y Clwydau.
Llannerch Euron or Aeron, vulgo Llanychaeron, a place in Cardiganshire.
Llannerch Hudol, one of the three commots of Cantref y Fymwy in Powys Wenwynwyn.
Llannerch Felus.
Llannerch y Medd, a market town in the middle of Anglesey
Llannerch y Mor.
Llannol, a place in Anglesey, in the parish of Llanbabo, where there is a stone called Maen Llannol with an inscription ; cor- ruptly for Maen Llineol, as Mr. Llwyd thinks.
Llan Non.
Llannor, a church in Lleyn. Qu. whether Lknfair or Llan- fawr or Llan lor ?
Llanrhystyd, in Cardiganshire. A castle built here by Cad- waladr ap 6r. ap Cynan, a.d. 1148. {Caradoc, p. 201.)
Llanrwst, a town in Denbighshire. Qu. from Grwst or Gw- rwst Sant ?
Llansilin. (Tr. 63.) [A church and parish in Denbighshire. — W.R]
Llanstephan Castle, Caermarthenshire.
Llantkedafp, a church in Herefordshire.
Llantrydbyd, the seat of Sir John Aubrey, ad. 1693 [and is so still. A fine, large, and very ancient house, lai^e park, etc. The house is in the parish and large village of Uan- tryddyd.— /. M.]
Llantuit, or Boviarton ; some call it Llanelltud ; a lordship in Morgannwg. (Pawd.) See Camden in Iltudus. [Llantuit, an ancient town in Glamorgan ; in Welsh, Llanilltud Fawr. This is the name of the parish. Boverton (not Boviarton) is a large village in this parish, and gives name to the lordship. It is the Bovium of Antonine. Here is still standing a very ancient seat of the Lords Marchers of Glamorgan. In the town of Llan- illtud or Llantwit stands in ruin the College of Iltutus. In the church and churchyard are more ancient British inscriptions than are to be found anywhere else in Wales. There are in a neighbouring field four or five Boman and British camps. The place is famous for the longevity of its inhabitants. It stands in the Vale of Glamorgan, on the sea-shore. — I. M.]
Llanvaes seems to be the old name of Beaumaris in Anglesey. " Daeth ystiwart llys Brenhyn Uychlyn a chwech herwlong gan- thaw hyd yn Llanvaes ac yspeiliaw y dref a'i Uosgi." {Otdyfr y Brut,) Here Llewelyn ap lorwerth. Prince of Wales, built a house of barefoot Friers over the grave of Jone his wife, daughter of King John, in the reign of Henry III, A.D. 1237, called now the Friers near Beaumaris.
Llanvihangel Ysgeifiog, a church and parish in Anglesey. Qu. whether from ysgaw, a place of elders ; as Celynnog from cdyn, a place of hollies ?
Llanvorda (from Mordaf). A collection of British MSS. here made by Sir W. Williams, chiefly copied out of Hengwrt MSS.
Llanuftod : see Nefydd.
Llanwanoc (qu. Llanwenog?), in Dyfed, near St. David^s, where a battle was fought between the Britons and Harold the Dane, ad. 981. (Powel, Garadoc, p. 65.)
Llanychan, Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here.
Llanynghenedl, a chapel and parish, Anglesey.
Llanynys, a church and parish, Denbighshire.
Llanystindwy, a parish, Caernarvonshire.
Llary ap Casnar Wledig.
Llathwryd, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire, (J. D.)
Llawarian : vid. Arian.
Llawdden, the father of Beren, who was Beuno's mother. (Beuno's Life.)
Llawdden Lueddog, or Llewddyn Luyddog,o Ddinas Eiddun.
Llawddiffro or Llawddino, the appellative of one Llofan that killed Urien ap Cynfarch. (Tr. 38.)
Augerdd Urien is a gro Gennif cjrch ynad ymhob bro Yn wise Llofan Llawddi£fro.
Llywarch Hen^ in Marwnad Urien ap Cynfarch.
Llawddog Sant. Llanllawddog, Carmarthenshire. Qu. whether Lavdatus ?
Llawesog, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.)
Llawprodedd Farchog Coch (n. pr. v.). Cyllell Llawfrodedd Farchog, or the knife of Llawfrodedd the Knight, was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. This knife would serve twenty-four men from one table to another, and when wanted was ready at the call of every one. The Bretons of France are allowed but one knife for each table, and that chained to the table. See Eluned, Buwch Llawfrodedd Farchog. (TV. y Meirch, 2.)
Lla WGAT Trwm Bargawt Eidyn killed Afaon, son of Taliessin. In Mr. Vaughan's Index, Llowgat Trwm Bargot Eiddyn. (Tr. 38.) Some Scot of Edenbrough, it seems.
Llawhir, generous; lit. longimanus, long-handed, perhaps liberal ; the epithet or surname of several men ; as, Caswallon Law Hir ; Angharad Lawir ; Aireol Lawir, etc^ etc.
Llawr (n. pr. v.). Lljoiges Llawr mab Eirif, un o'r tair Llynges gyniweir. (Tr. 72.) This Llawr was admiral of some famous fleet of pirates, probably of the Lochlin men about the Baltic, that pestered the British coast.
Llawr or Llafyr ap Llywarch Hen. Bwlch Uorion.
Llawr Crach Feifod. Collwyn ap Llawr Crach.
Llech, an ancient Celtic word in the composition of names of places, etc., signifying a stone^ or sometimes a flat Tock ; hence Uechgynvarwy in M&n; liecb Oronwy in Blaen Cynfad in Ardudwy. {Tr. 35.) Llech Ysgar. (TV.) Llech Ardudwy is Harlech in Meirion. Llech Elidir. {Tr.) Y Benllech in Anglesey. Hence also Leuca, a league ; that is, milestones among the Komans ; as much as to say, Llechau, i. e., stones.
Llech, a river. Aberllech. {Llywarch Hen!)
Llech Ardudwy. Caer Llech Ardudwy, now Harlech or Arlech town and castle, Meirion.
Llkchau (n. pr. v.). Llechau, a son of King Arthur, was killed at Llongborth. (jD. Js., 1587.)
Fal y lias Llechau is Llechysgar.— ^5Zeiiyn Fardd. (TV. 10.)
[Llechau, afon ym Morganwg. — /. jl/.]
Llechcynfarwy : see Cynfarwy,
Llech y Drybedd, a cromlech, or Dniidical monument, or altar, in the parish of Nevern in Pembrokeshire.
Llechddyfnog, one of the three cantrefs of Elfel.
Llech Elidir, a place in North Britain ; also in Anglesey. See Penllech.
Llecheu ap Brychan, in Llangayan (Tregaian, qu. ?). See Gayan.
Llech Gelyddon yrahrydyn. (MS.) Nefydd ferch Brychan, gwraig Tudwal Befyr, Santes yn Llech Gelyddon ymhrydyn.
Llech y Gowres, a monument near Neuadd in Cardiganshire, very curious.
Llechid, 8ante8 yn Arllechwedd, merch Ithel Hael o Lydaw. (MS.) Llanllechid, Oaemarvonsliire. {B. Willis.)
Llech Idris, in the parish of Trawsfynydd, Meirion, near which is a stone with a Latin inscription which hath been ill copied by Mr. B. Llwyd in his Notes on Camden.
Llechog, a river : hence Mynachlog Lechog.
Jjlechog, Mynachlog Maenan, the Abbey of Aherconwy. Here Llewelyn ap lorwerth was buried.
Aethodd o fewn i wythawr Fynachlog Lechog i lawr. — T. Llwyd.
Llechriddtawr, enw lie. [Llecheiddiawr. — IF. J).]
Llechryd, a place in Cardiganshire, on the river Teifi ; petli o arglwyddiaeth Syr Roger Vychan. Here a battle was fought between Rhys ap Tewdwr and the sons of Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, where Madoc and Riryd were killed, and the other fled. Rhys ap Tewdwr had in this battle a strong power of Irish and Scots which were in his pay, A.D. 1087. {Oaradoc in Gr. ap Cynan, p. 117.)
Llechwedd (Y) Isa ag Ucha, cwniwdau. Madog ab larddwr o*r Llechwedd ; properly Arllechwedd.
Llechwedd Llyfn, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
Llechysgar (n. 1.), the place where Llechau, the son of King Arthur, was killed. Llys Madog am Mhredydd.
Bra nchel braint ar ddangos
Lie trydar Llechysgar Uys. — Cynddelw,
Lledr, a river near the town of Penmachno. See Machno and
Ai hwn yw V maen graen grynno llwydwyn
Rhwng Lledr a Machno ?
Geill dyn nnig ei siglo
Ni chodai fil a chwedyn fo. — W. Cynwal,
Lledbod or Lledbawd, a parish in Cardiganshire.
Lledrot, a town near Oswaldstry, and a gentleman's seat. {J, D) (Powel, ChronicUy p. 3.)
Lledwigan. Two villas or townships of this name in the commot of Malldraeth, in Anglesey, when the Extent was taken by Edward III, 1352 ; i. e., Lledwigan Llys and Lledwigan Llan.
Lledwigan Llys, or belonging to the palace or prince, was called a free township, and yet paid the prince 268. \0d. yearly in money, with a suit to the commots and hundreds with relief, gobr and amobr, 10s. It contained but one wde under several coheirs who had a mill of their own. But there was Llewelyn ap Ednyfed, one of the coheirs of the said weU, who owed neither relief nor amobr either before or after the Conquest (meaning the Norman Conquest) ; but the others paid relief, gobr and amobr, lOs., when due. What, then, is a wele ? It is not a messuage. There was a hamlet of two boviats of land belonging to Lledwigan Uys, which paid JEl 1«. M, yearly, who owed suit to the prince's mill of Dindryfol and to the commot
and hundred, and also relief, gobr and amobr, with three boviats of escheat land which had been crau mvck (soccage tenure), but paid to the prince lid. a year ; so the lands in soccage tenure, it seems, were only to plough instead of rent. Howel ap Madog ap Ily welyri was sole heir of lledwigan Llan, or that held under the Church, and he owed no suit to the prince except an appear- ance at the first commot held after Michaelmas yearly {%. e., as we call it now, the court leet), but to other commots or hun- dreds neither relief nor amobr ; but he and all his villans were to attend the two grand turns yearly in lieu of all services. But Lledwigan y Llys, held under the prince, had heavy services though called a free village in the Extent.
Lleenawc, father of Gwallawc, one of the tri phost cad. (Tr, 11.)
Llefethyr, one of the three commots of Cantref Emlyn, Pem- brokeshire.
Llefnydd, oue of the four commots of Cantref Gwent. See Gwent,
Llefoed Wynebglawk, a poet.
Lleian, verch Brychan, gwraig Gawran, a mam Ayddan Vradog, mentioned by Beda, jEdanus,
Lleision (n. pr. v.). Lleision, abad Glyn Nedd. (Z. 01 CothL) Gwelygordd Lleisiawn.
Lleision ap Philip ap Caradog ap Ehys. (ifS.)
Lleision or Lleisiawn, a country or lordship in Powysland ; or qu. whether people of LlSs, mentioned in the eighth battle of Llewelyn ap lorwerth. See Gylch Llywelyn :
Teymdud Lleisiawn ac alasswy dir i deym Dyganwy. Rhac Madawc mechdeyrn Lleisyawn.
Gwalchmaiy i Mad. ap Meredydd.
Lle Herbert, in the mountains of Meirionyddshire, where W. Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, passed with great difficulty to besiege Harlech Castle maintained by David ap Jenkin [leuan —

TF, D.] ap Einion against Edward IV siding with the house of Lancaster.
Llbmenic, mab Mawan. {Tr. 11, No. 7.) Uemem'g ap Maon (n. pr. v.), (Tr,), un o'r tri trwyddedawg ag anfoddawg. {Tr, 71.) Llwmhunig ap Maon. {Br. Davies in Trwyddedawg.)
LiiEiNiOG, a place in Cwmmwd Menai, Anglesey. Mredydd of Ueiniog ; and Lleiniog or liienog, near Beaumaris.
Llen Arthur Ynghernyw a Dyfnaint, one of the thirteen rarities of Britain, i.«., King Arthur's veil. Whoever went under it could see, but would not be seen. See Eluned,
Llenvodden. Meiriawn Llenvodden ap Boet.
Lleon, called also Ueon Gawr, the 7th King of Britain. The British history says he was the founder of Caerlleon in the north of the island, which must be Caerlleon ar Ddyfrdwy, or else Leonis Castrum, which hath been called since the City of Legions, on the river Dee, and by the Saxons Legeacester. This in the Triades is called Caerlleon^ and by British writers and the poets Caerlleon Gawr ; Lleon Gawr signifying Ueon the Prince, and not the Giant, as is imagined by persons ignorant in the Celtic tongue. It is now called West Chester, on the river Dee. See Ogyrfan Gawr, BerUli Oaivr, etc.
Llys llawr Lleon Gawr linn gwawr gwimpaf.
Or. ap Mer. ap Dafyddy i'r Grog o Gaerlleon.
But rather Holt or Lyons in Flintshire.
Rhag ffalsed, rhag oered oedd
Gaer Lleon Gawr a'i Unoedd. — L. 0, Cothi.
Mae hwpp arvan mab hirfawr Mae llun gwych mal Lleon Gawr.
S. Cerij i S. ap Rhys.
Lleon (taid Iddic ap Llywarch) ap Cilmin Droedtu. Lleon Llychlyn, some Prince on the coast of the Baltic in alliance with the Britons.
Mi fum Vardd Telyn
I Leon Llychlyn. — Hartes Taliestin,
Engil ar gychwyn Rbag Lleon Llychlyn.
Lles (n. pr. v. ; Latinized Lucius.
Lleiddawd ap Marchnad. {Ekys Goch Hryri.)-
Llbs Amerawdr Rhufain. . {TyssiHo.) This, in Galfrid's
Latin, is Lucius Tiberius, Procurator of the Republic. He
was general of a Roman army in Gaul that fought with King
Arthur and the Armoricans about the year 541. Others call
him Lucius Hiberue. The British writers use to call the gene- rals of armies by the titles of emperors and kings, and at that time Rome hardly knew its emperors. See Procopius.
Lles ap Coel, the 79th King of Britain, said to be the first Christian King, and converted by Ffagan and Dwywan, two preachers sent by one Eleuther, a Pope of Rome. Usher pro- duces twenty-four different opinions of the time this Prince received the Christian faith. By Latin writers he is called iMciua; and by S. Beulan's note on N"ennius,Zet;erifa'M'r, which he interprets magni spUndoris, i. «., great light. But none of our writers in the .British tongue mention this cognomen of Lleufer Mawr. Bishop Lloyd is ready to give him up as never to have had a being, and he thinks Bede might find him in that mixen of fttble, the Gesta Pontificum. Some are so whimsical as to derive Ihe name from St. Luc's Gospel, and to deny the very being of Lucius ; but they should have shewed the affinity between Lles^ his real name, and Luke, for Lucius is only bastard Latin.
It is the tradition of the churches of the Switzers and Grisons that he went to France and Germany to preach the Gospel, and is said to be consecrated Bishop of Chur or Coire, the capital province of the Grisons. There is an ancient monastery near the city of Chur which bears his name, and his feast is solemnly kept there, and his sister Emerita is honoured as virgin and martyr. {Brit. Sand,, Dec. 3.)
This Lies ap Coel died, according to Tyssilio's British History, A.D. 156. See also tTsfier's Primord., p. 340.
Lles Llaw Ddeoc.
Llestr, and Morlestr, a ship or any sea vessel This word i» to be found in Doomsday Booh, in Cheshire, but corruptly wrote Lesth, an h for an r. " Quatuor d^narios de unoquoque Lesth habebant Rex et Comes.^'
Lleuci, Lleucu, and Lleuc¥ (b. J». f.) ; Latinized Lucia.
' Ynghylch dy dy Lleucy Llwyd A cblyd fnr a chlo dar* du A chliccied yn iach Lleucn. — Llewelyn Oock.
Llehddai) Sant, (Latinized Laudattis), first Abbot of Enlli, as some say cousin-germam to Beuno.
Lleufkb Mawr, a cognamen. See Lies ap Coel.
Llew (n. pr. v.), an ancient and a natural name enough for a British commander, if it be true that they painted the shapes of beasts and birds on their bodies. The name signifies a lion ; and the famous Prince Llew ap Cynfarch of North Britain, who married King Arthur's sister, should have been translated by Galfirid Leo, and not Lotho; but he hath often mistaken as well as here. Names of fierce or strong creatures were commonly given to men among the Britains ; as, Arth, a bear ; Blaidd, a wolf ; Gruff, a griphon ; Owalch, a hawk ; Uryr, an eagle ; March, a horse.
Llew ap Cynfarch, King of Llychlyn (Norway, or some country near the Baltic). He was made King there by Arthur, his brother-in-law, being entitled to the crown in his mother's right. He married Anna, daughter of Uthur Bendragon, and sister of King Arthur, whose son Medrod claimed the crown of Britain because Arthur wa!^ not begot in wedlock. Gwalchmai, the other son of Anna, was, it seems, of another opinion, for he was one of King Arthur's chief generals, if both had the same father. His name should be translated into Latin, Leo; but I cannot tell for what reason Galfrid has made it Lot and Lotho, unless in order to make British histoiy tally with the Scotch ; perhaps a mistake for Llewddyn Luyddog o Ddinas Eiddun, who Mr. Ed. Llwyd Latinizes Leodinus Bellicosiis. But this was wrong : let every history stand on its own bottom, true or false.
Llew, river. Old orthography, Lieu,
Yn Aberllew lladd Urien. — Lhjwarch Hen, Marwnad Urien.
Mr. Edward Llwyd reads it Llay.
Llewelus and Llefelus (n. pr. v.), a King in Gaul, brother of Lludd ap Beli, King of Britain, and of Caswallon. {Tyssilio.) A dispute between him and Lludd, called Cyfrangc Lludd a Llewelys {MS.) ; by others, Ymarwar Lludd a Llewelus. {Lleiaelyn Fardd, i Ln. ap lorwerth.)
Llewelyn or Llywelyn (n. pr. v.), generally Latinized Leoli- nns ; perhaps from llexo and euly7i, lion's form or lion-like, or else from llew and gelyn, lion's enemy. This name seems not to have been used till after the Romans left Britain. See Hoinnc
MyrddiD. The first Prince of this name was Llewelyn ap Seis- yllt. Math. Westminster mentions him in the year 940.
It is also by the poets taken to be the same name with Lewis, as Lewis Glyn Oothi, the poet, is called Lly welyn Glyn Cothi ; and the sneer of an Anglesey gentleman on his countryman in Dublin, that had Anglified his name, explains it.
Nnper lorwerth ap Llewelyn Nunc Ned Lewis o Dre DdulyD.
Llewelyn ap Gruffudd was the last Prince of Wales of the ancient British races, betrayed into the hands of the English by his own subjects of Buellt and one Madog Min, a Bishop, in the year 1282, and his head put on the highest place of the Tower of London by Edward I. He was son of Gruffudd ap Llewelyn ap lorwerth Drwyndwn.
Llywelyn ap Iorwerth Drwyndwn was a Prince of Wales that' bravely defended his country against Sichard I, King John, and Henry III. He is called by historians Leolinus Magnus. He began his reign, 1194; died, 1240 ; reigned fifty-six [forty- six] years.
Llewei, or Llewmei, or Llowmai (n. f.). Llewei ferch Seith- wedd {Tr. 64) ; un o'r tair gwrforwyn, i. c, hermaphrodite.
Llew Llawgyffes, mentioned Tr, 35 ; in a battle at Llech Oronwy in Blaen Cynfael, Meirion {Tr. 77), Llew Llaw Gyflfes and Gwdyon getting names and arms of Bhiarot y Fram.
Lleweni Fawr Ynghegengl (n. 1.).
Llewon. Caer Llewon, Holt, Flintshire, or Cc^tle of Lions, made by Jno. Barlow [Earl ?] Warren and William his soa But I think this is rather the old Caerlleon Gawr, or Llewon G«wr, which Camden has kept such a rout about, and not the city of Westchester, which T take to be a later thing, and perhaps built by the Romans.
Lliana. Llanlliana, a chapel in Mdn.
Lliaws (n. pr. v.), a very ancient British name. Lliaws mab
Nwyfre o Arllechwedd {Tr. 40), father of Gwenwynwyn and
Rhag colofn Lliaws maws mab Nwyfre.
Frydydd y Moch, i Gr, ap Cyn. ap O. Gwynedd.
See Choanar.
Llibio Sant. Llanllibio Chapel, Anglesey.
Llieni. LlanUieni, the town of Lemster in Herefordshire ; in Latin, Leonminster and Leonis Monasterium, from a lion that appeared to King Merwald in a vision, and upon this he built a nunnery. (Leland, IHn,, MS,) But Camden says Uanlieni is in British a church of nuns. Some, says he, derive it from linum, flax, the best kind of which grows there. (Camden.) It is true that lleian in the British is a nun, and that the life of nuns is called lleianaeth ; but the plural of lleian is lleianod, and not lleiani ; so this etymology goes for nothing. To derive it from lliain, linen cloth, as some do, is as little to the purpose, for the plural of lliain is llidniau. We have Llanlliana in Anglesey, a chapel dedicated to St. Lliana, a woman ; but as the Oney river falls into the Wye at Lemster, might it not have been ZlanUiontvy, as Llanllyfni, Llangefni, etc., have their names from rivers ?
Llienawg. Aber Llienawg in Anglesey, a castle built by Hugh Earl of Chester there. (Camden,) Eightly Lleiniog, qu. ?
Llienog, father of Lloeger and Gwallog. This Lloeger is pro- bably the same name with the Irish Loegarius, son of Neill MaighialacL (FlaJierty, p. 394.)
Llifon or Lliwon, a river in Anglesey, whence Cwmmwd Uifon has its name. Another river in Caernarvonshire, whence Glyn IJifon has its name. Llivon mentioned by Llywarch Hen :
Pyll wyn pwyll t&n trwy Livon. — LI. Hen.
Lligan or Llugan. Llanllugan, an abbey, once in the diocese of St. Asaph, deanery of Cedewain, and a nunnery. (A Willis.)
Llion. Caer Llion, a market town on the river Wysc in Mon- mouthshire, sixteen mUes south-west of Monmouth. Some say it is called so from a legion of Eoman soldiers placed there. Nennius, in his Catalogue, hath a city called Caer Legion, to dis- tinguish it, I suppose, from Ca^ir Zleon, The poets have taken care to write this Caer Llion, and not Lleon,
Am fi y nhref Oaerllion a'r ford gron.
This Caerllion was the seat of the kings of Britain when they retreated over Severn, it being a city vying in pride for lofty towers, etc., with Bome itself, as Giraldus Cambrensis describes
it. Here was the Archbishop of Wales'fl seat till it was, on
account of the wars, removed to St. David's, and then Britany.
Usher, in his OatcUofftie, calls it Caerlleon ar Wysg ; but if this
city and Westchester came to be called Caer Legion from the
Eoman legions quartered there, why are not all the Boman
quarters called so ?
The British writers say that this town was built by Beli ap
Dyfnwal, and called Caerwysg ; but that after the coming of the
Bomans, because they quartered there in the winter, it was
called Caerlleon ar Wysg. {Tyssilio and Oalfrid.) The Legio
Secunda Augusta, called also Britannica Secunda» were quartered
here. (Camden.)
Llio (n. pr. f.).
Llio enrwallfc lliw arian
Ar ikd Llio rhoed Uoweth
A noblau anr yn ei bleth. — D, Nanmor,
Llivan. Llyn Llivan (Tyssilio), a lake in Wales, said to be near the banks of the Severn, which on the flood ebbs or swal- lows all the water that comes into it, and on the ebb-tide vomits and overflows its banks. (Tyss,, Brit, MS,) This passage is ill translated by G-alfrid and Thompson.
Lliw and Lyw (fl.), qu. whether Luguvallum ?
Pell oddjman Aber Lliw. — Llytoarch Hen.
Lliwelydd (n. pr. v.). Caer Lliwelydd, mentioned in Gor- hoflfedd Hywel ap Owain Gwynedd.
Arglwydd nef a llawr gwawr Gwyndodydd Mor bell o Geri Gtier Liwelydd.
Qu. -whether the Caer Ligualid of Nennius (Cotton copy) ? In the Cambridge copy, Caer Lualid. Usher makes it to be Lugu- vallia or Carlisle ; but this is not in the Triades,
Lliwer ap Lly warch HSn. [Llywarch Hen)
Lliwon, a river.
A glan Uewod Glyn Lliwon. — TT. Lleyn. See Llifon,
Llocrin Gawk, Locrinus, the son of Brutus, the 2nd King of
Lie doe yDOch Hid unawr Llai crynnai gas Llocrin Gawr.
Tho8, Gwyneddf i Edwd. Gruffydd o*r Penrliyn. See Lloegr.
Lloddi, qu. whether a man's name ? Marwnad lago ap Lloddi. {Taliessin, Arch. BrU,, p. 256.)
Lloegr^ England, exclusive of Wales and Cornwall; from Lloegrin. Saxonum regionem. (K Llwyd.)
Er ergryd angen rhag anghywir Loegyr Ni lygraf fy mawredd, ni ddihanaf rianedd.
Llywarch Hen.
Lloegr ap Llienog, in Zlyfr Du o Oaerfyrddin. {Arch, Brit., p. 261.)
Lloegrin (n. pr. v.), Locrinus, the 2nd King of Britain ; Llocrin Gawr.
Llobgrwys, the Loegrian Britons ; also the Saxons since in- habiting there.
Yn y ddaw Lloegrwys drwy Dren. — Llywarch Hen,
Llofan (n. pr. v.). Llofan Llawdino killed Urien ap Cyn- farch. (TV. 38.) See Llawddiffro.
Llofion ; see Llowion.
Llogawd, q. d. Lowgate, in Anglesey.
Llongborth, a place mentioned in Marwnad Gereint ab Erbin by Llywarch Hen, where there was a sea-fight between Gereint and the Saxons, or a descent by sea, and where Gereint was killed. Some take it to be Llanborth in Cardiganshire ; but a sea-fight could not properly be there, nor Saxons to fight with. Gereint was one of King Arthur's three chief admirals, as appears by the Triadcs ; and I should rather think this Llong- borth to be Portsmouth, or some such great seaport in the pos- session of the Saxons, where a descent was made by this Gereint and his fleet, for the battle is plainly described to be on shore.
Yn Llongborth gwelais drabludd
Ar vain, brain ar goludd
Ag ar grann cynrhan madrndd.
And Gereint, in the same Marwnad, is said to be of Dyfnaiut, i. e., Devon and Cornwall.
Llongddin, in Latin Longidinium. {Edward Llwyd.)
Lloniaw Sant. {B. Willis.) His church at lianddinam.
Llonio ap Alan Ffrigan ap Emyr Llydaw.
Llonwen, or Llofion, or Llonion (n. 1.), a place in Penfro noted for barley.
Llorien. Bwlch Llorien mentioned by Llywarch Hen, where Llavur, son of Llywarch Hen, was buried. Qu. whether Lloren on the borders of Montgomeryshire ?
Llowdden, a poet, 1450.
Llowion, LLonoN, or Llonwen, a place in Pembrokeshire famous for barley. {Tr. 30.)
Llowni (n. 1.).
Lluarth. Brjm Lluarth.
Pen bryn cun iawn dydd yr Ion Lluarth gwell na CbLaerlleon.
Rhys ap Oynfrig Ooch.
Lludd ap Beli Mawr, the 71st King of Britain, just before the Roman conquest, whose sons being under age on Julius Caesar's landing here, his brother Caswallon was chosen generalissimo of the British forces. Mr. Camden (in Middlesex, p. 312, Gibson's edition) calls him Luddus, and allows Ludgate to have been called after his name. JBut he often allows and disallows the same thing. One of the ancient names of London is Caerludd ; and the British history mentions a quarrel between his brothers and lludd for changing the ancient name of the city.
\^* Ludgate (all the six gates of London then standing) h Luddo rege, omnium antiquissima, cujus nomen etiamnum hodie, supra portum incisum extat ; sive Flutgate quorundam opinione, k flu- violo subjecto (ut porta Fluentana Romae) nunc k regina Elisa- beths, renovata, cujus statua, ab altera quoque parte videtur." (Itinerarium Angliw, scriptum k Paulo Hentznero. Breslse, 1627. Scriptum a.d. 1598.)— ^.i>.]
Lluddycca and Lluddocca ap Tudur Trefor. (J. D,)
Lludlaw, Llwdlo, or Llwydlaw, Ludlow in Shropshire. See Dineu.
Llueddog : see Elen Zueddog,
Llug, a river which runs by Presteign and Lemster into the Wye.
Llugan. lAanllugan Ynghedewain.
Llugwy or Lligwy, a river in Anglesey, and a gentleman^s seat. A river also that falls into Dyfi {k Hi or lltig and grvy) ; from Hug and ivy {E, Zlwyd), clear water. Rhos Ligwy ; Traeth Lligwy.
lihJJ^yLuna, the moon ; in Irish luan ; hence a woman's name, Eiluned.
Llundain and Llundein, London ; wrote in Triad 45 Llun- den, q. d. Llongddin, or slup-fort ; and so Llongborth, port of ships, is the ancient British name of Portsmouth, which I take to be the Londinis of the ancients (though I know Mr. Edw. Llwyd and Baxster make it to be Lyme.) The Gaulish name, Londres, which is almost literally Llongdref, i, e:, town of ships, shews it also to be of that original ; and nothing more plain and strong than the Londinium of Antoninus, or, as it is in the Naples MS., Longiduno, which is literally Llongddun or Llongddin. In Nennius it is called Caire Lunden ; in the Triades, Caer Lun- dein ; by Usher, Caer Ludd ; the Londonium and Longidiunum of the Romans. Its first name was Tro Newydd, or New Troy ; and the inhabitants were called by the Romans Trinobantes ; its next, Caer Beli ap Dyfnwal, i. e.] the City of Belius ; its next name, Caer Ludd, the City of Lludd ; and its next, Llongddin or Llundain. John Major says the Britons call it Londonias ; so little did this Scotchman know of our British history.
Llwch, a lake, and in the Irish lough ; used in Brecknock and Caermarthenshire : hence came the name of Llwch Tawe, Ll\^ch Sawdde, Llwch Cyhirych, Llyn LlanUwch (qu. Uawn- llwch), Ted y Uychau, Llwch Garmon.
Mr. Edward Llwyd calls this word Gwyddelian British ; but this word doth not prove that the Gwyddelian and the present British were different languages, no more than the South Wales and the North Wales people speak different languages, though the names of some things are different among them. It only shews they have been different dominions, and that each prince chose to have his subjects known by their dialects, when at the same time the language of the poets was the same.
Llwchaiarn (n. pr. v.). There is a church dedicated to a saint of this name in the commot of Cedewain, near the Severn,
called Llanllwchaiarn. Sion Keri, a poet of that neighbourhood, who flourished about the year 1520, wrote a cywydd of the legend of this saint. He says he was son of Cynvael :
Mae hap canfod mab Cynvael ;
and that he was cousin-german of Beuno :
Gefnder ith rodder o thrig Beano dyfal bendefig ;
and that he had a church at Llam yr Ewig ; that he had been a bishop and a soldier ; and that he was an abbot of a bishoprick ; that he had heard the sound of bells at the place where he afterwards built his church and monastery ; that he made hira a shirt of hair which he wore nine months and nine days, pray- ing with his knees on the blue stone ; and that there he obtained nine petitions ; that the men and castle were his :
DyQion da dinad oedd ; that his land was a sanctuary a^ much as Ynys Enlli :
Seintwar y w dy ddaiar di.
In regard to the pronunciation of his name he says,
Llwchaiam wynn llawchwynn wyd. Again :
Gwellhaech eaog Llwohaiam.
He also mentions some dark story of a doe that leapt into a pool^ without destroying of which his people could not live.
Ni chaid einioes ich dynion Heb roi cwymp ir ewig hon ;
and there is a parish adjoining called Llam yr Ewig.
Gair aeth draw gwyrtbiaa a drig
Lie mawr y w Llam yr Ewig. — S, Keri.
Llwch Garmon, Lacus Garmon, the haven oif Wexford ; in Irish called Loch Garmon. (Ogygia, p. 20.)
Llwch y Lloi, in Irish Loch Laigh, i, e., Vituli Lacus ; a lake in Ulster in Ireland.
Llwg, qu. whether a river ? Gwaunllwg and Gwenllwg in Glamorganshire. See Owentllwg.
Llw YD, in the surnames of men and names [of places], signifies (jrcy colour. G wr LI wyd (literally a grey man) also signifies a vassal
or tenant, or one of the commonalty poorly dressed in grey, and that is not a gentleman ; and it is probable that Leudis, Zeudvs, and Leodis, among the French and Saxon writers, which meant the same thing, came from this, as also the Saxon lowt or loute, a rustic fellow ; and the passage in Chaucer of a leud man must be so understood :
Blessed be the leud man
That nonght save his belief can ;
1. e., an illiterate, simple, poor countryman that doth not trouble himself with disputes about religion, and knows nothing but his creed. I know some learned men (Burton, etc.) urge against the authority of the British History, which says that Ludgate was so called from Lludd, a king of Britain ; but that Ludgate was so called because it was Leodgate, the people^ s gate, for that Uod in Saxon signifies the people. Is not this stretching hard, and drawing language and sense by the hair of the head to be an evidence against an ancient national history that positively says It was so called from Lludd ? And without any one author in the world to back this evidence, or even common sense, for was there ever heard of a gate of a city that was not the people's gate ? But if these hot-headed authors were only to consider that London had its walls and gates before the Saxons or Saxon language had anything to do with giving names to gates there, it would save these kinds of lame guesses.
Llwyd is also used in cognomens: Llyr Llwyd; lorwerth Fynglwyd. In family surnames : Edward Llwyd ; Humphrey Llwyd ; and by corruption and pride wrote Lloyd, Loyde, Floyd, and Flyde. Ithel Llwyd ap Ithel Gethin; Dafydd Llwyd. Places : y Berth Lwyd ; Cae liwyd ; Caer Lwydcoed {Tyssilio) ; Llwydiarth ; y Ty Llwyd ; y Cefn Llwyd ; y Bryn Llwyd ; CU Manllwyd ; y Greiglwyd ; y Garreglwyd, a gentleman's seat.
Llwydiabth or Llwtddiarth, enw lie ym Mon ag yn Meir- ionydd [Nlirefaldwyn — W. JD,] ; q. d. Garth Lwyd.
Llwydion Sant. The church of Heneglwys dedicated to Sant or Saint Llwydion.
Llwyddog : see Elen Lmyddo^,
Llwyn, literally a bush or grove, is put to the names of several places in Britain; as, Trysglwyn; liwyn Gwryl; Llwyn y
Graws; Llw3m lorwerth; Llwyn y Piod; liwyn Dyrys; y Ilwyn Glas; Derlwyn; Llwyn y Maen; Llwyn Gronwy; Llwyn y Gog ; Llwyn Arth ; Llwyn Melyn, a gentleman^s seat ; Dyryslw3m; Derwlwyn, a gentleman's seat; Llwyn Deri, a gentleman's seat ; Llwyn Dafydd ; Llwyn y Chwilbo.
Llwyn y Cnottiau, a gentleman's seat. (J". D,) Lloyd.
Llwyn Dafydd. Gwaith Llwyn Dafydd, a place in Cardi- ganshire. {D, ap leuan Du.)
Llwyn Dolwen, a gentleman's seat. {J. 2>.)
Llwyn Dyrys, in Egremond, Penbrokeshire.
Llwyn Egryn, a gentleman's seat in Mouldale. («/'. D.) See Llav^egryn.
Llwyn Gwern, a gentleman's seat, Meirion.
Llwythlawb, an abbey whose abbot, Gwigene, was killed by Cynan ab Owen Gwynedd, a.d. 1168.
Llwythonwg (n. loci), i. OL Oothi.
Llwyvain. Gwaith Argoed Llwyfain, a battle fought between Mamddwyn, the Saxon general, and Urien Beged, King of Cum- bria, with his auxiliary, Ceneu ap Coel, who led the northern men, and Owein ap Urien, who was Urien's general, where Urien obtained the victory. Llywelyn ap lorwerth fought a battle at this place too. (Einion up Gwgan)
A mi ddisgoganaf cad Coed Llwyfain. — Myrddin.
Llychlyn, the Baltic Sea.
Llychlynwyr, Danes, Norwegians, Normans, and all nations that bordered on the Baltic. Gwyr Llychlyn Ddu, which the Irish called Dubh Lochlonnach, the black nation or black Loch- lin men ; and Ffion Lochlonnach (Finlochlunion), or white Lochlin men, people of Finland. All these nations were by the Britons called Llychlynwyr and Nortmyn.
Beth OS daw heibiaw bebom I'r Traeth Goch lynges droch drom P - Pwy a ludd werin, pwl ym, Llychlyn a'u bwyall awchlym ?
Manvnad Tudur ap Gronwy.
In the year 987 these Danes came and destroyed the religious houses in South Wales, and to get rid of them Meredudd ap Owain
ap H. Dda was obliged to pay them a penny for every man within his land, which waa called the tribute of the Black Army. {Oaradoc, p. 71.)
Llychwael ap Bran ap Prydu.
Llychwr [Leiicarum, is in Glamorgan, east of Llychwr river, and called Castell Llychwr, a borough town — /. M.], a river in Caermarthenshire (the Leucarum of the Romans, qu. ?); in Eng- lish, Loghor. It falls into the sea at Bury, near Worme's Head. Aberllychwr.
Llydanwyn. Elidir Lydanwyn.
Llydaw (old orthography, Uedaw), the country of Armorica in France, part of which now called Little Britain, called in the Gaulish tongue Ar y Mor Uchay i. e., on the upper sea. H. Llwyd says it was called Llydaw quasi Litoris Gallicani regio. (JBrit, DescT,, p. 14, ed. 1731.) But is it not more probable that it was 80 called by the insular Britons in their dialect for the same reason as the Gauls called it Ar y Mor Ucha, from Lied and aw, Lledaw, i, e,, on the water-side ? Hence litus, the sea-shore.
There are diflPerent opinions about the time the colony of insular Britons first settled there. Eadulph Niger says in the time of Constantius Chlorus ; William of Malmsbury says it was in the time of his son, Constantine the Great ; Neunius and Tyssilio say it was in the time of Maximus the Tyrant ; but the French writers and some English will not allow them to be ancienter than the time of Childeric, which was after the Saxons came into Britain. All these might be true as to colonies going there at these different times, though the first might settle there among the old Gauls in Constantius' time. Verfcot labours hard to invalidate all but that after the Saxons* coming.
O Lydaw o draw o drwy mor Hafren Hyfriw ei beleidr ymhorthaethwy.
Prydydd y Mock, i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Llydaweg, lingua Armorica,
Llyfeni or Lleveni (fl.) ; hence Aber Lleveni in Meirion ; perhaps Llwyfeni.
Llyfnant river, or Llyfnnant, or Llifnant, the boundary
between Cardiganshire and Montgomeryshire, falls into Dyfi
Llyfni (fl.), in Caernarvonshire [and in Glamorgan — /. if.], at Llanllyfni, a church and parish. Another that falls into the Wye, which Camden calls Lleweny, and thinks the city Loven- tium was where Ilyn Savathan is.
Llofn anr ynglan Llyfni wyd.
Hywel Lafif i Ph. Thomas o Langoed.
Llyffant (Ffynnon y), a lake in Eryri.
Llygad Gwr, a poet of Edeiniion. {Marvmad Trahaern.)
Llygliw. Einion Vychan ap Einion Lygliw.
Llygod (Ynys), an island near Anglesey, where monks resided who were kept in order by mice.
Llyn. Caer Llyn (Triades); qu. whether Lnncaster, from Lune river, now Lancaster, which some write Longcaster. See Zleyn.
Llyn Archaeddon, a small lake on the top of Bodavon Mountain in Anglesey.
Rbed uwch Llyn i'w herbyn hi Archaoddon, eiriach weiddi. — P. ap Edmund.
One would suspect that this mountain was anciently called
Myriydd Bodaeddon, and not Bodavon, but that the same writer
Dyfal yngwern Bodavon.
See Aeddon and Treaeddon.
Llyn Cawellyn, a lake in Eiyri.
Llyn Crafnant, a lake in Eryri.
Llyn Decwyn Uchaf, in Meirion ; a town swallowed up.
Llyn Dulyn, a lake in Eryri
Llyn y Dywarchen, a lake in Eryri.
Llyn Eigiau, a lake in Eryri.
Llynghedwy ap Llywarch Hen.
Llynghesawl Llaw Hael, father of Treul DifefyL {Triad. No. 5.)
Llyngwyn (Y), a pool in Radnorshire, where tradition says a town was swallowed up.
Llyn Llanllwch, in Caermarthenshire, where tradition says a town was swallowed up.
Llynlleodd or Llynllo, a place near Machynllaeth ; perhaps Llyrdlaeth : as Cynllaetli, Ystum Llaeth.
Llyn Llydaw, a lake in Eryri ; q. d. Ilwydaw.
Llyn Llynclys, in Shropshire [near Oswestry — W. D.]; a town swallowed up.
Llynon, a house near Llanddeusant in Anglesey, named from a lake Llyn Onn, q. d. Ash PooL
Llyn Peris, a lake in Eryri [near Llanberis. — W, 2>.].
Llyn Tegid, a lake near Bala in Meirionyddshire, called in English Pimble Mear, and by Mr. Camden corruptly Plenlyn Mear, for Penllyn Mear, it lying in Penllyn, one of three can- trefs of Meirionydd, which took its name from the pool. Mr. Charles Edwards, in Hanes y Ffydd, fancies it sounds like the Greek words Limne Oataigidos,
The river Dee runs into it, and retains its name on a water that comes out of it ; but I cannot answer for what Mr. Camden says, that it passes through it entirely and unmixed, carrying out the same quantity of water it brought in. If Jeffrey of Monmouth had made such a blundering puff as this, he would have been knocked in the head for it by Mr. Camden. The lake is about three miles long, and about a mile broad ; and you may judge whether a small river of three or four yards wide can pass through all that water without mixing with it.

The river Ex in Devonshire may as easily run over to Normandy without mixing with the sea.
Llyn Teirn, a lake in Eryri.
Llymonyw. Uyn Uymonyw (Tyssilio) ; probably a mistake for Llymonwy (perhaps Lomond Lake in Scotland). It is said in that MS. to have in it sixty islands, and sixty rivers ran into it, and it had sixty rocks with eagles' nests in them. Here King Arthur besieged the Picts and Scots who had fled there after a defeat, and starved them, so that the clergy of Scotland came and petitioned him to save their lives.
This river gives name, in Latin, to Levinia, contr. Lennos and Lenox, near Dunbritton, and is called by the natives Lea- vuin {Ogygia, p. 383), as if you would say Llifwyn, i. e., white flood ; but probably Llymonwy is the right name, as rising from a mountain called Llumon, if it doth. One river runs out of it.
Llyk (nom. prop. viri).
Llyr, the 10th King of Britain ; hence Caer Lyr, Leirchester. He is Latinized Leirus, qu. ? The father of Bendigaid Fran.
LLYit ap Brycliwel Powys.
Llyr Llediaith, father of Manawydan. {Tr. 14 and 50.) See Branwen,
Llyr Llwyd and Llye Merini ap Einion Yrth.
Llyr Llyddawc, one of the three knights of war. (TV. 23.)
Llyr Merini (n. pr. v.). Tr. 69.
Llyr, a river in Cardiganshire (E, Lbvyd), qu. ?
Llyr, the sea. Mr. Edw. Llwyd says that llyVy mar, mSr, and mor, signified anciently water as well as sea, whence Llyr and Leri in Cardiganshire, and Loire in France. {Letter to Nicolson.) There is no manner of reason to derive the name of Leri from water, no more than any other river. The word was wrote anciently Eleri, and the harbour on the mouth of it, Abereleri ; a gentleman's seat on it, Glan Eleri. So some other more rational derivation must be found. See Eleri. Llyr river might have its name from a man, as there were. men of that name, as we know several rivers have, as Meurig, Einion.
Llyr signified also the sea in the time of Myrddin Wyllt, about A.D. 570, who says in his Hoiane,
Er gwaith Arderydd mi ni'm dorbi Cyn syrthiai awyp i lawr lAxfr Enlli.
A nunnery at Llan Llyr (Cywydd i ofyn Ab gan Th... dros Annes, Abades Llan Llyr). {Htiw Cae Llwyd)
DAm Annes sy'n djmnnaw, etc. See M6r. Llys, a palace, court, hall ; used in composition of names : y
Gadlys, in Anglesey ; yr Henllys, in Anglesey, a gentleman's
seat, — Jones; Llys Ednywain ap Bradwen; Llys Maelgwn; Llys
Mathravel; Llysdin Hunydd, in Tegengl; Llyssin, in Powys;
Llys Maes yr Henllys, in Llangerniw.
Llys y Cul, in lai, a township. (J. D)
Llys Dulas, a gentleman's seat in Anglesey ; qu. whose llys anciently ?
Llys Elis ap Glanmor, near Conwy, on Lavan Sands, over- flown by the sea, as tradition has it, and buildings are pretended to have been seen unddr water.
Llysfaen, a parish and church in Caernarvonshire, part of Ehos deanery, in Denbighsliire, dedicated to St. Cynfran. {Dr.
Powel) [" Rhad Duw a Chynfran Iwyd ar y da," etc. — W. 2?.] [Llys/aen, a parish and church in Glamorgan, where lived the ancestors of Oliver Cromwell. — L M,]
Llysfasi, a gentleman^s seat near Euthyn.
Llys Llivon, in Anglesey, the seat of Hwva ap Cynddelw. (J. D.)
Llys yn Llundain (Y), the king's palace in London.
Gelyn traws ryfel tros Rnfain yd wys
Tros y Llys yn Llandain. — OynddelWy i Yw. Cyfeiliog.
Llyswynaf, q. d. Llys Wynaf, a cantref of Powys Wenwyn- wyn containing the commots of Caereinion and Mechain uwch Coed. Qu. whether hence Gorsedd Orwynion ? {Llywarch Hen,)
Llyssyn, a place in Powys mentioned in the 9th battle of Ilywelyn ap lorwerth. See Cylck Llywelyn,
Pebyllwys fy lly w yn Llyssyn dref fad Am drefred Wenwynwyn Clawr Powys, etc.
Llyw, a river that falls into the Llychwr at Loghor town. This, I suppose, was Llywarch Hen's Aberllyw, the British name of Leucarum. Another Llyw [falls] into Llyn Tegid.
Llywarch ap Bran, lord of Cwmmwd Menai in Anglesey, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, lived in Porth Amal. {Mon, Ant,, p. 130, 131.) Bore argent,B, cheveron sable between three rooks with ermine in their bills.
Llywakch Gogh.
Llywarch Hen (Lat. Lomarchus) ab Elidir Lydanwyn ap Meirchion ab Grwst ab Ceneu ap Coel Godebog. (ArchceoL Brit., p. 259.) In the genealogical tables, Llywarch Hen ap Elidir Lydanwyn ab Meirchion Gul ab Grwst Ledlwm ap Edeym ab Padam Beisrudd ab Cenau ab Coel Godebog. A Prince of North Britain (Cumberland, says E. Llwyd), an excellent poet, and a great soldier, one of King Arthur's chief counsellors. (JV.) He had twenty-four sons, and all of them killed in the wars with the Irish, Saxons, and Picts, and in the civil wars among the Britons themselves. He was buried at Llanfor, near Bala, where there is in the window of the church a stone with an inscription (/. P. P.). Few Princes besides him and Howel ap Owain Gwynedd have described their own wars in verse. He
was old in the time of King Arthur, and had been drove out of his country by the Saxons. Some make him a Cumbrian Prince. D. Jo. says, " dyedd Scotland'^ and that five of his sons had gained the gold chain, the torques, " Pump o honynt yn aurdorch- awg.^'
Llywarch Hen's sons killed in the Saxon wars [mentioned] in his poem : Gwen, Pyll, Selyf, Sandde, Maen, Madog, Medel or Meddel, Heilyn, Llawr or Llafur, Lliwer, Sawyl, Ilyngheddwy or Llygedwy, and GwSll. He had also Cenllug, Llawenydd, Cenau, Urien, Nudd, Deigr, Gorwynion, Dilig, Nefydd, Diwg, Mychydd ; and three daughters, Rhyell, Cainfron, and Ehagaw.
Llywarch Hen, un o'r tri thrwyddedawg ag anfoddawg (Tr.71); un o'r tri Uedd unben {Tr, 14) ; Cynghoriad farchog. (Tr, 86.)
Llywahch Howlbwrch.
Llyth. Deinis Lyth ap Cadwr.
Llyth Haiarn. Ilanllythaiam, plwy ; vxdgo Llychaiam.
Llywel, Brecknockshire, qu. river ? Blaen Uy wel. Selydach in Llywel. Trecast^ll in Llywel. Fairs kept there.
Llyweni, a place in Denbighshire.
Lie mae gyda Hew ai medd
Llyweni a boll Wynedd. — D, ap Edmumd,
Llywri ap Cynan Cilcelph. Llywyn Sant o Lydaw.
Mabedryd, where Llywelyn ap Torwerth came with an army against W. Marshal, Earl of Pembroka Caermarddeusliire, qu. ? (Powel, CaradoCy p. 283.)
Mabgla or Mapglaf ap Llywarch, qu. ?
Mabinogi [pL -ion — W. i>.], the name of an ancient MS. of British history once in Hengwrt Library ; quoted by Mr. Robert Vaughan in British Antiquities, Mr. Edward Dwyd mentions a British romance under this title. {Arch Brit, p. 262.)
Mabli verch Davydd Llwyd ap Howel.
Mabon (n. pr. v.). Llanvabon in Glamorganshire.
Mabon o'r Creuddyn.
Mabon ap Dewenhen, the husband of the chaste Emerchret. {Tr, 55.)
Mabon ap Tegonwy.
Mabwynion, a lordship or manor in Ceredigion. Tlie castle is called in Powel's Caradoc the Castle of the Sons of Winnion, which is a mistake.
Mawr a wnaf, myn Mair a Non,
O Bennardd a Mabwynion. — Beio ap leuan Du,
Mabwys, a house in Ceretica.
Machawy, a river in Brecknockshire, falls into Gwy. Here a great battle was fought, a.d. 1145, called Gwaith Machawy, between Gr. ap Llewelyn and Bandulph Earl of Hereford, and the English Bishop was killed by Llewelyn.
A mi ddiBgoganaf Gwaith Machawy Adfjdd geloraa rhadd yn rhiw dydmwy.
Hoiane Myrddin. See Gwaith Machawy and Bachwy.
Mache, a parish, Monmouthshire, qu. ? [Machen or Mechain. The inhabitants always say Mechain. — I. M,]
Machno, a river : hence Penmachno. See Lledr,
Machraeth or Machreth. Llanyachraeth in Mon and Meirion. Lat. Macainivs, qu. ?
Machutus or Mechell Sant. Llanvechell in Anglesey. His life is in John of Tinmouth, the Libr. of Fleury, etc. Machutus or Maclou was son of Went, a noble Briton, by his wife Arwela, sister to Amon, the father to St. Sampson and to Umbravel, the father of St. Maglorius, born in the vale of Llancarvan in Gla- morganshire, in the church of the Monastery of St. Cadoc, where the Abbot St. Brendan presided, who, after he had brought him up, ordained him priest. Hence he passed over to Armorica, and turned hermit. ludicael. King of Armorica, forced him to be Bishop of Aleth, the see of which, from his name, was called St. Malo. Here he was Bishop forty years, and worked miracles. A party rising against him, he was obliged to retire to Aquitain, to Bishop Leontius of Saintes, and there remained seven years. He excommunicated the people of Aleth, and they had no rain, and famine followed the drowth. They repented, and called him home; and as soon as he entered the land he brought them rain, etc. He went to Bishop Leontius to end his days.
where he died a.d. 630, about 130 year old. {Brit. Sand., Nov. 15.)
In the churchyard of Penrhos Lligwy, in Anglesey, there is a stone with this inscription: Hic iacit macvtvs ecceti, which some think is the grave of this saint. (Mona Antiqua.) So that it seems our Anglesey Macutus, to whom the church of Uan- vechell is dedicated, was not Machutus, Bishop of St. Malo.
Machynllaeth, a town and church in Montgomeryshire, in the lordship of Cjoillaeth (q. d. Bach Cynllaeth), one of the parishes of the deanery of Cyfeiliog. It is probable the river Dyfi was anciently called Llaeth (milk), as it should seem by the Cynllaeth, and the name of a curve of that river, Carreg Ystum Llaeth. The town is situated near the river Dyfi (Dovey). Camden thinks it to be the Maglona of the Bomans, where, under the Emperor Theodosius the Younger, the prabfect of the Solensians lay in garrison under the Ihix Britannice.
Macmorwch, the name of an Irish prince or general men- tioned by lolo Goch, a.d. 1400.
Q^yrxMBi fujysmant^ bid trychant trwch Maccwy mawr a Macmorwch.
loh Oochy i Syr Roger Mortimer, E. of Marcb.
Macsen Wledig, the 91st King of Britain. This is Maxi- mus the Emperor, or Maximinianus.
Cy wlad loes moes Mazsen.
Cynddelw, i Yw. Cyfeiliog.
Madlb, Bewdley. Madle, i. e,, Bonus locus. ( Vita Sti. David. Ep. Menev.)
Madog or Madoc (n. pr. v.), from mdd, good,i.e., goodly. Seve- ral noted Britons in history of this name. Allt Vadog ; Gelli Vadog, etc.
Madog Gloddaith.
Madog o*r Hendwr.
Madog ap Idnerth died a.d. 1148.
Madoc ap Lloegrin was the 3rd King of Brutus' race, accord- ing to Tyssilio.
Madog Min, a Bishop of Bangor, who betrayed Llewelyn ap Gruffydd into the hands of his enemies at Buellt. ( W. J. MSS.
^ Ambushment.
at Earl of Macclesfield.) But Einiawn was that year Bishop of Bangor. (B. Willis.)
Madog ap Mredydd ap Bleddyn, King of Powys, died a.d. 1160.
Madog ap Owen Gwynedd, 1169.
Madoc ap Uthur, brother of King Arthur. (TV. 82.)
Madogion, the people and land of Madog. The tenants or slaves were as much a freehold as the lands. (Gwelygorddau Fowys.)
Madogyn (dim. h. Madog). Gwridyn ap Madogyn. Ty Wridyn ap Madogyn, a place in Anglesey.
Madren verch Gothevyr Frenin ; in another place it is Gwr- theym Frenin.
Madrik or Madryn, a gentleman's seat* near Cam Madrin in Lleyn. Wm. Bodvel, Esq. Q. d. Madfryn, ♦. e., Good Hill. Hinc John Madrun.
Maed, or perhaps MM (fl.) ; hence Abermaed in Ceretica, a house on the fall of Mad into Ystwyth.
Mael (n. pr. v.), brother of Membjrr, King of Britain. In names of places : Gwrthmael, a gentleman^s seat ; Brychfael ; Dinmael ; Cynmael or Cinmael ; Maelienydd.
Mael, lord of Maelienydd ; called also Mael Maelienydd ap Cadfael ap Clydawc ap Cadell ap Rhodri Mawr. («/". D., Geneal.)
Mael ap Bleddyn o Feirionydd. {MS) Hence Maelienydd.
Mael o Lydaw.
Maeldaf (n. pr. v.) : see Traeth Maelgvm.
Maelderw (n. pr. v.). Gwarchan Maelderw o waith Taliessin. The same with Derfael. (E, Llwyd.)
Maeleri, base son to Ywain Cyfeiliog, lord of liannerch Hudol and Broniarth. {J. D)
Maelgan Sant (neu Baglan or Maglan) Ynghoedalun.
Maelgwn (n. pr. v.) ; Latinized Maelocunus ; corruptly Mag- locunus ; id. quod Cynfael. {E. Llwyd,)
Maelgwn Gwynedd ap Cadwallon Law Hir ap Einion Yrth ap Cunedda Wledig. Maelgwn was first a Prince of Gwynedd, and afterwards the 104th King of Britain. He is, for his great valour, called by Gildas the Island Dragon. That angry monk could not afford him a good word, for Maelgwn held the crown as next relation to Arthur; but Gildas was son of Caw o
Brydyn (i. e., Scotland) ; and Medrod's sons, who were slain before the altar by Constantino of Cornwall, were Gildas' nephews ; and no wonder he scolds and abuses the other party which prevailed. In this Prince's time the famous poets Talies- sin and Myrddin Wyllt flourished. In Latin he is called Mal- gunus Gwynedus, Malgunus, Malgonus, Maglocunus, Malgon, Mailgunus, Mailgon, Mailcunus Magnus (Nennius), Malconus Magnus in Vita S. Catod. (B. Vaiighan)
There are edso mentioned in Nennius some names of persons cotemporary with Maelgwn, who it is impossible to make out, having been botched by transcribers ; such as Dutigern, who stoutly fought the Saxons ; and of poets, — Talhaern Tatanguen, Kaieuin (Aneurin), Taliessin, Bluchbar, Cian or Gueinth Guaut (Gweydd Gwawd).
Maelgwyn, or rather Maelgwn.
Maelgynig, belonging to Maelgwn. {Breiniau Powys^
Calchaidd en caeroedd cylcbwy Maelgynig.
Trydydd y Mochy i Ln. ap lorwertb.
Maelienydd or Melienydd, and by English writers Melien- yth (so called from Mael ap Bleddyn), one of the four cantrefs between the Wye and the Severn, formerly belonging to Math- rafael or the Principality of Powys, containing the commots of Ceri, Swydd y Gro, Ehiwalallt, and Glyn leithon. (Price^s Descr,) Camden says it is called Melienydd from the yellowish moun- tains and barren
Mael Mynan ap Selyf Sarph Cadeu (Mael ap Mynygan, sed
qu. ?) ap Cynan Warwyn ap Brychfael Ysgithrog.
Tau hyd ymylan Maeloegr
Biaa*r lie gorau yn Lloegr.
Maelog Sant. Llanvaelog, Anglesey. Son of Caw o Brydyn, and brother of Gildas, Gallgo, Eigred, Howel or Huail, and their sister Dona. See Gildas.
Maelog Grwm, lord of Uechwedd Isa, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales, ad. 1172 ; bore argent, on a cheveron saile three seraphims or,
Maelor, lands in Powys Vadog. GrufFudd Maelor, lord of
Biomfield/ had the two Maelors and Mochuant is Bhaiadr. Maelor Gymraeg in Denbighshire, and Maelor Saesnig in Flint- shire. {PoweL) See Madoron.
Maelobon, the two Maelors, two commots in Cantref Uwch- nant; from Maelor ap Gwran ap Cunedda Wledig. Maelor Gymraeg is in Denbighshire, and Maelor Saesnig is in Flintshire. (Note on Price's Description, W.'s edit.)
Maelrhys Sant Uanvaelrhys in the parish of Aberdaron, qii.?
Maen, an ancient Celtic word in the names of places, signify- ing a stone ; as, Maen Addwyn {Proph) ; Maen Meudwy ; y Maen Du'n Llanfair {Tr. 30); y Maen Gwyn, Meirion ; Maen Arthur ; Maen Twrog (n. L), i. e,, Twrog's Stone ; Maen Gwynedd ; Maen y Cenawon ; Uysfaen ; Bodfaen ; Maen Meudwy ; Llyn Maen Meudwy. Maen gwlaw, the manalis or maenlau of the Bomans, a stone which they rolled about when they wanted rain. I sup- pose a chiystal stone. {Non. ex Varr. et Fulg. LaJbeorie,)
Ai mwnwgl oU fal maen glaw.
Maen ap liywarch Hen.
Maenan, lands in Denbighshire.
Maen y Chwyfan, a monument or carved pillar on Mostyn Mountain, which Mr. Edward Llwyd, in Notes on Camden, thinks inexplicable. Cwyfan or Chwyfan was a person's name^ to whom a church in that country is dedicated (Llangwyfan); and another near Aberffraw, in Anglesey, of the same name. Is it not pro- bable that this was a cross erected in memory of that saint ?
Maen Clochog, a castle in Dyfed, Penbrokeshire, a.d. 1215.
Maenen, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. [Maenan. — W, i>.]
Maenerch ap Gruff, ap Gruffudd. Maynyrch, id.
Maen Gwyn (n. 1.). Ynys y Maengwyn, Meirion.
Maen Gwynedd, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
Maen Modrwy Eluned : see JEluned,
Maenol. G,
Maenor Bydvey, a lordship in Ystrad Tywy.
Maenor Byrr, Pyrrhus^s mansion, a castle mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis, near Tenby in Penbrokeshire, adorned then with stately towers and bulwarks ; now in ruins. One of [the] three commots of Cantref Penvro. (Price's Descr.) See Ynys Pyr,
Maenor Deilo, one of the three commots of Cantref Bychan, Caermarthenshire. (Price's Deser,)
Maenor Dewi, cburcli and parish in Penbrokeshire.
Maenor Ruthyn, one of the commots of Pennythen, Mor- ganwg.
Maenor Talafan, one of the commots of Cantref Pennythen in Morgannwg. See Talafan,
Maen SiGL,or rocking stone^ within half a mile of St. David^s. Several of these in Cornwall and Ireland, remains of Draidism. See Lledr a Machno and Siglfan. See also Peii Machno.
Maenwyn (n. pr. v.), one of the warlike friends of Uywarch Hen. Maenwyn nag addo dy gyllelL See PadHg,
Maerdy, a gentleman's seat near Corwen.
Maerdre, in Edeirnion, a gentleman's seat. Castell y Faerdre in Dyganwy.
Maerlys ap Gwyddno.
Maes, a very ancient Celtic word in the composition of names of places, and signifies properly a field of com ; also a field of battle. Some critics make the Latin termination magus to have signified maes, as Citomagus, Caesaromagus, ete. Maes y Geirchen, Caernarvonshire ; Meissir ; Llanvaes, Maes y Llan, etc. Cad ar vaes, a field, a battle (Anglesey).
Maesaleg, the seat of Ifor Hael, the patron of Dafydd ap Gwilym the poet; and a lordship belonging to it of that name. It was in Glamorganshire in the poet's time, but now is part of Monmouthshire. Wrote by some ifassaleg.
A cherddan tafodaa teg A solas ym Maesaleg. — D. ap Qwilym. Again :
Arglwyddiaeth dagiaeth deg
A seiliwyd wrth Fyssaleg. — D, ap Gwilym,
Maes Beli.
Maes Calettwr (u. 1.), Brecknockshire.
Maes Carnedd, where Owain Gwynedd was buried, as says Cynddelw in Marwnad Owain Gwynedd. There is a place of tliis name near Dolgelleu.
Maes Garmon, a battle between the Britons and the joint armies of the Scots and Picts, under the conduct of St German,
Bishop of Atlxerre, who came to Britain to confute the Pelagian heresy. (Beds, 1. i, c. 20.) It was, as Usher says, in Flintshire, near Yr Wyddgrug. He calls it Victoria Alleluiatica.
Maes Gwenith, a place in Gwent, famous for wheat and honey, mentioned in the Triades (30).
Maes y Gwig.
Maes Maoddyn, dan dom Elwyddon. (E. Llwyd) See Maoddyn,
Maes Mawr, ym Mynydd Emrys, Ue gwnaeth Hengist dwyll y Cyllell Hirion.
Maes Mochnant, in lianrhaiadr.
Maes Mynnan, a gentleman's seat. {J, B) Mostyn.
Maes y Neuadd, a place in Meirion.
Maes y Pandy, a gentleman^s seat in Meirion.
Maestan, qu. ? Gwrgenau Maestan o Benllyn.
Maes XJrien, yn emyl Caerwynt.
Maes Uswallt, now Croesyswallt ; in English, Oswestry ; so called from Ussa ap Cunedda Wledig. (Price's Descr) [From Oswald Mffiseri'elt.— W. 2>.]
Maesyfed, Maesyfedd, Maeshyfaidd, and Maesyfaidd, the town and country of Badnor in South Wales. Mr. Camden says that in the middle age writers called this country MagesetsB, and mention Comites Masegetenses and Magesetenses, and thinks it is the city Magos which Antoninus seems to call Magnos, and was the station of the Pacensian regiment under the Lieutenant of Britain in the reign of Theodosius the Younger ; and that the English name Badnor was formed from Bhaiadr.
Llew Maesyfaidd gwraidd y gras. — D. H. K.
Maesyfed Hen (Old Badnor), called by the natives Peucraig ; burnt by Bhys ap GruflFudd in the time of King John. (Cam- den, Brit)
Maethlu Sant Ynghaemadog Ymon, Danfaethlu Church, Anglesey.
Mafon or Mabon (n. pr. v.) : hence Bodfafon in Creuthyn. See Bhiwabon,
Magddu Gulfoel o Benllyn.
Magedawc or Megadoc (nomen loci).
Gwaith Megadoc {MS.), or, as Caradoc, Magedawc, a battle
fought between the Britons and Phichtieit (Picts), where Dalar-' gan, King of the Picts, was slain A-D. 750. (Oaradoc, p. 16.)
Maglan. 0, Ilanvaglan.
Maglocui^e, the Latin name oi Maelgvm,Gwynedd in the cor- rupt copies of Gildas. If Gildas understood the British tongue, he wrote it in his Latin book Malgo Ghiiiiet in the orthography of those days. He was first King of Gwynedd, and afterwards supreme King of the Britons. See Traeth Madgivn.
Magsen, qu. Maxentius ?
Maig. Trefaig, Hirdrefaig, in Anglesey. See Mate.
Main Gwynedd, qu. or Maen Gwynedd ? Madog ap Evream o Fain Gwynedd.
Mair, Maria, Mary (n. pr. f.)i Mair Forwyn, the Virgin Mary.
Malangell verch TudwaL
Malcawn : see Madgvm. {E. Llwyd.)
Mali verch Ifan Llwyd.
Mallaen, one of the three commots of Gantref Bychan in Caermarthenshire. (Price's Descr,)
Malldraeth, a small harbour or tract of sand in Anglesey, which took its name from the very dangerous quicksands there, and the shifting fords on the river, it having a boggy bottom (a maUt evil, and traeth, sand).
Fe*m gwnaeth ym Malltraeth ym Mon Yn gored penwaig irion.
It gives name to one of the six commots of Anglesey, viz., Cwm- mwd Malldraeth ; . and in it stood the seat of the Princes of Wales, called Aberflfraw.
Mallt (n. pr. f ) ; Latin, Matilda or MathiUia.
Mallt vel Mahallt verch Rhys Gethin.
Mallteg Sant. Llanvallteg in Penbrokeslxire.
Mallwch (n. pr. v.). Caerfallwch. {J. D)
Mallwyb, a church and parish in Merionethshire, q. d. ma» Ihoyd, It is dedicated to Tydecho Sant. Here the industrious and learned Dr. John Davies, author of the British- Latin Dic- tionary and the British Grammar, was rector. He died the 14 May 1644. {MS.) He published his Grammar, 1620, and his Dictionary, 1632,
Malpas, in Flintshire ; another in Monmouthshii^.
Manawydan ap Lljrr, un o'r tri lleddf unben (2V. 14), cotem- porary with Llywarch Hen, pan fu hyd ar Ddyfed. (Tr. 77.) See Owgon Owron and Llywarch Hen, the other two.
Mannod, a mountain in Merionethshire. {E. Llwyd.)
Manaw, the Isle of Man, probably at first Monaw, t. e., M6n in the sea, the other Mon (Anglesey) being close to the main- land. If so, the dispute between Humphrey Uwyd and Hector Boetius was only about sounds. This is probably the Mona of Julius Caesar, unless he was misinformed about the distance of Mon from Britain and Ireland, for he places it half way. The Latin name of this is Eubonia. See Mon and Ore,
Manavan or Manavon, a parish in Montgomeryshire^ deanery of Cedewain.
Manau Guotodin, the country in Scotland where Cunedda Wledig lived, and was drove out of it by the Scots, 146 years before Maelgwn the Great reigned over the Britons in Gwene- dota. (M8. Nennivs B. V.) This Manau Guotodin may pos- sibly have been pronounced in the British Menai Gododin, it bordering on the narrow straits between Ireland and North Britain. At this very time that Nennius mentions the.Scots from Ireland took possession of Argyleshire. (Usser's Primord.) It may be the country of those people called by Latin writers Catini or Ottadini.
Manogan, the 69th King of Britain, father of Beli Mawr.
Manauon, enw Ue. lerwerth Vanauon (or Manafon) ap Einion.
Maoddyn {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cynddylan). Mr. Edw.
liwyd thinks it to be Mwythig, or Salop ; from the similitude of
the name, I suppose. But he was certainly wrong, for Pengwem,
which is the known name for Salop, is mentioned in the same
Eryr Pengwem pen gam llwyd.
Maon or Mawan (n. pr. v.). Maon^ father of Llemenig.
Maiian, qu. ? {Gwdygorddau Powys)
March am Mheirchion, a Prince of Scotland or some part of North Britain. The poets feigned that he had horse^s ears, and whatever he touched turned into gold. The meaning was that
he was a great miser and very rich, and was an ass for suffering himself to be cuckolded by his nephew Trystan ap Tallwch. He lived in the reign of Arthur. He was one of King Arthur's three admirals. See Essyllt and Trystan.
Marchan ap Cynddelw Gam.
Mahchen. Castell Marchen, the castle of Morgan ap Howel got by Gilbert Earl of Clare, a,d. 1236 ; qxL Carmarthenshire ? Coed Marchan in Denbighshire.
Mabchan. Coed Marchan near Shuthyn. Cefn Yarchan in Caermarthenshire.
Marchan (n. pr. v.) ; hence Coed Marchan. [There is a place in Glamorgan called Coed Marchan.-^/. Jf.] Ehys ap Marchan had a daughter, Gwenllian, married to Gwaeddgar or Gwaedd- fawr, father of Gwernog, father of Efnydd ap Gwernog, lord of Dyffryn Clwydd. {J. D)
Marchell, a river.
Marchell, merch Teudric, the mother of Brychan Brycheiniog. {Ach Gynog), Also a daughter of liis wife of Gwrlyn. Probably the founder of the Abbey of Ystrad MarchelL
Marchell Sant and Marchellyn Sant. The church of Llan- ddeusant, Anglesey, dedicated to them.
Marchell verch Arwystli Gloff ; hence Ystrad Marchell.
MarchgwN and Meirchion (n. pr. v.), the same with Cynfarch. {K Llwyd)
Marchnant, a river between the lordship of Mevenyth and Ysbytty or Ystwyth. [Aber Marchnant, Marchnant falling into the Evyrnwy. — W, 2>.]
Marchog o Byfel, knight banneret.
Marchudd ap Cynan ap Elfyw, lord of Uwch Dulas and Aber- geleu ; his seat at Bryn Ffanigl ; one of the Fifteen Tribes oi^ North Wales. Bore gulesy a Saracen's head erased. a.d. 846.
Marchweithian, lord of Islaled in Denbighshire, lived at Llys Lleweni about ad. 740. Bore azure, a lion rampant argent. One of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales.
Marchweithian {Pymtheg Llwyth). .
Marchwydd, Mr. Edward Llwyd says, is Owyddfarch trans- posed.
Maeclois, Esgob Bangor ; died a.d. 942.
Mabculphus, an historian of Little Britain.
Marcwlff (n. pr. v.), un o'r tair colofn y celfyddodion. (Prydydd y Moch, i R. ap Owen Gwynedd.)
Mared neu Maered (n. f.) ; hence Maredydd (n. pr. v.).
Mareda verch Gruflf. ap Cynan.
Maredudd or Maredydd (n. pr. v.) seems to have been made from a woman's name, Mared, or one from the other. Camden Latinizes it Meredudvs.
Maredydd, recti Maredudd (n. pr. v.), and Mredydd, and
Targed Vadog Amhredydd.-s-D. Narnnor.
Margam or Margan, a village in Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here. Margam, the seat of the Mansels.
Margam (Mynydd), a mountain in Glamorganshire^ on which there are ancient rakes of mine works.
Margan (n. pr. v.).
Margan^ one of the goddesses of the deep.
Pan yw Margan dwywes o annwfyn, — {Ed, LJwyd,)
Margem, a village, Glamorganshire.
Marlais is the name of the river in Carmarthenshire, and not Marias, whence Abermarlais^ a gentleman's seat on the aber of that river of Glan Gwy (J, D.) ; and aU the poets, who are our eternal standards of pronunciation, agree in this. The word is marwlais, as mamad is wrote for marwnad, and marddwr, neap tide, for marwddwr.
Mars, the kingdom of Mercia ; also the borders or marches of Wales, Gwyr y Mars.
Marsia, a queen of great Britons [Britain ?], who reigned during the minority of her son Seisill, after her husband Cyhelyn, the 24th King of Britain. Leland {Script Brit,, c. 8) praises her greatly for that the laws made in her reign were caUed after her name, as the Moelmutian Laws were called after Dyfnwal Moel- mud ; that they were translated by King Alfrid into the Saxon, and called the Marsian Law. Others will have it that the Law was so called from being the law of the Mercians, Nicolson says that Lombardy and all the rest were mistaken in calling
the Saxon laws Mercenlege, etc., for that lege did not signify law, etc. See Nicolson.
Maesli (n. pr. f.); Lat. Marsilia; Engl. Margery, qiL ?
Mabthen, qu. whether Marthin or Martin ?
Martia. O.
Marwerydd. (Dr. Davies.) See Morwerydd.
Mabwred verch Madog, or rather Mar&ed or Marvered.
Mary. G.
Maryfred, the mother of Llewelyn ap lorwerth Drwyndwn,
Mar Ysgvarnawo, Marius Lepidus. (TyasUio.)
Marwystl vel Marohwystl ap Marchweithian. {Pymtheg Llwyth.)
Maserveth {Bede, L iii, c. 9.), the place where Oswald was killed by Penda, King of Mercia, and the Britains. Bromfield calls it Marshfield ; the Saxon Chronicle, Maj-eppel^ ; and so King Alfred's paraphrase. Leland says there is a church at Oswestry (i. 6., Oswald's tree) dedicated to St. Oswald, formerly called White Church ; and the English annotator on Bede says the Welsh call it Croix Oswald ; which are mistakes, for they caU Oswestry Croesyswallt^ which see. Qu, whether the above be Maeserwydd ?
Math ap Mathonwy, hen frenin gynt o Wynedd. (D. J.) See Arianrhod. Un o'r trywyr hud a Uedrith {Tr. 31) ; qu. second sight ? Hud mab Mathonwy, un o'r tri prif hud {Tr. 32), co- temporary with Gwdion ap Don (Tr. 32) and with Gronwy Pefr o Benllyn (IV. 35).
Mathafarn, nomen loci (k mad and tafam), a gentleman's seat in Montgomeryshire, famous for being the house of David Uwyd ap Ily welyn ap Gruffudd, lord of Mathafarn, in the time of Bichard III. This gentleman being a good poet wrote several prophecies, in verse, of the coming of Henry V^I, for whom he was a great stickler. His wife, who knew he was no prophet, asked him how he could venture to advance such things as truths. He answered her, " If Henry carries the day, he will reckon me a true prophet ; if he loses, he'll hardly come to up- braid me for it." Besides these political prophecies we have several other pieces of this poet's works extant. His cywydd
describing Dovey Eiver is a curious piece, and his disputes with Llewelyn ap Guttyn the poet are common.
Mathafarn Eithaf, a place in Anglesey : hence Llanfair ym Mathafam Eithaf, a church and parisL Another Mathafarn in Denbighshire.
Mathanen, river (in Morden's map), joins Gwygyr, and goes to Cemaes in Anglesey ; but qu. ?
Mathau, not Mathew.
Na ddotto Pedr gloan
Mair a Seinlyn, MarthjDy Matbaa.
Mathau Prys.
Mathatark ap Brychan Brycheiniog.
Mathe ap Cadwaladr. Yid. Matfiau,
MIthias (n. pr. v. dissyll.). I'th was cred Mathias Cradog. — lor. Fyngboyd,
Mathlu, qu. Maethlu ?
MATH0LWCH,(n. pr.v.) ; qu. Mothlaius ? {Ogygia, p. 390.) An Irish name. Matholwch Wyddel, or Matholwch the Irishman, married and abused Branwen the daughter oi Llyr. {Tr, 51.) He was a noted Irish enterprising Prince.
Tegweh gwlad Fatholwch fa
Galon y Werddon orddu. — lolo Qock,
Mathraval, the name of the kingdom or principality of Powys, after Offa, King of Mercia, drove the Britains from Salop oyer Severn ; €md that the Prince's palace was fixed at Mathrafal in Montgomeryshire. To this kingdom belonged the country of Powys and the land between Wy and Severn. (Price's Deseript) A castle built here by Bobert Vepont, a Norman, about A.D. 1204.
A thrwy efyll Matbraval
Aur o'r Twr i'r warr a'r til. — leuan Dafydd Ddu.
M\thravakl Wynya : see Owynfa.
Mathri or Mathry, a village in Penbrokeshire. Fairs are kept hera
Mathutafwr (n. pr. v.), perhaps Mathuta Fawr (qu. Brito- marus), the officer that came with Urp Lluyddawc, a Prince of the Cimbrians, to raise auxiliaries in Britain to go against the Komans. See Urp Llnyddog, {Tr. 40.)
Maunguid. Caer Maungaid, in Nennius' Catalogue of Britisli CJities ; and Usher hath also Caer Menegyd ; but neither in the Triades or Dr. Williams' Catalogue.
Maxjog. Bryn Mauog, in Caio, Carmarthenshire.
Maw (fl.) or Mawddach, in Merionethshire : hence Abermaw, vulgo Abermo and Bermo ; in English, corruptly, Barmouth ; a good small harbour and village.
Mawd ferch leuan Blaene, and Mawd Wen.
Mawddwy, a river which falls into Towy, near Llangadog, or rather Myddfai, qu. ?
Mawddwy, one of the two commots of Cantref Cynan, part of Powys Wenwynwyn; now the lordship of
Mawgor, a village in Monmouthshire. Fairs are kept here.
Mawl ap Madawy, King of Britain.
Mawr, great, large. Llanfawr, a church and parish in the deanery of Penllyn, Meirion. Llannor and Llanfawr, in Ueyn ; qu. Ilanfor ? Coedmawr or Coedmor, in Arfon ; Llanfawr, a house near Holyhead ; y Mynydd Fawr, a mountain in Eryri ; Y Ddolfawr, i, e., Dolfor, Cardiganshire ; Maesmawr, i. e., Maesmor ; Dinraor; Trefor; Pen Maen Mawr; y Frenni Fawr. Cantref Mawr, one of the three cantrefs of Brecknockshire. (Price's Descr,) See Bychan.
Mawr, a river which gives name to Traeth Mawr. (Price's Bescr) But qu. ?
Mawrth, the name of a Celtic Prince, afterwards a god, and called by the Eomans Mara, Mavors, Marners. Dydd Mawrth, Dies Martis. Mis Mawrth, March. Q. d. Mawrwyrth or Maw- rwth ; called also Theuth or Tenth, q. d. Duw Taith, the god of journeys.
Mechain, nomen loci in Powysland. Mechain is Coed in Powys VadogjUwch Coed in Powys Wenwynwyn, two commots.
Ar derfyn Mechain a Mochnant.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap lorwerfch.
Gwaith Mechain was a battle fought at this place by Mredydd and Ithel, sons of GrufiF. ap Llywelyn, and Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and RhiwaUon, Kings of North Wales. Mredydd, Ithel, and
Ehiwallon, were killed, and Bleddjm made King of Powys and North Wales, a.d. 1068.
Gwerfyl MecJuiin, a poetess. (Ca/radoc)
Hence Uanfechain, a church dedicated to Garmon.
Mechell and Mechyll (n. pr. v.).
Mechell Sant. Llanvechell, a church in Anglesey.
Mechell verch Brychan Brycheiniog.
Mech^d, a river, qu. ?
Gar elfjdd Mechydd a Macbawy.
Prydydd y Moch, i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Mechyll, neu Mechill. Rhys Mechyll ap Rhys Gruc ap yr Aiglwydd Rhys. This, it seems, is the masculine of Mechell, from hyll and Jiell.
Medcant, an island on the coast of Northumberland, men- tioned in Nennius, c. 65 ; supposed to be lindisfarn. Bede (1. iii, c. 16) calls this same island Fame. It is two miles from Bamborough Castle. Here was a monastery built by St. Cuth- bert ; and here Aidan the Bishop was when Penda attempted to burn the city of Bebbanbuig, the regal city of the Northum- brians. R. Hoveden says that lindisfarn is by Gildas called Medcant in the British, meaning Nennius.
Medel ap Llywarch Hen.
Mederai Badellvawr. (Tr. 64.)
Median ach Eurog Gadam.
Medrawt or Medrod (n. pr. v.). Medrod ap Hew ap Cyn- farch, called Brenhinol Farchog in Tr, 83, was King Arthur's nephew, and was left to take care of Britain and of his Queen in his absence, while he followed his wars in Gaul ; but Medrod hearing of the defeat of Arthur beyond the Alps, dethroned Gwenhwyfar the Queen, and took the government into his own hands. This occasioned Arthur's return to recover his crown, which brought on the civil war and the great battle called Gad Gamlan, where Medrod was slain, and Arthur received his death's wound. See Ghvenhwyfar and Llew ap Oynfarch,
Medrod vel Medrawt ap Cowrda.
Medron, father of Madoc. (Tr, 50.)
Medwyn, one of the two noble ambassadors sent by Lies ap
Coel, King of Britain, to Pope Bleutherius to desire to be in- structed in the Christian doctrine. (Leland, Script. Brit, c. 1 and c. 13.) He says he found the names in the Latin copy of Gralfrid Mon. ; but they are not in the British copy of Tyssilio^ nor in any of the printed copies of Gkdfrid (I have three of them), nor in a very ancient MS. of GalMd's Latin I have upon velliun.
Medd : see Gardd y Medd, Llannereh y MedcL
Meddepus ferch Ywain Cyfeiliog ; q. d. Meddwefus, i.«., mead- lip, a proper name for a fair woman.
Meddlan verch Cyndrwyn. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cjmdylan.)
Meddygon Myddfal Ehi wallon a'i feibion, Cadwgon, a Gruff- udd, ac Einion. Dr. Davies places them in 1280. (Dr. Davies in Myddfai) They collected together the empirical remedies of the Britons into a book^ at the command of Bhys Gryg, Prince of South Wales. I have a MS. of it on vellum. It is wrote in the British language, and aU Gralenical, and chiefly empirical, there being then no occasion for physicians.
Megadoc (Gwaith), JfiS, or, as Caradoc, Megedawc, a battle fought between the Britons and Phiehtieit (Picts), where Dalar- gau, King of the Picts, was slain. {Oaradoc, p. 16.)
Megdod {Nennius) : see Meivod,
Megen, Megge or Margaret.
Meguaid {Nennius) : see M&ivod,
Meguid : see Meivod. {E, Lhmjdy from Usher's Nennius,)
Meibionain. Gwlad Feibionain,
Pan wnelont meirian dadlau bychain
Anndon a brad Gwlad Feibionain. — B.oi, Myrddin.
Qu. whether Mabwynion in Cardiganshire ?
Meidrim, a village in Caermarthenshire. Fairs kept here.
Meichiad (fl). Glan y Meichiad [Nant y Meichiad — W. 2>.] in Meivod.
Meilfeych or Meilyrch (n. pr. v.), Mr. Edward Uwyd says it is Brychfael transposed.
Meic (n. pr. v.), probably ought to be wrote in the present orthography Maig : hence Hirdrefaig in Anglesey.
Meic Mygotwas (father of Anan, one of the three gohoyw riain) is in Vaughan*s Index Mogotwas, and explained Armrin,
Meivod, a church and parish in the deanery of Poole, Mont- gomeryshire. The church is dedicated to Tyssilio Sant. (B, Willis,) Mochnant, Mechain, Meichiad, and Meivod^ seem to have some afl&nity ; but Meivod is plainly, without any conjura- tion (though Mr. Ilwyd could not hit it), compounded of two ancient British words, Tnai and hod, which signify the month of May and habitation, which is as much as to say summer quar- ters. So hafod is compounded of Aa/ (summer) and bod (a dwelling-place), and is an ancient word for such summer-houses on the mountains where the ancient Britons attended their cattle, to make butter and cheese. Bod is a word prefixed to the names of abundance of houses in Wales, but more particu* larly in Anglesey : Bodorgan, Bodowen, Bodfeirig, etc., etc. . Here was an ancient British city of the Britains called in the Triades Gaer Mygit. Mr. Uwyd, in his Ifotea on Camden, from Usher's Nennitis, calls it Oair Meguid ; and in other copies of Nennius, Oavr Metguod ; but I know that in the Cambridge MS. of Nennius it is Cadr Megdod, and in the Cottonian MS. Oair Meffuaid. So I^m a&aid there is a mistake in printing Mr. Uwyd's notes.
As for the name of Mediolanum, it comes naturally enough from Meiddlan, the place of curds and whey, which is of the same nature and sense with Meivod and Hafod ; or else it is Meddlan, the place of mead, — a drink made of honey, in great vogue among, the ancient Britons ; and we have in Anglesey a town of that name with the words transposed, — Llannerch y Medd, Llannerch being a diminutive of Han.
Caradoc ap GoUwyn o Feifod. 61an y Meichiad in Meivod. [Nant y Meichiad,— W. D.'\
Meig ap Cynlas Goch.
Meigen, a place in Powys ; in Nennius, Ineicen, A battle fought here between CadwaUon ap Cadvan and Edwin King of Northumberland. On account of their behaviour in this battle (it is supposed) the men of Powys got those fourteen privileges (Breiniau Powys) which exempted them from many services and payments. See Breiniau Powys by Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr.
Bryn Meigen in Creuthyn, Cardiganshire. Meigen is men- tioned by Dywarch Hen in Marwnad CaswaUon.
Meigen (Bhts), i, e., Bhys of Meigen, a poet about the year 1380, whom Dafydd ap Gwilym killed with a lampoon.
Meilientdd, enw lie. Mael Meilienydd.
Meilir^ Eryr gwyr gorsedd, and Meilir MeiUrion.
Meiliw Tawarch ap Esgudaur.
Meilon. Maes Bhos Meilon, a battle fought here between the black nation under Igmond, and the Britons^ a.d. 900. Pen- rhos Efeilw, near Holyhead, q. A Penrhos Mellon. (Powel, Oaradoc, p. 42.) See Molerain.
Meilliontdd, a gentleman^s seat. Williams.
Meini Hirion (Y). About a mile from the top of Penmaen MawT, on the plain mountain above Gwddw Glas, in the parish of Pwygyfylchi, stands the most remarkable monument in all Snowdon : a circular entrenchment of about 26 yards diameter^ with several pillars, and these encompassed with a stone wall ; several cameddau and graves ; and a tradition of a battle fought here between the Bomans and Britons ; the Britons getting the day, buried their dead under heaps of stones to secure them &om the wild boars. (K liwyd. Notes on Camden, from a MS.) See Braieh y Ddinas,
Meibch Moedwt, {. e., sea-horses, q. d. ships.
Meirch mordwy uwch mawrdwrf toniar.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Meibchion ap Bhys ap Bhydderch, a.d. 1074.
Meirchion or Meibchiawn Gul ap Grwst Ledlwm.
Meirian Sant. lituiveirian Chapel, Anglesey.
Meirin^ river. {LL Hen in Marwnad Cadwallon.) Qu. whether Merin ? See TwythAval Merin.
Meirion (n. pr. v.). Meirion ap Tibion ap Cunedda Wledig, lord of Meirionydd, had Gantref Meirion to his share in right of his grandmother, Gwawl, wife of Edeyrn ap Padarn Beisrudd, and mother of Cunedda ; the Irish Scots, children of Glam Hec- tor, attempting then to seize on all Wales. (Price's Descr.)
Meirionydd, a county in North Wales, called by the English Merionethshire, and by the natives Meirion, Sir Veirion, Sir Veirionydd, and Meirionydd ; in modern Latin, Mervinia, pro- bably from Mervyn, son of Bhodri Mawr, part of whose land it
was ; for Powys is called by the poets Merviniawn, or lands of Mervyn ; and by one of the poets, Zleudir Mervyniawn, See OalU GadwaUon. But it was called Meirion from a grandson of Cunedda Wledig many ages before this, and was but one cantref of what is now called Meirionydd ; by Giraldus Cambrensis in his Itinerary, " Terra filiorum Conani", the lands of the sons of Conan. Neither Camden nor E. Llwyd attempt to give any ety- mology of this name.
Meissib. Dyfiryn Meissir, a place mentioned in Uywarch Hen's Marwnad Cjmdylan. [Maesir, Llysfaesir. — W, 2?.]
Mel. Bodfel ; perhaps pro Mael, as Bodvael.
Mela (n. 1.). Wynne of Mela.
Melangell verch Tudwal.
Melangell is Mihangel, St. Michael [Monacella. — W, 2>.] Pennant Melangell.
Melan, Mediolanum urbs. {Dr. Dames!) Becte Meddlan, meaning that in Gaul.
Melandref, Mediolanum.
Melchin, an ancient British author, a MS. of whose historical works was seen by Leland in the Abbey of Glassenbury, which he takes to be ancienter than Myrddin Emrys. He sajrs it appeared he was of Cambrian original, and had there studied, and had read the Cambrian bards. Our Cambro-British writers mention nothing of him under^that name, unless he be Myllin, to whom the church of Ilanvyllin in Montgomeryshire is dedicated.
Mele : vid. BeU.
Melen (n. pr. v.). EUyll Melon. {Tr, 70.) See Melyn.
Melgad (n. pr. v.), the same with Cadfael. {E, Llwyd)
Melgoed. Cefn Melgoed in Cardiganshire, which see.
Meliden, chapeL St. Meliden. (J5. Willis) Allt Meliden gives name to a prebend of St. Asaph.
Melindref (n. 1.), corrupt for Mileindref,a farm held in villain soccage, a tenure abolished by 22 Car. II. Melindref Sawddau, in liangattwg, Caermarthenshire.
Melingwm, village, Carmarthenshire.
Melirion or Meilirion.
Melkin and Mewin, names which Capgrave and Hardiuge mention as British writers, which seem to have taken their rise
from bad transcripts of Nennius, for the Cambro-Britons know of no such authors or names as Melkiuus and Mewinus. If there ever were such authors they were Loegrian Britons ; but Mevi- nus is plainly Aneurin, a cotemporary of Taliesin. See MelcMn.
Meloch, a river (qu. ?) in Penllyn. Uwch Meloch, Is Meloch, and Micnaint, are three commots in Cantref Penllyn. (Price's Descr.)
Melsybn, tad Bran. (Llyvxirch He/a.)
Pwylloi Vran vab y Melsym Fy nihol i llosgi fj ffyrn.
Mr. Edward Llwyd reads it Melhym, (X. K, H,)
Melwas, brenin Peittwf, a Gaulish name; Lat Bellovesus; General of the Gauls in their first irruption to Italy in the time of Tarquin the Elder, the 1C5 year of the city. Latinized by Galfrid, Melga, who he makes King of the Picts ; but he was a Gaul, and King of Poictou.
Melwas, a Prince of North Britain, that carried away King Arthur's wife or concubine. See Gxoenhwyfar.
Melwe : see OaeW Melwr (n. L), near Llanrwst.
Melydyn, esgob Caerludd, A.D. 613. Militus.
Melyn, mab Cynfelyn. (Tr. 36.)
Melynddwr, a river and dyfiryn in Cardiganshire.
Mellt, a man's name. A rock, called Maen Mellt, on the coast of Lleyn. Aedan, son of Mellt, a nobleman of Wales, died ...
Mellteyrn, enw He.
Membyr, the 4th King of Britain, son of Madog ap Lloegrin.
Menai (fL, Tr. 30), the river or arm of the sea between the Isle of Anglesey and Caernarvonshire. Some say from warn, small ; but qu. ? Hence Abermenai, the south-west entrance of that water. In Nennius, Menei, Menai, and Mene. Gives name to one of the six commots of Anglesey.
Afon Fenai ni threiodd,
Arian y mab yr un modd. — Huw Cae Lltoyd,
Menegid {Garadoc), Onegit {3fS,, App. Tyssilio), a place in Anglesey where Eoderick the Great fought a battle with the Danes in the year 873 ; another, the same year, at Bangole, which see. This name is not to be found in Anglesey. These are supposed to be Halden and Hungare, two Danish captains, that
afterwards landed in South Wales. These Danes were called by the Britons Llychlynwyr, or Lochlin Men, as they did all that came from the coast of the Baltic. Meneifion, the people about MeneL
Yn Aber muner Meneifion
Yn aniwair yn diwair Deon. — OyndJelw, i Hywel.
Menew : see Mynyw.
Menew Hen, RvhvA Vetus. (Leland,) This is a mistake in Dr. Davies^ Dictionary, and ought to be read Budus Vetus, Hen Venew, Eglwys Hen Fenew, in Cardiganshire. See Hen Fynyw.
Menvendan, a name on a stone in the parish of Henllan Am- goed in Caermarthenshire, which Mr. K liwyd says he has never met with in genealogical manuscripts. {Notes on Camden,) See Menw and Menwaed, and Manawydan ap Zlyr. {Tr. 14.)
Menw (n. v.). Hud Menw. {Dr. Davies)
Menwaed, Arilechwedd, one of the three Cadfarchog, knights of war. (TV. 23.)
Menyw (n. pr. v.), Menw. {Dr, Davies), Menyw mab Teir- gwaed, un o'r tri hud a Uedrith {Tr, 31) ; un o'r tri phrif lledu- rithawc. {Tr, 33.) A great philosopher cotemporary with Arthur. Hud Uthur Bendragon {i, e., Myrddin) a ddysgodd i Feny w mab Teirgwaed. {Tr, 32.)
Merchael ach Eurog Gadam.
Merchyr or Mercher, the name of a Celtic Prince, afterwards a god, son of lou, adored as a god by the Greeks and Romans. One of the days of theweek, Dydd Merchyr (i.e.. Dies Mercurii), is called after his name by the Britains. Perhaps Marchvrr, from his being a horseman^ and messenger of his father ; and from thence might come marehnad, a market, because he was the first merchant that carried his goods on a horse, — the god of mer- chandizing.
Merddin Wyllt neu ap Morfran, a.d. 635 and 683. Merlinus Sylvestris, o Nanc yn
Merdhyn Embrys, Merlinus Ambrosius, AD. 471. His
was named -^Idan. Y meudwy a barodd ei alw ef.
Meredudd, King of N
Meredudd ap Bleddyn, 1113.
Meredudd ap Owen, King of N[orth Wales], a.d. 986. Mere- dudd ap Owen ap Edwyn, King of S[outh Wales], lOoO.
Meredudd ap Gr. ap "Rja, lord of Keredigion.
Merffordi), a commot in the Cantref of Uwchnant in Powys Vadog. It is in Flintshire. (Price's Descr,)
Merfyn (n, pr. v.).
Merftn Frych, a Owyddd or Irishman, son of Gwyriad {Cara- doc, p. 22) of Ireland, married Essyllt^ daughter to Cynan Din- daethwy, and was father of Rodri Mawr. His mother was next daughter of Cadell ap Brochwel ap Eliseu ap Beli, and so on to Gwrtheym, to demand the crown.
Merfyn, one of the sons of Bhodri Mawr, was made Prince of Powys. Giraldus Cambrensis makes him the eldest son; but all others make him the third, and Prince of Powys: hence Powys Land was called Merviniawn.
Meriadoc or Meriadog (n. L). Cefn Meriadog, Denbighshire ; qu. a region in Denbighshire ? (H. Uwyd, Brit. Descr.)
Meiriadog (Cynan), a nephew of Eudaf, King of Britain, whom Maximus settled in Armorica, in Gaul, A.D. 383. As his uncle Eudaf was Earl of Erging and Euas before he got the crown, one would expect to find this Meriadog in that country. The Triades calls him brawd Elen verch Eudaf; but he was only her half-brother, or else her cousin-german, the British word brawd signifying in ancient times cousin as well as brother. (See H. liwyd, Brit. Descr., p. 14, ed. 1731.)
Merin, a river in Creuddyn, Geretica, runs into the river Mynach. Qu. whether Meirin, river of Llywarch Hen in Marw- nad Cadwallon ? Blaen Merin. Twythwal Merin in the poets.
Merini. Llyr Merini.
Mers, Mercia, a Saxon kingdom.. Gwyr y Mers, the Mer- cians. (JBT' Llwyd.)
Merthyr Tydvyl in Glamorganshire.
Merthyr Mawr, a village [church and castle — I. Jf.] in Glamorganshire.
Merviniawn, lands of Merfyn, the third son of Rhodri (Cyn- dddw), which was Powys Land. See Oallt OadwalUm.
Ni foddes mawredd y Merwerydd . Tngwaith y Waederw chwerw chweh'dydd.
Meilir Brydydd, i Gr. ap Cynan.
Merwydd (n. pr. v.). Gr. op Gwrgan, Gwledd Merwydd. (Tudur AM)
Merwydd Goch ap GoUwyn ap Gellan.
Merwydd Goch ap TryfiPon ap Mervyn.
Meryn Sant. Bodferyn Chapel, Ileyn ; qu. gave name to Merin fl. ?
Methlan or Meddlan, commonly called Medlam, in Lleyn. (0. S)
Metguod : see Meivod, (E. Uwyd, from Usher's Nennius,)
Meyenydd, one of the three commots of Cantref Canawl in Cardiganshire. (Price's Descr)
Mbvinus, corruptly wrote for Aneurin by Leland, c. 2 and 25 ; and by John Harding in his historical poem published in the time of Henry VI ; and by the ignorant transcribers or pub- lishers of Nennius it is wrote Nvevin. See Aneurin.
Meugan Sant. Cappel Sant Meugan at Beaumaris. {B, Willis.)
Meugaut ap Cyndaf, giyr o'r Israel
Meurig, a river which falls into Teifi, and gives name to Ys- trad Meurig, a village and the ruins of a castle in a pass between mountains in Cardiganshire. This castle is often mentioned in Caradoc's History.
Meurig, Meuric, Meurug, and Mburyg (n. pr. v.); Some kings of Britain of this name^ and Latinized Mariua by Galfrid, etc., but falsely for Meuricus. Camden makes it Merric^ and translates it Meuricus.
A mwy ddoe i mi a ddng
Y m6r gar Ystrad Meumg.
O. Olyn^ i Bys Abad.
Gorwyr Bhys aur dy wys dug
Gyda mawredd gwaed Meurug. — D. H. H.
Gwych y cawn lle'r awn ith wyrennig wledd Yn win a mawredd gan lin Meurig.
D. a/p Meredydd ap Tudur.
Meuric (Gwys), in Tyssilio {BrtU y Brenhinoedd), a monument erected in Westmorland by Meuric in memory of a battle. Meurig ap Adda, 1169. Meurig ap Arthpoel, 1019. MstTRiG, Bishop of Bangor^ died A.D. 1160.
Meubtg ap Cadell, 936.
Meurig, King of Dyfed in King Arthur's time.
Meu^ig ap Gweirydd, the 77th King of Britain.
Meutur ap Hedd Molwynog.
Mewyrniawn qtMeirnion. Dyfl&yn Menyrnyaun, mentioned in Ilywarch Hen's Advice to Maenwyn.
Metsctx^ one of the four commots of Cantref Pennythen in Morgannwg.
Mian Ferdic, one of the three red-speared poets ; Cadwallawii ap Cadfan's poet. In Mr. £• Ilwyd's book called Avannedig. See Afan Verddic,
MiCNAiNT, a river in the Cantref of Penllyn in Meirion ; also one of the three commots of Penllyn.
Michel, a modem n. pr. v. ; EngL Michael
Mihanoel, Michael the angel.
MiLAiN Aradroaeth, a villan in soccage-t^nure.
Os gwrthodi Uiw'r ewyn
Fab a'i felyn gndynan, Gei it filain aradr gaeth
A fo gwaeth ei gyneddfan.
So the poet takes this to be the lowest kind of vassalage. See Terra Nativa,
MiLCHUO, a King of the Picts mentioned by Flaherty, p. 397. Qu. whether the same MUchtio that had St. Patrick in bondage {id,, p. 472), and the Melchu of Nennins (c. 54), and perhaps Bede's Meilochon (L iii, c. 4) ? Nennius says that St. Patrick, a Briton, was captive with the Scots, and that his lord was Mel- chu, whose swineherd he was. Flaherty says he was six years a swineherd in the great valley of Arcail, near the mountain Mis, in the north part of Dalriada, at a place called Scirie Arcail, which he takes to be the Dalriada in the county of Antrim in Ireland ; and says his lord or master was Milchuo, who would not release him without a ransom, and one of the hogs dug up a lump of gold with which he bought his liberty.
MiLFFWRDD, corruptly, k Milford.
MiNCius, a river which watereth the city Mantua in Italy. In the Celtic, Myngwy or Mynwy. See Myngwy,
MiNDDU. Owen Finddu, un o feibion Maxen ap IlywarcL See Pehlig,
MiNWYN (Y), author of a British grammar. {E. Llwyd.)
MiRMANTUN, in Nennius (c. 21), Caer Cwstaint in some copies, Caer Segent or Segunt, which is said to be Caer yn Arvon, where Constantios Chlorus is by some said to be buried, by others doubted. Some take it to be York, without any foundation but a marginal note in one of the copies. In some MSS. of Nennius it is called Mirmantun, Mimmaton, Mirmantoniam, Merman- turn ; and by Camden read Murimandum. But, after all, should it not be read Mui-macTidin, i. e., the stone-walled city ? Nen- nius says that Constantius sowed three kinds of seed in the pavement of that city, so that the place might never be poor (viz., gold, silver, and brass, as the Cottonian copy has it). The meaning is, he buried great quantities of Boman coin there, as the Bomans did in most places where they settled.
Mithras, a Persian deity worshipped all over the Boman empire and in Gaul and Britain (Stukely's PaUeol), called by the Bomans Sol Invietus. There were horse-races instituted in honour of the Sun or Mithras, the Mediator or Messias. There are no remains or tradition of the worship of Mithras in the British, it being no part of the Druidical religion.
MocHDRE, Montgomeryshire.
MocHGARN (n. L). Bhys Goch o Fochgam, a poet.
MocHNANT, a river's name; literally a swift brook: hence Uanrhaiadr ym Mochnant. Here is a surprising cataract called Pistyll Bhaiadr : hence Mochnant, a country in Montgomery- shire.
Ar derfyn Mecbain a Mochnant.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Lin. ap lorwerth.
Mochnant dihenchwant erchwynawo gwledig, Gwlad Yrochfael Ysgitbrawc.
CyndddWf i Ywain ap Madog.
Mochnant is Bhaiadr, a commot of Cantre Bhaiadr, part of Powys Vadog. (Powel!)
Mochnant uwch Bhaiadr, part of Powys Wenwynwyn, a commot of Cantre'r Fyrnwy.
MocHNANWYS, the people of Mochnant.
Glew glyw Mochnanwys o Bywys beu. — liirlas 0, CyfeUiog.
MocHNO : see Cots Fochno,
MocHROS, where Dyfrig had a college for study and devotion. See Henllan.
MOCHUDD (n. 1.).
MODKON, merch Afallach. (TV. 52.)
Ceisio medm cais Modron
OV g^er fraith ar gwrr y fron. — Z>. ap Otoilym.
MODYB, a governor.
£f medrws Modyr hennriaid Mai inedra modrydaf ar haid.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Bodri ap Owain.
/. e., he can govern the elders like patting a hive on a swarm of bees.
MoEL, in English, bald ; used in the composition of the names of places and surnames of men, and doth not mean Trums, as Dr. Davies says. Moel Ehedog ; Moel y Wyddfa ; Moel Wnnio or Wynnio ; Moel y Don ; Tal y Foel ; Moel Llwydiarth ; Moel- fre ; Moel Sioba ; Y Foel ; Y Voelgoch ; Y Voel-las ; Moelwyn, a gentleman's seat and a mountain in Meirion {E. Llwyd) ; Y Foel in Ehiwlas {J. D.) ; Idwal Foel, a Prince of Wales ; lor- werth Foel, etc., etc. Hence the Vale, a hill near Abergavenny.
Moel y Glo, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.)
Moel Enlli, a mountain not far from Dyffryn Clwyd, on the top of which there is a military fence or rampire. (Oamden.) Probably Moel y Benlli Gawr, who was lord of lal A.D. 450.
Moel y Donn, a place in Anglesey where there is a ferry over the Menai ; corruptly called Bol y Donn. Tal y Voel is a place not far off, anciently called Tal Modvre.
Moel yk Henllys, in Montgomeryshire, where some British brass weapons were found in the last century. (K Llwyd.)
Moel y Wyddfa, the highest mountain in Eirj^ri See Y Wyddfa,
Moel y Fammau.
Moel Gylan.
Moel y Mwnd.
Moel Siabod.
Moeleri, a base son of Ywain Cyfeiliog.
MoELGROVE, Penbrokeshire.
MoBLVRE, a mountain near Cors y Gedol (a mod and bre).
MoELFRE, a harbour and village in Anglesey.
MoELFRE, a gentleman's seat. Llwyd's of Moelfre. [LlansUn. — W. D.] See TcU y Foel
MoELFRYCH. leuan Foelfrych. Llewelyn Orach ap y Moel- frych. Llewelyn Moel y Pantri. Surnames now wrote Moyle, as John Moyle, Wm. Moyle, etc., etc.
MoELGRWN. Llywelyn Foelgrwn.
MoBLiWRCH, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
MoELRHONiAiD (Ynys), the Skeriy Island near Holyhead literally the Isle of Seals.
MoELTAF : see Maeldaf.
MoELWYN (Y), a mountain in Meirion. {JE. Llwyd)
MoELYN (Y) o JFueUt. Llewelyn oedd ei enw bedydd. (Llyfr Ache, fol. 117.)
MoELYRCH. Y Plas ym Moelyrch. {OhdtoW Qlyn)
MoESEN, Moses.
MoETHUS. Llewelyn Foethus.
MoGOTWAS and Mygotwas, in the Triades (74), explained by Mr. E. Vaughan Aneirin. See Anetirin.
Mold, parish in Flintshire, a village and castle ; in "Welsh, Yr Wyddgrug,
MoLERAiN, a place in Anglesey mentioned by Caradoc (Powel's edit., p. 42), where, in a.d. 900, a battle was fought between the natives and Igmond the Dane. Dr. Powel, in his Notes, says that in some copies the battle was caUed Maes Bhos Meilon, and that Mervyn was slain there ; but the manuscript Appendix to Tyssilio says he was killed by his own men in the year 898. This may possibly be Ehos Feilw near Holyhead ; but there is no place in Anglesey that sounds like Molerain except Mbdvre, which is in another part of the island.
MoLWYNOG, full, plenteous ; used as a surname ; as, Bhodri Molwynog; Hedd Molwynog; Meilir Molwynog. (Englyn, Bedd)
MoN, Tir Mon, Anglesey ; the Moiia of Tacitus ; called also Mon mam Cymru, or Mon the Mother of Wales, for its plenty. See my notes on Mon in Diet. Dr. Davies. See Anglesey,

MoN Fynydd, a name of Anglesey to distinguish it from the other Hon or Monaw, the Isle of Man, the first being Mbtintain Mon, the other Sea Mon, or Mon in the Sea.
MoR, the sea, used in names of some places and people ; as, Uannerch y Mor ; Glan y Mor ; Dinmor or Dingmor ; Ar y Mor XJcha, i, e,, Aremorica in Gaul. Morinwyr, i. e,, Morini (k mor and Bhin).
Mr. Edward liwyd says that mor and mdr and m^r anciently signified water as well as sea, as does llyr also ; and in order to prove this, that Ogmor, the name of a river in Glamoi^nshire and in Caernarvonshire, means eogmor, or salmon-water; and that Marias, a river in Garmarddenshire, and Morlas, a river in Glamorganshire, are of the same origin; and that m^r in the word cymmer signifies water, and in mSrhelig or water-willow.
All these are guesses, but backed by no manner of authorities. As such positions as these tend to confound all languages by making one word to run through all the vowels, which etymolo- gists are too apt to do when they are at a loss for the derivation of a word, we '11 see what can be said to the contrary, so that every word may keep its own primitive sound, as the wise founders of languages certainly intended they should, and as the nature of things requires. Ogmor might signify the greatest Og, if there is another hard by, or runs into it, that was called Og- fach, as Dwyfor and Dwyfach,* near Criccieth in Caemarvou- shire ; for mav^r in composition is often pronounced mor, as Coetmor for Goedmawr ; Mordaf, a man's name, for Mawrdda ; and Mordaf, a river in Shropshire, as Mr. Ilwyd confesses, sig- nifies a great brook, which, by the by, means the great Tav, as no doubt there is a little Tav hard by [not to my knowledge. — W. 2?.]. But the true name of the river which in our times they called Ogmore, is Ogwr. So the whole argument has no foundation. Glyn Ogwr, etc.
Mob ap Pasgen ap Uried Eeged.
M6r Awst, the mouth of the Severn, q. d. Augustus's sea. A street in Caermarthen called Heol Awst.
M6b Mawb (Y), the great sea or ocean.
M8b Mabw (Y), (this is said to be the only word extant of the language of the ancient Cimbrians, produced by Pliny out
of Philemon, — Morimmntsa), the Dead Sea (Camden) ; and H. Uwyd before him, which he doth not own. M6k Hafren, the Severn Sea, Bristol Channel.
O Lydaw o draw o drwy Mor Hafren.
Prydydd y Moch, i Ln. ap lorwerth.
M6r Ucha (Y), the upper sea. This was the ancient Celtic or Gaulish name of the sea between Gaul and Britain, and the inhabitants on that sea-coast were called Gwyr ar y mor ucha, which was Latinized AreTnorica. This sea was by the Irish called Muimict (Flaherty, p. 403), and by Latin writers Maris Ictii; and Calis, its chief sea-port was called Tortus Icdas (H. Llwyd, Brit Descr.), naturally enough made out of Forth Ucha; and the Armoricans are called in Irish Armuirich. See Armorica,
Pan fii gyfeddacb Forach Forfran. — Hirlas Owen.
MoRBEN. Ehisiart Owen or Morben. MoRDA and Mordaf (n. pr. v.). Several men of this name, both Irish and Welsh. Hence Ilanvorda.
Llaw Forda rasol Haw Fair drosoch. — Tudur Aled.
Mordaf Hael, one of the three generous men of Britain. He was the son of Servan. (Tr. 8.)
MoRDAi, a man^s name in Hoianau Myrddin.
MoRDEiRN (n. pr. v.), rectfe Mordeym.
MoRDEiRN Sant, yn Nantglyn. I have a poem in praise of this saint by Davydd ap Lin. ap Madog. The poet makes him a grandson of Cunedda Wledig, and son of a king, and a relation of Dewi Sant. His legend is —
" When many of thy relations of the 20,000 saints went to Ynys Enlli, a causeway arose out of the sea, and suffered them to go to the island ; and when the sea, after their passing over, overflowed the place^ thou went on thy golden-maned horse over the waters without wetting a hoof; and from thence thou had thy name, Mordeim [the sovereign of the sea. — W. J?.] Thou wert a confessor, and thy home is in the valley of Nant- glyn, where thou hast a house and a sacrifice (dberth), and thy grave is there, and thy curious image which gives health to the
sick. Thou art a blessed doctor, curing pain, deafness, blindness, the mad and dumb, preserving the person's cattle for a year that visits thy tomb. Several gifts of wax and gold are brought thee."
The fryers had a share with him of these presents we may suppose.
MoREiDDio or MoRiDDiG (n. pr. v.).
Oedd rym gwr Moreiddig ynn Oedd garw Moreiddig Warwyn.
Bh. lorwerth^ i Sir W. Vychan.
MoRFAWR ap Gaden ap Cynan, — an id. Mor ?
MORFIL or MoRFUL, a parish in Penbrokeshire.
MORFRAN (n. pr. v.).
MoRFRAN, father of Myrddin Wyllt.
MoRFliAN, a poet mentioned by Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr.
MoRFRAN, mab Tegit, a man so notoriously deformed that he escaped in the battle of Camlan fix)m being killed because they thought he was the Devil. (Tr. 85.) Morfran eil Tegit. (Tr, 29.) See Hanes Taliesin in prose. The poetical story is this: He was so ill favoured in his youth that his mother, Caridwen, being well skilled in chymistry and philosophy, and intending to give him some qualifications of the mind, as he had none of the body, gathered all manner of plants which she knew would make a decoction of that virtue as to make him a poet and an orator. Gwion Bach, the poet, happening to come by, was employed to attend the fire of this chymical process, and, watich- ing the critical minute, ran away with the virtue of the decoc- tion ; who afterwards, by the transmigration of his soul, became Taliesin the poet, who, like Pythagoras, remembered himself to have been Gwion Bach, Myrddin Emrys, and great many other learned men, and all his transmigrations before he came to be
Taliesin, beginning
Prif fardd cyffredin
YdwyfiElphin, foolishly called the errors of Taliesin by Nicolson, etc.
MoRGAiN, a woman's name. There was a lady, a noble matron of this name, called Morgain le Fay, a relation of King Arthur
(probably the Abbess of Glastonbury), who conveyed the body of King Arthur after the battle of Camlan, and buried it in Ynys Avallon. Giraldus Cambrensis says the Britons in their songs feigned this Morgain to be a goddess who understood the cure of Arthur, who, when he recovers, is to reign over them again. (See Sir John Price, p. 131.)
Morgan and Morgant (n. pr. v.), the same with Cynvor ; Ir., Keanmdr ; Arm., Penfras ; and Greathead. {E. Llwyd)
Pwylla Forgant ef a'i wyr. — Llywarch Hen.
Neu'r orwydd yngorenw Morgant Ar filwyr Prydain pedrydant.
Prydydd y Moch, i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Morgan ap Arthal, the 39th King of Britain.
Morgan Mwyn Vawr, i. e., Great Morgan the Kind ; un o't tri rhuddfoawc Ynys Brydain. {Tr. 25.)
Carr Morgan Mwyn Vawr was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain, — un o'r tri thlws ar ddeg. Any one sitting in this chariot or chaise, and wishing himself in any place, was there immediately. It seems this was a common and free chariot kept by this generous man, or some kind of a carriage of that nature.
Morgan Morganwg. Bedd Morgan Morganwg, between Mar- gam and CynflBg, where the inscription is of Pumpeius Caranto- pius. {Camden and Llwyd) This name was by the ancients wrote Morgant.
Morgant Vychan ap Morgant ap Howel.
Morganwg, Gwlad Forgan,and Gwlad Morganwg, the country called in English, by corruption, Glamorgan, for Gwladmorgan : so named from Morgan, a Prince of that country. Camden would derive it from m6r, the sea, because it lies on the sea, and says that some would derive it from a monastery there. Had not the country a name before the use of monasteries ? And why is not Penbrokeshire and aU other countries on the sea called Morganwg ? And lastly, why should not a national tradi- tion take place before Mr. Camden^s guesses ?
MoRGENEU Ynad, ap Madog.
MoRGENEY (n. pr. v.), or Urgeney ; perhaps Gwrgeneu. {Cara- doc in Edwal ap Meyric.)
MoRHAiAEN Sant. The church of Trewalchmai in Anglesey is dedicated to him. (Br. Willis.)
MoRiAL ap Cyndrwjm. {Llywarch Ren in Marwnad Cyndy- lan.)
MORIDDIG ap Sandde Hardi
MoRiEN, a man. Tir Morien, Morien's land.
Adar Mair o dir Morien Dyma sail o Domas Hen.
D. cup Edmtont, i Domes Salbri o Leweni.
Marw Morien mur inn.
Ojlf, Myrddin a Qwenddydd.
MomNWYR (k Tjvor, the sea ; Bhin, the Shine ; and gwyr, men), the people inhabiting between the river Bhine and the sea, called by Bede (1. i,c. 1) Morini, A colony of these came over in ancient times, and settled about Portland in Dorsetshire, and were called by the Britons by a name equivalent to Morini, Bwrdrigmyr. See Dwrotriges.
MoRLAis, river, Ehyd Morlas, where GwSn, son of Llywarch Hen, was killed by the Saxons.
MoRLAis is also the name of a river in Glamorganshire, and signifies mawr lais, or great sound ; and it is possible that Cym- mer may be a mistake for Cymmar or Cydmar, a fellow ; q. d. fellow rivers, or the confluence of rivers. Mirhelyg may be for their softness and pliable nature beyond other willows, may be called so, as the marrow of willows, which is the meaning of m&r in the British.
MoRLAis Castle in Morganwg, near the confines of Breck- nockshire [about three miles north-east of Merthyr Tudful, on as bold a situation, on a high hill, as any inland castle in Wales. Steepness on one side, and Taf Fechan on the other, and deep trenches cut in the solid rock. It forms an irregular pentagon. All the works within and without the trench include an acre of ground. — W. D!\
MoRLAix, in Britanny in France, and the surname of the family of Morley, from Morlais Castle in Morganwg (Ji matar- lais). See Bhyd Forlas.
MoRRAN : see Catrvon^an.
Morris, Maurice, Morice, Moris, is a modem name in Wales, as some say from the British Mawr rwysg, but more probably from the Latin Mauritius, for it is not to be met with in very ancient manuscripts.
MoRTXJN (n. 1. in Cylchau Cymru), Moreton. Sandde Hardd o Fortun. [Ehedyn Mortun^ near Maesir. — TT. D.]
MoRUDD (n. pr. v.).
Y mae eryr fal Mdrndd
A Hew yn Ed a Haw Nndd. — letuin Brydydd Hir.
Hence Caer Porudd, corruptly Caer Forwyn.
MoRUDD, the 29th King of Britain.
MdRUDD^ corruptly Morrudd, the Channel between Britain and Gaul ; from mdr, sea., and udd, king ; i. e,, the king^s sea.
Fy nhafawd yn frawd ar Frython
O For Udd hyd For Iwerddon. — Prydydd y Moch,
Bhoist ar gythlwng rhwystr gwythlawn Ar For Udd aerfa fawr iawn.
lolo Ooehy to Edward lU. Oelyn fuost i'r Gbilais (i. 6., Calais).
M6r-Eudd, the Red Sea (Br. Davies) ; the British Sea says D. Llwyd ap Llewelyn ap GrufFudd.
MoRWERTDD. Camden (in Lothien) says that the EiUogium (i.e.,Nennius) calls Edenborough Frith Morwiridh ; but this must be examined into, for Morwerydd is Solway Frith, and called so because opposite to Ireland, q. d. Mor y Werddon. This is a slip of Mr. Camden, for Nennius doth not mention Morwerydd ; but perhaps it is another Eulogium. Ehun ap Maelgwn landed with his fleet after he had chased the fleet of the northern princes who, with Elidir Mwynfawr, had come to North Wales to claim the crown in right of his wife. So that it could by no means be Edenborough, which is on the Grerman Ocean. See Fenrhyn Shumydd. See also Camden in the beginning of his description of Ireland, where he calls the Irish Sea Morweridd. H. Llwyd Latinizes it Mare Virginis or Mare Hibemicum. See Fwerddon.
MoRWYDD, daughter of Urien Eeged. (IV. 52.)
MosTONE, in Doomsday Book, corruptly for Mostyn in Flint- shire.
MosTUK and Mostyn, nomen loconim et virorum.
Llaw Daw'n lal lie doe yn nn
Llew aur feistr a Uoer Fostnn. — WtUam Lleyn.
ond gressyn, yn bjw
Na bai Domas Mostyn. — W, Lleyn.
MosTYN, the name of a place in Flintshire ; and since Henry Villus time, as Camden says, is the surname of the family that have since enjoyed it. These are his words : ''An ancient worshipful gentleman of Wales being called at the pannel of jury by the name of Thomas ap William ap Thomas ap Bichard ap Hoel ap Evan Vaughan, etc., was advised by the judge to leave that old manner, whereupon he after called himself Mos- ton, according to the name of his principal house, and left that surname to his posterity." (Camden, JRemains, p. 145.)
MowDDWY, part of Powys Wenwynwyn. Llan y Mowddwy, a parish and church in Merionethshire, said to be once part of the deanery of Cyfeiliog. St. Tydeoho. See BiTias y Mowddwy,
MuGNACH GoRR, father of Fflur.
MuNiciP. Caer Municip [Nennivs), Verulamium, now St. Alban's.
MuR, a wall (Lat mwms), in the names of places. Hendre'r Mur, a gentleman's seat, Trawsfynydd, in Meirion; and qu. whether Mirmantun in Nennius be not of the same origin, Mur- maendin, because enclosed with a stone walL
Mur Sever, Severus's WalL See Gwal Sever.
MuRDDiN, i. 6., Caer Vyrddin ; supposed by some of the same origin.
MlJRNACH : see Umach and Caer Fumach.
Mtjrcastell, a place on the borders of North Wales. (Powel, Oaradoc, p. 173.) Thus far came Henry I with all the power of England, Scotland, and Cornwall, against Gruffudd ap Cynan, AJ). 1113, to Pennant Bachwy; but peace was made. See Bachttry,
MuROTRiGES, Somersetshire.
MwG Mawrdrbfydd, a Saxon Prince, father of Gwyllty Dra- hawg, and son of Ossa Gyllell Fawr, who fought with Arthur in Mynydd Baddon, — the battle on Badon Hill, a.d. 520, 0. C.
MwNCTON, q. d. Monkstown, near Pembroke town.
MwRETF, a country in North Britain, called also Beget, of which Urien Beged, King of that country, took his cognomen. See Urien JReged. Here the Scots and Picts had three battles with King Arthur. ' (Tyssilio.)
MwROG Sant. Llanfwrog in Denbighshire and Anglesey; also Bodfwrog, a church, vulgo Bodwrog.
MwsOGLEN or MwsoGLAN (n. 1.), in Anglesey.
MwTNDEG, I suppose an appellative, for I find it explained thus : Davydd i gelwid y Mwyndeg yn iawn enw a hwnnw (the author) oedd Lewis Aled.
MwYNFAWR. Morgant Mwynfawr,
MwYTHiG : see Amwj/thig, q. d. Amwyddig.
Mychdeyrn, a prince.
Myr meddgyni mychdeyrn MecbaiD.
Cyndddwy i Yw. Cyfeiliog. Myddwy river. See Dinfyddwy,
Myddpai (fl.), falls into Towi, qu. ?
Myddfai, a village near LlanamddyM in Gaermarthenshire.
See Meddygon Myddfai. Fairs kept here.
Myfanwy, vulgo Myddanwy, verch Llewelyn ap Ywain, or
O fynaig byd rwymgwyd rwy
O fynor Glaer ,Pefanwy. — Rowel ap EigHian,
Mytybian, a gentlemcm's seat, Anglesey.
Mygit. Caer Mygit. (2V.) See Meivad.
Myllin Sant. UcmvyUin in Powysland. See Melchin. Gam- den says he is fully persuaded that this is the Mediolanum of Antoninus and Ptolemy; for Millano in Italy, Le Million in Xantoigne, and Methlan in the Low Gountries, were also called Mediolanum. {Camden in Montgomeryshire.) Mr. Edward Uwyd in his notes, after praising Mr. Gamden for his ingenuity, disagrees with him, and places Mediolanum at Meivod, three miles south of Llanvyllin, a mile below Matliraval, on the north side of the river Mymwy, where Dr. Powell had placed it in his notes on Oiraldus Gambrensis, before Gamden wrote his Britan- nia. Meivod, as Bishop Usher supposes, is called by Nennius Gaer Metguod ; but what the words Meguid, Metguod, Meivod, or Mediolanum^ might signify is hardly intelligible (says Mr.
Llwyd) at present ; at leastwise I cannot discern (says he) the modem British affords us any information concerning the origin of these names. (E. Llwyd, Notes on Oamden, Montgomeryshire.) But see Meivod, and perhaps you may be informed.
Mtllteyrn, a parish, Caemaryonshire. See Edeym,
Mymbyr or Membyr, a man's name. Caer Fjnoabyr, Coventry, {Tho8, Williams.) Ffynnon Fymbyr, a lake near the Gludair, within a mile of Troed y Widdfa. The water of this lake runs through two other lakes, and so to Capel Curig, and so to the river Llugwy. See my map.
Mynach, a river in Cardiganshire. Pont ar Fjnwujh, the DeviPs Bridge.
Mynaich or Mynych, vulgo Manachod ; in English, monks. Llan y Mynych, church and parish, Shropshire. Tir y Mynych, a lordship, Cardiganshire. Mynachdy or Monachdy, t. e., mcmk's house, places where monasteries have been.
Mynach Nowmon, or Manach Nowmod, Elidir Mwynfawr's counsellor. {Tr. Jf.l.)
Mynan. Mael Mynan.
Myngan (n. pr. v.). Cyrchu Myngan o Veigen. {Tr. 63.)
Mynguy, wrote anciently for Mynwy.
Mynnau and Mynne, the Alps. Mynydd Mynnau. (2V. 90.)
Mynogan, or MoNOGAN, or Minocan (as Nennius), the 69th King of Britain.
Mynogi, qu. whether a pr. n. ?
Am Vadawc mynawc mynw haeloni Medel glyw glewdraws maws Mynogi.
Cynddelwy i Gad. ap Madog.
Hydraws bydraidd maws a Mynogi.
Llewelyn Vardd^ i EnUi.
Mynydawc Eydyn (n. pr. v.), at the battle of Cattraeth. (Tr. 36.) See Eydyn,
Mynydd, properly a mountain. Cwmmwd y Mynydd, one of the four commots of Cantref Gwent in Swydd Gwent.
Mynydd Bannawc : see Bannaxvc.
Mynydd Cadarn (Y), q. d. Montfort. larll y Mynydd Cadam a 3000 W3rr a laddodd Drahaem fal y caff&i Eudaf y gorou.
(Brut y Brenhin.) Gal&id, in the Latin, has it the magistrate of a certain privileged town.
Mynydd Carn, in South Wales, where a battle was fought for the Principality of Wales by GrufFydd ap Cynan and Trahayam, A.D. 1079, and Trahaem killed. {MeiUr Brydydd) Called by Caradoc Mynydd Camo ; but in Oeslyfr, Mynydd Cam.
Mynydd Fawb (Y), a mountain in Eryri.
Mynydd Gelli Onnen : see GMi Onnen.
Mynydd Mihangel, a place in Armorica. See Bedd Elen.
Mynydd Maon.
Tin yssjm a rown Mynydd Maon. — Hoian, Myrddin,
Mynydd y Drymmau, by Neath.
Mynyw, or Menai, or Mbneu, and anciently wrote Menew {E. Llwyd), Menevia, St David's.
Pennaf i'th famaf i'th fyw O Fon hyd yn nhy lynyw.
R. LLwyd ap Bh. ap Bhiccert. See ffen Fynyw. The archbishop's see was removed by Dewi from Caerllion. See Ihfhricms.
Mynwy, Monmouth town in Monmouthshire, on the river Mynwy (k man and gwy, says Leland). Fairs are kept here.
Lloegr wrthryn tra llyn Llwmynnwy.
Prydydd y Moch^ i L. ap lorwertb.
Myrngwy, wrote anciently for Mymwy.
Myrnwy river, anciently Myrngwy. (Maravonia. Dr, PiywdL —W. D) See YFymwy.
Myrddin (n. pr. v.). There were two noted Britons of this name. The first was
Myrddin Emrys, called Emreis . in the Triad 90, a great mathematician and philosopher, who flourished about the year 450. He was a Cambro-Briton, and born at Caer F3a'ddin, i, e,, Caermarthen, in Wales. His mother was a nun, and daughter to the King of Dyfed or Demetia. His father was probably the abbot, or some nobleman, otherwise his mother would have [been] prosecuted ; but she Was su£fered to conceal his father, and to give out that he was begot by a spirit who lay with her in her- sleep. The poets call him Anap y Lleian ; that is, the mischance of the nun ; which Dr. Davies, in his Catalogue, mistook for a
proper namo, and wrote it An ap y Lleian, and ao haQ Mr. K Uwyd^ as if his name had been An the son of the Nun ; bat Lewis Glyn Cothi explains this :
Tad 7 mab nid adnabu {Anap ei/am) neb pwj fa.
JSome Latin writers call him Merlinus Ambrosias, from Aurelios Ambrose, as Sir John Prise thinks in p. 10. Kennius' interpo- lator confounds him with Aurelios Ambrosius, and calls him Embreys Glautic ; but Emrys Wledig is the British name of the King Aurelios Ambrosius ; and he says his mother was afraid of owning the father lest she should be sentenced to die for it But that the boy owned to King Vortigern that his father was a Boman, says nothing of his being the son of an Incubus. {Eulag, Brit., c. 42.) He says that King Yortigem's messengers found him *' ad Campum Electi in regione quae vocatur Olevi- sing" Mr. Edward Llwyd owns he *doth not know any places of this name (Llwyd's Note) ; but in his Notes on Flintshire there is a place of this name mentioned.
I have met with nothing of his works that I am sure is his, except some political prophecies which he wrote, no doubt, to serve the turn of the reigning Prince, his great learning and knowledge in philosophy, mathematics, and mechanics, having acquired him the character of a prophet. These prophecies are chiefly in prose. He is often confounded with Myrddin Wyllt the poet. He is called Hot or Hod Uthor Bendragon (TV. 32), on o'r tri phrif hod.
He was called Myrddin from the town Oaer Fyrddin, where he was bom, which is the Moridonom of Antoninos, and Mari- dunum of Ptolomy. The word is derived from myr, the seas, and din, a fort, as Dr. Davies says ; but as it is an inland town, I take this derivation to be bad, for it is not urbs marUima. But qu. whether it was called so from its being the first walled town in that country, — Murddin, i. e., the walled fort, — or from the river Byrddin ?
Myrddin Emrys's address in persuading Uthur Bendragon's army, on the death of Emrys Wledig, that a comet then appear* ing prognosticated a victory over the Saxons, gave him a great character among them ; for upon this they believed Heaven
took their part, came to battle with the Saxons, and beat them. See lolo Goch's Cywydd y Seren.
Nennius says that Gwrtheym, on his leaving North Wales and his going to fortify himself at Caer Gwrtheym, gave Myr- ddin the castle he had built in Eryri, and all the provinces of the west, country of Britain : " Cum omnibus provinciis plagse occidentalis Britanniss" (Nennius, c. 44.) ; and he and his magi (wise men or poets) went to the country of Gwenesi (Gwenwys). The King had been excommunicated by Garmon, who hunted him from place to place ; and we find a chapel of his (Cappel Garmon) even in Eryri, which might be the cause of his leaving his castle to Myrddin ; and also the title of being chief poet or peniardd (prophet or chief herald, or prif-fardd, as the Triades calls him) of the western parts of Britain ; or, as other MSS., anvyddfardd, a herald of arms. Penbardd, prif-fardd (poet and prophet), were synonymous terms among the Britons ; and the arwyddfardd was the herald to treat about peace.
Nennius could not mean that he gave him the dominion of the countries, or else J^here would have been no occasion to give him one castle if he had power over all the castles. But he made him an arwyddfardd, or herald, for the west part of Britain. See Jo. David Rhys' Orammar.
The second Myrddin was
Myrddin ap Morfryn {Tr. 70), and generally Myrddin Wyllt,
by Latin writers called Merlinus Sylvestris and Galedonius ; so
called because after the misfortune of killing his own nephew,
son of his sister Gwenddydd, he grew mad, or pretended to be
so. We have a tradition that his madness affecting him but
every other hour,
Awr oi g6f gan Ddnw ry gai
Awr ymhell yr amhwyllai. — leuan Byfi,
He was bom in Caer Werthefsm, which is called Tref Myrddin ap Morfryn (MS,) ; and it seems he had great property there, which he lost in the war between his lord, Gwenddolau ap Oeidio, and Aeddan Yradwg, against Bhydderch HaeL This town was in or near the Forest of Caledonia in Scotland, from whence he was named by some writers JferZi7ii£8 Galedonius; and thence arose the mistake of some in attributing some of his works to a
third Merlin. He flourished about the year 560. See Canon CynUaith,
I have seen abundance of MSS. containing some of this poet's works dispersed all over Wales ; and though he wa9 a Pictisk Britain, and wrote so long ago, his works are intelligible to a person that is tolerably versed in the Welsh. The troubles and civil wars in Scotland drove him to Wales ; and we have dia- logues in verse between him and Taliessin^ the Gwynethian poet. Ymddiddan rhwng M}rrddin a Thaliessin.
He was buried in the Isle of Enlli (Bardsey), where there was a college of Manachod Cwjlau duon, black-cowled monks (Coli- dean monks). See Enlli,
Myrddin. Caervyrddiu, a town in that part of West Wales called now, in English, Caermarthenshire ; by the natives, Caer- vyrddiu. This is the Muridunum of Antoninus, and the Man- dunum of Ptolomy; and Camden says that the copyists of Antoninus have confounded two journeys, — one from Galena to Isca, and the other from Maridunum to Viroconovium. It gave name to Myrddin Emrys the poet and jnathematician, com- monly called the Magician ; and Camden,* by way of sneer, calls him jra^e«,after Tages the Tuscan soothsayer. &qq Myrddin Emrys.
It is probable the town and castle was called so from being the first waUed town in that country, Murddin or Mur- ddinas. Some think from myr, plural of mor, the sea. If so, why are not all towns near the sea called Myrddin ? Einion ap Gwgawn, in mentioning the taking of Caerfyrddin by Llewelyn ap lorwerth, says, " A thrychiad gwerin Caerfyrddin faen*'; i. e., the stone castle called Caerfyrddin. Or perhaps so called from a brook called Byrddin (if there be such) falling there into the Towi, for there are rivers of that name. From Byrddin comes Caer Fyrddin. Other derivations are strained. See Byrddin.
Mtsen : see Moesen.
Mysetn, a mesne lordship in Morgannwg. (Potoel.) See Afeys- cyn, a conmiot.
Mtvtb, a mountain mentioned by Lly warch Hen in Marwnad
Bhyddwyu a Myvyr a Berwyn.
See also Hanesyn Flodeuog, Arch, Brit,, p. 262.
Naf or Naw (n. pr. v.). Naf, father of Gwenwynwyn the admiral. {Tr. 20.)
Naich, arglwyddiaeth Tomos ap Roger.
Naint, river ; qu. Nantes in Gaul of this origin ?
Nanconwy, from Nant
Nanheudwy. Here Cadwallon ap Gr. ap C)man was slain by Eneon ap Owen ap Edwyn, a.d. 1132. (Powet) Part of Powys Vadog. . It is one of the three commots of Cantre' Bhaiadr, the other two being Mochnant is Ehaiadr and Cynllaeth. (Price's Descr) Castell Dinas Bran is in the commot of Nanheudwy, and Chirk Castle, or Castell Crogen, is in the commot of Nan- heudwy. (»7. D.)
O Ddyfnaint, o naint, o Nanheudwy 0*r tir a fernir wrth y Fymwy.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap Qruffydd.
Nanhoeunain, river.
Arf eryf eryr Nanhoywnain. — Cynddelw, i 0. Gwynedd.
Nanhwynain, river and parish in, Meirion. See Nanmor. Nanhyfer, a place mentioned by Meilir Brydydd in the year 1079, in Ireland.
Pobl anhy faith Nanhyfer. — Meilir Brydydd.
Also NanhyfSer in Dyfed ; qu. Nevern ? {L. 01, Cothi) [Nevem in Scotland.— W, 2?.]
Nanmor, or Nantmor, or Nantmawr, a river, etc., in the parish of Nanhwynain in Meirion. From hence the poet Davydd Nan- mor took his name ; and there is a tradition that a disciple of his being on his deathbed, Davydd asked him whether he would be buried in Nanhwynain or in his own parish, which was a great distance ofT. The disciple answered, " I desire nothing but to have this englyn cut on my gravestone", which is there to be seen to this day :
Dyma lie *r wyf mewn dam wain yn gorwedd . Dan gerrig Nanhwynain A pham waeth i wr maeth main Bridd na'i gilydd ar gelain.
There is another river called Nanmor near St. David's, from whence the poet Bhys Nanmor took his name.
Rhys Nanmor o faenor Fjnyw.
Nannau, Nenau (n. 1.), now wrote Nanney (h nant and gau, t. e,, a hollow vdley or hollow brook), the seat of Wm. Vaughan, Esq., in Merionethshire, of which county he is Member.
Nannerch, a church and parish in Flintshire.
Nant and Nan, an ancient Celtic word signifying in North Wales a valley about a river ; in South Wales, a small brook. It is found in the composition of the names of places and about rivers, the t being melted. Nanmor, Nanconwy, Nanhwynain or Nanhoywnain {Af8.\, Nannau, etc. Nant y Deiliau in Meirion. Small brooks in South Wales are Nant y Bwla ; Nant Mel, Rad- norshire ; Nant Garedyn ; Nant Cwnlle ; Nant yr Arian ; Car- nant, Brecon ; Nant y Carr ; Nant Graianog. The poets used it for a valley whether there was a river or no.
A mi'n gynnar yn aros
Gwen yn y nant gan y nos. — D. ap GvoUym,
Comant is a small brook. Creunant Chapel, Glamorganshire. Hirnant; Creignant.
Nant, a river of that name. Abemant, Carmarthenshire; Cwm ISajit in liannon, Carmarthenshire.
Nant Glyn, a church and parish near Denbigh ; also a place in Anglesey. Pronounced Nanclyn.
Nant Bai, in Uanvair y Bryn, Caermarthenshire.
Nant y Niwl, Penbrokeshire.
Nant y Gallgwn, Gaulbrooke. {Tyssilio.) Gallo Broc, Gallem Brec. ( Virun.)
Nant y Syddion, Nant y Creiau, Nant yr Hudol, run into the river Merin in Cardiganshire.
Nant y Benglog.
Nant y Cagal, river in Genau'r Glyn.
Nant y Moch.
Nant Bran, a river that falls into the Wysg.
Nant Glas (Y).
Nant Ffrancon : see Ffranco.
Nant y Fran, a river in Anglesey.
Nant Mawr and Nant Bychan, rivers in Anglesey.
Nant Penkarn : see Fcncam,
Nant Clwyd, a gentleman's seat in Rhuthyn liand.
Nant Conwy pi-o Nant.
Nant Melan (nomen loci).
Nant yr Arian, or Silver Dale Castle in Cardiganshire. (Powel, p. 274, A.D. 1215.) Coginan, I suppose.
•Nant Mel (nomen loci) in Radnorshire.
Nant y Cribaxj, a gentleman's seat. {J. D)
Nassiens, Eling of Denmark, subject to Bang Arthur. (TV. 83.)
Naw. Gwenwynwyn ap Naw. {E, Llwyd)
Nedd, river, or Neth, now Neath, in Glamorganshira The town is called CasteU Nedd. Fairs kept here. (Abernedd, Pont Nedd.) A town and lordship in Morgannwg, a seaport and village. The Abbey of Neath is on this river.
Nefyn, a village in Caernarvonshire. The church took its name from
Nefyn, a woman's name, daughter of Brychan, and wife of Cynfarch Hen, a Prince of Scotland {Tr. 52) ; and perhaps a river called Nefyn. See Abemefydd.
Nefydd. Abernefydd, where Elidir Mwynfawr was killed by Ehun ap Maelgwn. Perhaps it was Abemefyn, now Nefyn.
Nefydd Hardd, of Cwmmwd Nanconwy, one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales ; bore argerU, three javelins sable, Llau Nefydd, church and parish, deanery of Rhos, Denbighshire.
Nefydd, verch Brychan, gwraig Tudwal Bevyr, santes yn Uech Gelyddon Ymhrydyn, i, e., Scotland. Hence Llan Nefydd.
Neffei ap Brychan Brycheiniog o'r Ysbaenes = Spanish woman. Vid. FfcMalL
Negesawc, a courier or messenger.
Bum yn negesawc. — Meilir Brydn/ddy Marwnad Gr. ap Cynan.
Neifion (n. pr. v.), qu. Eneas ? See Eifion.
Y nofiad a wnaeth Neifion
O Droea fawr draw i Fon. — J), ap Edmund (medd Dr. Davies).
Ef a yrr nifer i For Neifion. — L, O. Cothi.
Neinteirch (fl.), q. d. Naint Eirch. [Nant Erch, q. d. Erchyll, it being a most romantic, rugged place in Glyn Ceiriog, Den- bighshire. — W, J?.]
Nemesis, daughter of Jupiter and Necessitas, a Celtic Princess, whose name in the Celtic might be Anaws, or, as the ancients wrote, Anamhis.
Nemrwth (n. pr. v.), Nimiod. {Sion Ceri.)
Nemrwth gawr ni mjriaeth gar.
Nennius, author of the Euhgium. Camden (in Ireland, edit. Gibson, 1695) calls him " Ninnius, a very ancient author and disciple of Elvodugus, who lived, by his own testimony, in the year 830, under Anaraugh, King of Anglesey and Gwinetii". But either Camden had a bad memory or had a bad copy of Nennius, for in that at Hengwrt, compared with all the copies in the public libraries, etc., Nennius says he wrote under Mer- vin, King of the Britains. These are his words : " 858 Ano DmicaB incarnationis 20 vero 4 Mervini Eegis Britonum " And as for Anaraugh, it is the name of no king nor anybody eke ; and this Merfyn was Merfyn Frych, father of Eodri Mawr. See Ninniaw and Merfyn. Leland says he had seen (with much pains) two copies of Nennius which he thinks uncorrupted. He takes him to be a Briton from the many British words in the History ; that Henry of Huntington had met with the History, but was ignorant of the author; and he recites out of him Arthur's battles. May not this be the book that Lombard says was met with by Huntington at Bee in Normandy ? {ScripL Brit, c. 47.) See Samuel Britanntcs.
Neecwys, a chapel in the diocese of St. Asaph, belongs to Mold. See Pen Erchwys,
Nest (n. pr. f.). Camden says it is used in Wales for Agnes ; but it is only a contraction of Onest, i. e., faithful, pure. Lat. Nesta.
Nest vereh Howel ap Ehys Gethin.
Nest verch Rys ap Tewdwr.
Nethan. Edryd ap Neddan neu Nethan, qu. ?
Nethy (fl.), recte Neddi (fl.); hence Abernethy, a town of Perthshire in Scotland. Lat. Abemcethum.
Neuadd, used in the names of places, signifies Lat. atUa, a hall ; as, T Neuadd Wen ; y Neuadd Lwyd ; y Neuadd ; Neuadd Ma^n Arthur.
Neutu ap Bleddyn ap Gynfyn.
Neuturvwr vel Neutur Vawr ap Hedd.
Never or Nevern, rightly Nanhyfer, which see. Uwch Nefer and Is Nefer are two of the three commots of Cantref Cemaes in Dyfed, (Price's Descr.)
Newent, qu. ?
Newcastle, the English name of a town in Pembrokeshire [Carmarthenshire], on the banks of the river Teivi ; repaired, says Camden, by Ehys ap Thomas, a stout warrior, who assisted Henry VII ; and that the English gave it the name Elmlin, as he thinks, from elms, for that llivyven in British is an elm ; and hence he thinks the Bomans called it Loventium of the Dimetse, mentioned by Ptolomy. But if Mr. Camden had known that the country thereabouts was called Emlyn (one of the eight can- trefs of Dyfed) many ages before a castle was built here, it would have saved this lame guess. The Britons call this town Y Castell Newydd yn Emlyn, i. e., the New Castle in Emlyn ; and the Tirades mentions Glyn Cuwch yn Emlyn before ever the Saxons saw this country. This Castle, Ehys, Prince of South Wales, took from the Normans a.d. 1215, etc.
Newport, in Monmouthshire, called by Giraldus Novus Bur- gus. Hei'e a Boman road called Julia Strata came, as the Necha...[?] says.
^Nhiniog, or Ynhiniog, or Anhiniog, a manor in Cardigan- shire, commonly called Cwmmwd Anhiniog.
I 'Nhiniog olndogwledd
Mi af, yno mae f annedd. — P. ap leuan Du,
NiDAN Sant (ym Mon) ap Gwrfyw. This knocks Mr. Bow- lands' Aidan.
NiNiAW (n. pr. v.). Niniaw, son of Beli Mawr, mentioned in BnU y Brenhinoedd to have fought with Julius Caesar hand to hand, and to have carried. Caesar's sword from him, which had stuck in Niniaw's helmet so fast that Csesar could not draw it out. But though Nyniaw performed great feats afterwards with Caisar's sword, yet the wound in his head proved mortal, and he died in fifteen days, to the great loss of the Britons. The name of this sword was Angau Coeh, i. e., literally Bed Death,
for all wounds made with it were mortal (Tyssilio, Brut y Brenr- hinoedd,)
NiNio ; Lat. Ninnius, qu. ap Cynfrig ?
NiNNiAN (Saint), a Britain, Bishop of Candidae Casae (Eglwys Wen), who converted the Southern Picts as far as the mountain Grampus, in the year 412. {Bede.) See Flaherty, p. 414 This was in Galloway, which was part of the kingdom of the Cum- brian Britons ; and the Saxon name of the place was Witehem, where he erected a monastery. Died 432. St. Plebeias was his brother. {Brit. Sarict, Sept. 16.) This Plebeias is called by Leland Plebenius.
John of Tinmouth says he was a son of a prince of that country, and brought up from his infancy in the Christian faith. He took a pilgrimage to Some to Pope Damasus. The Pope made him Bishop, and sent him to preach to the infidels in Britain. In his way home he called with St. Martin of Tours, who kindly received him. Usher says he was called by the Scots St. Eingen. This monastery was in the province of the Bemicians; in the hands of the Saxons when Bede wrote. Leland says that Tudovaldus was King of the Picts at this time ; probably Tudwal.
NiNNiAW, Lat, Nennius, Abbot, as is said, of Bangor is y Coed, wrote a history of the Britons in the Latin tongue, entitled, in Hengwrt Library, Gildas Nennius' Eulogium Brit Insul. ; and in Oxford Library, Gildas Minor. He wrote in the twenty-fourth year of Mervyn Frych, which, according to Caradoc, began to reign a.d. 817, and was killed in the twenty-six year of his reign in a battle with the Saxons. So that Nennius wrote in the year 841, according to the current account of the year of Christ, which shews the Britons had a different account. Nennius makes it 858.
This man*s name seems to have been Gildas, but surnamed Nennius to distinguish him from the elder Gildas, who was a North Briton, son of Caw o Brydyn. Some think that Gildas ap Caw, about 580, was the author of this Historia Britanum, and that it was continued by Nennius, and by Baelanus and others since ; and this occasioned the mistake of several writers quoting this Nennius for the first Gildas, author of the Epistle, and of PoL Virgil calling him the Impostor Gildas, as if it was
impossible for the Britons to produce two Gildases. There is a curious MS. of this History in Hengwrt Library, in Mr. E. Vaughan the antiquarian's own hand^ compared with all the MSS. in the public libraries of England, etc. Several copies of it in other parts of Wales.
NiWBWRCH, a town in Anglesey, from the Saxon Newburg.
Noah, the father of all mankind at the Universal Deluge, From his name came the Celtic novio, to swim ; and the Lat. No^ the Greek Neo, the Armoric noun, the Irish STiavam ; and all from the Hebrew Noah, to swim. From hence also came Nep- tune ; in the Celtic, Ndbhdhyvn, swimmer of the deep. \N6bh^ tonn, swimmer of the wave. — W. J9.]
Nob. Thus the Welsh poets wrote the name of Noah in one
Llefain mal Uif Noe am wr. — L, Morganwg.
NoN or NoNN was the name of the mother of Dewi or St. David, whom they call the patron saint of Wales. She was also a saint, and the wife of Xanthus, an Armorican, who the Welsh call Sant or Csant. Her legend says that she was with child of this Dewi, and happened to be in a congregation where a famous preacher taught the people, he was instantly struck dumb, be- cause Dewi, unborn, a greater man than he, was present. " Non, merch Cynyr o Gaergawch ym Myny w, mam St. Dewi." (MS)
Daw a wnel a Dewi a Non £i gael wrth fodd ei galon.
NoKDDMANDi, NoRTMANDi, and NoRMANDi, in English Nor- mandy, a country in Gaul (now France), where the Normans or Northmen, called by the Britons Nortmyn, settled under Clovis, their leader, about the same time that the Saxons came into England, in the beginning of the fifth century. They were Ger- mans that inhabited about the Ehine, under the name of Franks, from whence France took its name ; and there were Gauls about the Seine far before tliis, called Franks. [Pezron.)
But it seems this country took not the name of Normandy till the time of Eollo, about the year 911, who, with more North- men from Scandinavia and the coast of the Baltic, wrested this part of Neustria, as also Little Bretagne, out of Charles the
Simple's hands, and called it by the name of their own country in the North. Our Myrddin Wyllt, about the year 570, men- tions the country of these Northniyn, which he caUa Normandi, Nortmandir, and Norddmandi, bordering on the Baltic.
** Pan ddyfo Nortmyn o iar lydan lynn"; i. e,, when Nartmen come from the wide lake. " Pum penaeth o Normandi". They bad some country about the Baltic called by the Britons North- mandir, for they went under the names of Normans in Charle- magne's time, about a.d. 800 ; and why might not that name be then 220 year old, and well known among the Britons ? (JdyT- ddin.)
NORTMAIN, Normans.
Cyfran tonn a glann glasdir gwjlain Golnd mor ysgrud ysgryd Nortmain.
Einion ap Gwgan^ i Ln. ap lorwerth.
NORTHYMYRLOND, AngL Northumberland.
Nos ap Hoyw ap Gloyw.
NowY ap Arthen.
NuDD (n. pr. V.) and Nydd. {Eywel Swrdwal.) Nudd Hael fab SenyUt, one of the three generous men of the Isle of Britain. {Tr. 8.)
Nudd (fl.) or Nyth, wrote by some Nith, a river which is the boundary between Galloway and Dumfriesshire ; was of old the boundary between the Northimibrians of the Heptarchy and the Scots ; and this day the names of places on one side of the river are all Saxon, and on the other Celtic. Vide a map of that part. Abemudd.
Nudd, father of Gwyn.
NuG. Ehyd Nug. {Dr. Davies.) The river Nug rises in Ffyn- non Wen, near Hafod y Maidd in Denbighshire [runs by Pentre Foelas. — W, JD.], and falls into Conwy near Pant Glas.
NUR (n. pr. V.) ; Lat. Nurius.
NwTFRB [the welkin — W. D,\ a very ancient British name. Nwyfre of Arllechwedd, father of Lliaws. (TV. 40.)
NwYTHON (n. pr.).
Gwr ail flaidd gwraidd gwrhyd Nwython.
Oynddelw^ Mar. Cad. ap Madog. Nydd : see Nvdd,
Nyf, caariad Peredur ap Mroc.
Nynias and Ninianus, a most reverend Bishop and most holy man of the British nation, because he was brought up at Eome. (Bede, 1. iii, c. 4) He preached to the Scots or North Britons.
Odkea, a castle in Gaul, mentioned in the British History, where Julius Csosar landed in his flight from Britain. He is said to have landed at Traeth Morian, probably the sands of the Morini. Here he made it up with the Gauls, which had revolted, says Tyssilio. See Caesar, Oomm,, lib. iv, c. 13.
Odor or Oder, the British name of the river that runs through Wiltshire to Bath, and thence to Bristol ; in English called the Lower -4t;o7i, by a mistake of the first West Saxons, who hearing the Britons call it Avon, the common name of all rivers, and not knowing the meaning of the word, have retained it to this day. Caer Odor Nant was once the name of Bristol. See Bri- ikon and Bristol.
Odwyn. Llanbadam Odwyn, church and parish in Cardigan!» shire.
OsR. Cynfrig Oer ap Meirchion GoL
Oeth. Caer Oeth ac Anoeth, where Arthur was kept prisoner three nights. (Triad,) It was in some part of Britain, for Teulu Oeth ac Anoeth are mentioned in Taliessin's account of the Tombs of the Warriors of Britain. (Beddau Milwyr Ynys Pryd- ain.) See OUadini. Northumberland. Caer Oeth in Ystori K. ap Kilydd.
Oeuroswyd Wlbdio a garcharodd Lyr Iletieith. {Tr. 50.)
Ofydd (n. pr.), Ovidius, Ovid, the Latin poet.
Offa (n. pr. v.)^ a Saxon name. Oifa, King of the Mercians. Olawdd Offd, a ditch made by Ofla, King of Mercia, between England and Wales, to keep off the Welsh who made incursions into his land. This was of the same nature with another ditch and wall made between Uoegr and Alban, called Gw^l Sever, now the Picts' WalL See OlavM Offa, Caer Offa.
Ogwann, a river mraitioned in Gorhofiedd Gwalchmai, one of the rivers that gives name to Deuddwr. See Cegin and Aberdau.
Ogwen or Ogfaen (fl.) : hence Aberogwen, a village and har- bour near Bangor. See Ogwann.
Ogmore, a manor and castle in Carmarthenshire. [Glamorgan- shire. — L Jf.] {JPowd.) Also a place in Caernarvonshire. Mr. Edward Ilwyd thinks it to be Eogmor, salt water. Qu. whether Ogmawrt See Ogior.
Ogwr, a river in Glamorganshire, called in English Ogmor. Maenor Glyn Ogwr, one of the three commots of Cantref Cron- eth in Morganwg. (Price's Descr.) Ogmor Castle is on this river. See Ogmore.
Ogyefan Gawe. (Tr. 59.)
Gwr hydwf gwrhydri Ogyrfan.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Leweljn ap lorwerth.
Therefore no giant. See Oogyrfan,
OiLWY river. (Camden in Monmonthshire.) Morden's Map, Olwy. The city of Burrium or Bryn Buga lies between Oilwy and Wysc (Camden)
Olgra or Olgre, a place in Anglesey, in the parish of Llan-» ddyfhan.
Olifer (n. pr. v.). {Trioedd y Meirch, Pr. copy.) Mynydd Oliver, in the modem translations, Mynydd yr Olewydd, Mount Olivet.
Oliver Gosqorfawr, alias Gosgorddfawr, i e,, with the great guard.
Olmarch, a gentleman's seat in Cardiganshire. Olmarch Dewi, the mark of the foot of Dewi's horse in a stone.
Olwen (nom. feem,).
Olwen, merch Tspaddaden Ben Cawr o'r Gogledd, a beautiful lady of King Arthur's court. (-D. /. and lolo Ooch.) The poets feigned that four flowers sprung wherever she trod. Some say that she was Gwalchmai^s mistress ; others, Cyllwch (Culwch) ap Cilydd's (Culydd's), mistress; but Lewis Mon,the poet, calls her the wife of Gwalchmai See Stori 'r Twrch Trwyth, other- wise called Ystori Cyllwch ac Olwen, merch Tspaddaden Ben Cawr. Ac felly y cafas Cyllwch Olwen, etc.
Omtr, the name of a poet and orator mentioned in TyssiHo's History of the Britons ; but I am not certain whether he meant
a British poet of that name^ or Homer the Greek poet, though Galfrid translates it Homer.
Onwt, river in Shropshire, at Onibury; another falls into the Wye at Lemster. See Zlieni. Another Onwy runs south of Bishop's Castle, and into the Severn. See Trydomoy and Dyfr- donwy. [Two Onwys near Crickhowel, — one of them Onwy Goed. Ony river near Wistanstow, Salop. — W. J9.]
Obg, the name of an island in the Triades. {Tr, 3.) One of three principal adjacent islands of Britain, the Isle of Man and Wight being the other two. The largest of the Orcades or Ork- neys was so called, which is probably the plural of Ore. See Ereh.
Orewyn : see Pont Orewyn.
Orliawns, Orleans in France.
BoBser Hew fiyrfder holl Ffrawns
Wyd o Erlyn hyd Orliawns. — Hywel Swrdwal,
Oronicts and Orion : see Plemmidius and Plennydd,
Orton or Overton, church and town in Flintshire, near Ban- gor is y Coed ; by the Welsh called Owrtyn.
OsBER. Cynfrig ap Osber, id. quod Osbivm.
OsBWRN. Llewelyn ap Cynfrig ap Osbwm ap Gwythr larll Desmwnt o'r Iwerddon.
Osc: see Wysg.
OswALLT. Croes Oswallt, a church and town in Shropshire, now Oswestry or Oswaldstree. Some say from Oswald the Saxon King ; but see Ussa ap Cynedda Wledig.
Ottadini, the* name which the Bomans gave to the Britons of the country called now Northumberland ; probably the people of Gododin, tirhere the great battle of Cattraeth was fought. See Oododin Aneurin, In the Triades it is said that Arthur had been in prison three nights in Caer Oeth ac Anoeth. Where to look for this Caer Oeth I cannot tell, unless it is among the Ottadini. See Oeth.
OwAiN (n. pr. V.) : see Ywain,
OwAiN, the 35th King of Britain, reigned jointly with Pere- dur ; wrote also Iwgein. So Iwgein, Ywain, and Owein, are the same, and Latinized by some Audoenus, and by some Eugenius,
from which Iwgein was formed. Tir Oen, in Ireland, is in Latin called Terra Eugenii {Camden.) But the name, in my opinion, should be wrote Owain, and formed of and wain, as if you would say unsheatJted, i. e,, with his sword always drawn and ready ; though Mr. Camden says the Britons will have it that this name cometh from King Oemis, father-in4aw to Her- cules. But he should have told us who those Britons were. The English nation would think it hard to charge them in general with any blunder of Camden's, or any particular man ; for as we find all our ancient Celtic names significative in our own lan- guage without straining, we have no occasion to seek for the etymons of them in the language of people to whom the Celtae gave laws. So all the Britons should not be charged with the fancy, blunder, or opinion, of one Briton.
Owain Danwyn: vid. Twain,
Owain Gwynedd ap GruflFudd ap Cynan, Prince of Wales, a very great and glorious Prince. He and his brother Cadwaladr were eminent for their virtues, strength, beauty, and proportion ; humble, liberal, and terrible to their enemies. He died A.D. 1169. {Caradoc in Gr. ap Cynan.)
Owain Tudur, or rather Owen ap Mredydd ap Tudur, was the son of Mredydd ap Tudur ap Gronwy of Pen Mynydd in Anglesey. He was bom about the year 1385, and was brought up to the law in London. From thence he went on his travels, and being one of the handsomest men in Europe, made a great figure at the court of the King of France, where Catherine, the daughter of [the King of] France (afterwards Queen of England), took notice of him; and after the death of her husband, Henry V of England, she married him ; and by her he had children, viz., Edmund the eldest, who was the father of Henry VII, King of England ; and Jasper ; who were enabled by Henry VI to be his lawful half-brethren, and created Edmund Earl of Eichmond, and Jasper Earl of Penbroke, with preeminence to take place above all earls ; for kings have absolute authority in dispensing honours. (Notes on Camden in Penbr.)
The kings of England, descendants of this Owen Tudur, are called Tudors, or the Tudor family, but not rightly ; and Tudor was no surname of any family, and family surnames were not in being in Owen Tudor*s time.
OWAIN AP Ukien Reged waa the Prince of Eeged that suc- ceeded his father. He was one of the great officers in King Arthur's court, (Tr. 9.) Un o'r tri gwyn teyrn. His exploits in Stori larlles y Ffynnon are entirely poetical, as in the ring given him by Eluned, which had a stone in it that would make him invisible if he had the stone. He is foolishly called Owen, Segent of Scotland, in a note on Camden fathered on Mr. B. Vaughan, and also in Mr. Wynne's edition of the History of Wales.
Pabell Llywarch Hen, a place in Uanfor, near Bala. (MS.)
Pabo, a man's name : hence lianbabo, a church dedicated to one of that name in Anglesey, and seems to have been founded by Pabo Post Prydain, whose tombstone was discovered by dig- ging a grave in the churchyard, in the time of Charles n. and which was removed into the church, where it now lies. This is one of the most noble British monuments now in Great Britain ; and has the portraiture of the Prince at full length, with a coronet on his head and a sceptre in his hand, with a neat inscription on the edge of the stone, the whole very well done and adorned.
Pabo Post Prydain governed Anglesey about the year 500 after Christ, and was cotemporary with Uthur Bendragon, King of Great Britain, and seems to me to have been Uthur^s chief general in the north and west of Britain against the Picts and Scots of Ireland, who till then joined against the remains of the Boman provincials, at the same time that Uthur disputed the crown of London with the Saxons.
Post Prydain seems to signify chief general, but literally pillar of Britain ; and Llywarch Hen, in the following age, calls Urien Beged, King of Cumbria^ by the same title :
Llaiy ndd Uywiai wlad Pen Post Prydain ryallad.
So doth Llygad Gwr call Gr. ap Madog ap Mredydd :
Post Prydain urddain wrdd gyhnssed Penyadur llafnddur llaw egored.
Whether he got the government of Anglesey by marriage or
by the king's appointment I cannot find ; probably by the first, because on his tomb at Llanbabo in Anglesey he has a coronet or diadem on his head, and a sceptre in his right hand, and is dressed in princely robes. The tradition in Anglesey is that he was a king, i. e., Brenhin Pabo. He was of a noble family in the north of Britain, being descended from Coel Hen, commonly called Coel Godhebog, priodawr o'r Gogledd, a title given to the princes of the North. His father was Arthwys ap Mor ap Cenaa ap Coel Godhebog. Pabo's eldest brother was Ceidiaw, father of Gwenddolau, Mjrrddin Wyllt's lord and benefactor. (See Afall- ennau and PorcheUanau Myrddin.) Pabo's second brother was Cynfelyn, father of Oynwyd Cynwydion. Three hundred ysgwyd Cyuwydion. The clan of Cynwyd Cynwydion is mentioned in the Gododin. Pabo's youngest brother was Elifer Osgorddfawr, who was father of Gwrgi and Peredur. See Triades.
Pabo had a son called Dunawd Fyr, or Dunawd Fur, who married Dwywe verch Leenawc. He is mentioned in Tyssilio's History to be one of the great men which graced the feast made by King Arthur after his conquest of the islands. Dunawd Fyr ap Pabo Post Prydain is also called in the Triades one of the three pillars of battle of the Isle of Britain. Tri phost cad Ynys Prydain. This Post Cad may possibly be some title in the army.
Deinioel, the patron saint of Bangor, was son of Dunawd Fur. Pabo had also a son called Cerwydd, who is celebrated in the C&n Brith between Myrddin and Taliessin; and another son called Sawl Benuchel, and I think he had a daughter called Arddun. There is a tradition at Llanbabo that Pabo and a son and daughter of his were buried in that churchyard, over against certain faces cut in stones to be seen to this day in the south wall of that church, and against one of these faces the above mentioned tombstone was by accident discovered in Charles IPs time, as I was there informed in 1730, or thereabouts.
Besides the testimony of the Triades, as aforesaid, in relation to this Dunawd, llywarch Hen, the noble northern poet, who was an eye witness to the brave actions of his countrymen in the war against the Saxons, who bad possessed Deira and Ber- nicia, says of this Dunawd, in Marwnad Urien,
Dunawd mab Pabo in thech. — Llywarch Hen.
Mr. Humphrey Lloyd in his Description of Britain, sent to Ortelius, thinks that Pabo's British name was Patm, which is Welsh for the Latin Pavo (a peacock), and that from Pavo came Pabo. But the Tricuks, the old genealogical tables, and Lly warch Hen's works, compared with the inscription on lus tomb, shew that his real name was Pabo, whatever the word may signify.
HIC JACET PABO POST PBUD COKPORS VIE EL. P. M. A. It is pro- bable that the y now wrote in the word Prydain was wrote then with two i, which afterwards became an u, and perhaps they had an eye on their descent from Brutus.
Padaeut (St.) Beisrudd ap Tegid ap lago ap Genedawc ap Cain ap Gwrgain ap Beli ap Gwrddole ap Dwyn ap Gwrddwyn ap Amynod ap Anwedd ap Dawe ap Brychwan, gave name to Llan- badam Vawr, Llanbadam Vach, Llanbadarn Odwyn, Llanbadam Vynydd. He is mentioned in the Triades (43) : Tri gwynfydedig westai Ynys Prydain : Dewi, Padam, a Theilo. So it should seem they were all three foreigners, or else how could they be called the three happy guests ?
St. Paternus's life is wrote by John of Tinmouth — that he was born of noble parents in Armorica— his father Peiranus, and his mother Gueana. Padam founded a monastery at Llanbadam Vawr in Cardiganshire ; thence he went to Ireland to visit his father who had turned recluse there. There he reconciled two kings, who were in war ; then returned to Britain and foimded several churches and monasteries, and contracted a friendship with St. David and St. Teilo, with whom he made a pilgrimage to Jemsalem, and was there made bishop, and after his return held his episcopal see at Llanbadam. He lived here 21 years, and at the desire of Caradog, King of Armorica, returned home^ where he was made bishop of Y annes by means of Sampson Sant. Died in the land of the Franks : lus name is found subscribed with Sampson's in the third council of Paris, AD. 560. {BrU. Sanct, Apr. 15.)
Pais Padam Beisradd, un o 13 tlws Ynys Prydain. This coat would fit no man but Padam himself. See Bluned,
Padrig Sant ap Alfryd ap Gronwy o Wareddawg yn Arfon {MS.) St. Patrick, the apostle of Ireland, is said to have been bom in the country of Ehos in Dyfed, about the year 373. His
father Calphumus, a deacon, his mother Concha, sister of St. Martin, Bishop of Tours, his grandfather Politns, a priest. Others say he was bom in Scotland among the Ystrad Clwyd Britains {Ogygia, p. 178). Nennius says his first name was Maenwyn, and that he afterwards took him the name of Fadrig. Some copies has it Maun or Moun.
There is a place in Anglesey called Khos Badrig, and also a church there dedicated to him called Llanbadrig. It is neajr the seaport of Cemmaes, where it is said he took shipping for Ireland, when he went to convert the Irish to the Christian faith. There is a noted shoal or dangerous shelf of rocks in the sea on the coast of Ardudwy in Merionethshire, and runs parallel to Caernarvonshire for about twenty miles, called Sam Badrig, i. e., Patrick's Causeway, a name given it by the monks probably, pretending it to be part of the causeway over which St. Patrick passed to Ireland. I find in the Extent of Anglesey, Edward III, there were also lands in Anglesey held by the title of Owas Padrig, or Patrick's servant, free from any services to the prince ; which shows that St. Patrick or his followers had certain privileges of keeping servants among the freemen independent of the prince.
He began to preach in Ireland a.d. 433, and died A.D. 493 (Flaherty, p. 422) ; and died 120 years of age. {Nennius, c. 61.)
Padran ap Corun ap Ceredig.
Paladb. Ach baladr, i. e., in direct line or male stock.
Paladrwisg ap Caynawg Mawr.
Paluc, Cath Baluc {Tr. 81). This seems to have been some name or nickname of a person that was brought up in Anglesey, but proved its enemy, as King Edwin, another mentioned in the same Triades, is known to be. He is mentioned also in an obscure manner in Triad 30, that he was bom at sea in the river Menai. There is an herb called Palf y Gath Baluc.
Pant, a hollow, used in the names of places of that situa- tion ; as. Pant Mawr ; Pant y Barwn ; Blaen y Pant ; y Pant Gwyn ; y Pant Glas ; Pant y Fedwen ; Caq'r Pant ; Pant y Polion. Qu. whether Trinobant (London) might not be formed from Tro'n y Pant, i. e., Troy in the Hollow, or Tre'n y Pant, the Town in the Hollow. Y Pant uch Pentraeth, Anglesey, the
house of Cadivor Wyddel, 1140. A place there still called Y Pant. Pant y Llyn, Caermarthenshire ; Pant y Persli, a gentle- man's seat ; Y Pant T6g ; Pentre Pant ; Pant y Garreg, a gentle- man's seat, — ^Vaughan ; Pant y Llongddu^ a gentleman's seat^ near Euthyn. {J. B.)
Panwen Bykddin, in the parish of Ilangadoc above Neath, a monument caUed Maen dan Lygad yr Ych, with an inscrip- tioa M. Ceritin, etc. See Vertot.
Paradwts, nomen loci in Anglesey ; i. e., paradise. Powys Paradwys Cymru. {Zlywarch Hen,)
PARC, nomen loci and gentleman's seat.
PARC Cethin, Caermarthenshire.
PARC Y Frigan, Anglesey.
PARC Y Ehun (nomen loci).
Parchyllan. leuan Vychan o Barchyllan. Qu. Pare y Llan ?
Paredur or Peredur (n. pr. v.), MS.
Pascen, mab TJrien, un o'r tri thrahawc (Tr. 28).
Pasgen. B6d ap Pasgen nen Cysgen.
Patrick (n. pr. v.), Lat. Patricms, the Apostle of the Irish. Nmnim says he wrote 365 Books of A B. C. ; founded 365 churches ; ordained 365 bishops, in whom was the Spirit of God ; ordained 3000 presbyters; and converted and baptized 12,000 men in tbe region of Conacht ; and baptized 7 kings in one day, the sons of Amolgith ; fasted 40 days on the top of mount Eli, and obtained 3 petitions.
He was born, says Flaherty, p. 178, in the country of Alclwyd, in a village called Nemthor, in the plain of Tdbum, He was three times taken by pirates ; went to Eome, and visited the holy solitaries of Italy ; went to Gaul ; studied under German, Bishop of Auxerre, and there was made priest ; thence went to Eome, and had a mission from Pope Celestine to preach in Ireland, and in the year 432 he was made bishop by Celestine, and sent a legate, with 20 more, to Ireland. (BrU. Sanct, Mar. 17.)
Patrick's Welsh name was Maenwyn, and the ecclesiastical name of Patricius was given him by the Pope when sent legate to Ireland, See Nennius,
He visited the isles of the Tyrhen or Tuscan sea; had a
staff given him by a monk or hermit, called the Staff of JesTis,
having been nsed by our Lord. This St. Patrick carried to
Ireland, and was in great repute there, and one of our British
bards says of it,
Ffon a ddanfones lesn
I Badrig da fenthyg fn.
He made a third journey to Eome, to tell the Pope what he had done, and had several relics given him, which he carried to Armach. (Brit Sanct)
Sam Badrig in Meirionydd is a ridge of foulgrotmd that runs about twenty miles to sea, and comes dry at low-water spring tides. Bhos Badrig, a place in Anglesey. Purdan Padrig, Patrick's Purgatory, in Ireland.
Patrick was begot in the vale of Bhos in Dyfed, by Calphur- nus, a priest, on Concha, sister to St. Martin of Tours. {Ocmden in Penbrokeshire. See Lloyd's Brev. Brit.)
Llanbadrig, a church in Anglesey.
Paul (St.) of Leon, bishop. He was a Briton, son of Por- phius Aurelianus, and kinsman of St. Samson of Dole, and a disciple of St. Illtud, at the same time with Gildas, Samson, etc.
Paulinus, archbishop of York in King Edwin's time, it seems, was a Britain, and his first name was Shun ap TJrien Eeged. He baptized the nation of the Ambrones or Old Saxons, and by his preaching converted many. (N^ennius, c. 63, B. V.) Qu. whether Peulan Sant of Llanbeulan ?
Paun ap Meirchion ap Tanged.
Paun Post Prydaik, which Mr. H. Llwyd Latinizes Pavo, is probably the same with Pabo, which might be formed from Pavo. In the Latin inscription on his grave in the church of Ilanbabo in Anglesey, he is called Pabo, but in all our books of genealogies and poets it is wrote Pabo. Tradition calls him Y Brenhin Pabo.
Y Paun Bach o Wigmor, mentioned in Araith Wgan, was a poet noted in his time.
Paun (Castell), in Elvel (n. 1.), taken by Lord Eys, a.d. 1195 ; built by one Pain, a Norman, says Camden, rhwng Grwy a Hafren.
Pawl, Saint Paul, as if pronounced in English F^L
Celfjddodau man ni fo marwawl I brofi pob peth o bregeth Bawl.
Eiti. ap Gwgamrty i Ln, ap lorweriK^
Pebid Penlltn, enw gwr, tad Sulwych.
Pebidiog, one of the eight caiitrefs of Dyfed, containing the commots of Mynyw, Pencaer, and Pebidiog. (Price's Descr,) The Octopitarum of Ptolomy. {Oamden in Penbroke.)
Peblig ap Macsen Wledig, Ymerodr Rhufain.
Peblyc Sant. Llaubeblyc near Caer yn Arvon, the seat of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of Wales.
Hardd i fardd ei fwrdd Nadolyo Oedd aelaw gar aelwjd Beblyc.
Pedolau, horse-shoes. Hoel y Pedolau — he could bend horse- shoes.
Pedrog Sant. He was a native of Wales, of royal extraction, in the fifth century. He was twenty years in Ireland learning Christianity and sacred letters, and instructed St. Coemgen; thence he went to Cornwall, founded a college or monastery at Petrockstow or Padstow ; made a pilgrimage to Rome and to Jerusalem ; was neighbour to St. Samson. (Brit Sanct.) Le- land says when Pedrog came to Cornwall from Corinnia there reigned two famous kings in that country, Theodorus and Constantinus, who gave him leave to build a monastery near the Severn, whose name in the country language was Bosmanach (more probably Rosmanach), one Guronus (Gwron), an hermit, first lived there, and it appears by an old book in that monas- tery of Petrobergi that three holy men who followed Petroc's example, are buried there — Credan, Medan, and Dachun. Ethelstan afterwards repaired that monastery, and in the time of William the Conqueror, a half-brother of his robbed and spoiled it. There was afterwards Augustine Canons placed there. (Leland, Script. Brit)
Another Pedrog, A.D. 850, Bishop of Cornwall. (Heylin's Help, 116.) See Wws Manaeh.
Pedrogl (n. pr. v.) Pedrogl Paladrddellt, un o*r tri chyfion farchog in Arthur^s court {Tr, 84). Qu. whether Patroclus ?
Pefyr and Pefb. Goronwy Pefr o Benllyn is mentioned in
Tr. 35 for the ill behaviour of his soldiers in a battle (at Llecli Oronwy in Blaen Cynfael in Ardudwy) with Hew liawgyffes. Dafydd ap Gwilym mentions him in his poem of the OwL Gwdion ap Don, an eminent philosopher and Prince of Ar Gonwy, because a certain married lady admitted of the amours of this Goronwy, he metamophosed her into an owl.
Am denrn i Raru gynt
Goronwy map Pefr Garanir Arglwydd Penllyn howyn hir.
The meaning is, that he exposed her so that she was ashamed of being seen by daylight. Therefore this Gronwy Pefr was cotemporary with Gwdion ap Don. Sr. Wm. Pevyr ap Goronw. Ehuawn Pefr. (Tr. 9 and 68.)
• Peibiaw ap Meurig ap Dingad : hence Ynys Beibio juxta Holyhead.
Peibio (n. pr. v.). Ynys Beibio, near Holyhead. Garth Beibio, church and parish in the deanery of Pool, dedicated to St. Tydecho, on the river Twrch, Montgomeryshira
Peibron, in Anglesey.
Peiran or PiRAN Sant. This is he whom the Irish call St. Kiaran. Born in Ireland, as Usher says, about the year 352. {Brit, Sand) There are no places in Wales that retain his name, as I know of, except a mill in Ajiglesey called Melin Beiran. [Peiran Sabulo, church of Peiran, buried under sands in Cornwall See a small tract by 1841. — W, 2>.]
Peirio Sant. Ehos Beiiio, a church and parish in Anglesey.
Peitwn ap Emyr Llydaw.
Peithyll, a river's name in Cardiganshire, that runs by Gog- erthan and into Clarach. See Ystrad Peithyll,
Pelagius, a Britain mentioned by Bede (1. i, c. 10) about a.d. 394, who broached some tenets in the Christian Church which were not agreeable, which caused a synod to be held to suppress him. German and Lupus, two Bishops from France, attended the synod, in Britain about a.d. 430. Camden intimates that the Monastery of Bangor is y Coed produced him, whom he calls the greatest and worst of heretics, for that he perverted the nature of God's grace, and infested the Western Churches.
His doctrine spread itself over Britain and Gaul, that a man might be saved by good works only. St. Augustine answered him. Some say his British name was Morgan. See his tenets in St. August. De Gest. Paloestin,, c. ii, and De Peccat, Orig,, c. ii.
Pen, an old Celtic word in the names of places, signifying a top, head, or end of a thing, and not as Mr. Baxter whimsically advances. Penllyn ; Penmaen ; Penrhos ; Pen y Lan in Swanzey ; Penrhyn ; Pennant ; Penfro, now Penbroke (Tr, 30) ; Pentir, Caemai'vonshire ; Pen y Caerau in Cynwyl Elfed ; Penllech ; Penhesgin ; Penhwnllys ; Pentraeth ; Penbol in Anglesey ; Pen Machno ; Pen y Chwintan ; Pen Morfa, Caernarvonshire ; Pen- boir (see Boir) ; Penbre ; Pentre'rianell ; Pencraig ; Penbedw Penllwynau, yn Ilanegwad ; Penwedig ; Penmynydd ; Pen Mon Pen Cader ; Pengwem ; Penbre ; Pencoed ; Penhelyg ; Penbryn Penardd Halawg ; Penardd (hence Penard in Somersetshire) Peniarth ; y Penwyn, i. e., white top, Appenine Mountains.
Pen y Pabchell, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.)
Penalun, yn Nyfed, a church where one of St. Teilaw's three bodies were intombed. {Tr. 44.)
Pen ae Lao, rightly Penardd Halawc, a town in Flintshire ; Hardin.
Pen ANT {k pen and nant), Rhys ap Dafydd Penant.
Penaran. leuan Penaran^ ap lorwerth Voel. [Penaran yn Ngheri, ar gyfer Dol Vorgan. — W. D.]
Penallt (Camden in Montgomeryshire) for Pennal, a village and church in Merionethshire, near the river Dovey, where there is the ruins of a supposed Boman fort at a place called Cefn Caer, which signifies the castle hiU (and not " dorsum urbis", as explained in the margin of Camden). In the same manner are called seveml other places : Cefn Nithgroen, Cefn Treversi, Cefn Cerwyni. See Cefn,
Penardd, a commot of Cantre Canawl, a part of Cardiganshire.
I Bennardd a Mabwynion. — D. ah leuan Du.
Penardd Halawo, commonly called Penar Lag.
Pencelli, a castle in South Wales, a.d. 1215. (Garadoc.) Sir Eoger Vychan o Dref y Twr, arglwydd Pencelli (a pen and galU goed cylJ). Hinc Pengelly, an English name, qu. ? Baron Pen- gelly.
Penaewen (nom. foem.), daughter of Culfynawjrt Piydain, and wife of Owen ap Urien, noted for her lasciviousness. (TV. 56.)
Penbedw, a gentleman's seat, Denbighshire. Mostyn.
Penbol, a place in Anglesey, near Cors y Bol, in Tal y Bolion.
Penbre, Caimarthenshire.
Penbryn, a parish and church in Cardiganshire.
Penbryn y Barcud, my house in the parish of Llanbadam Vawr, Cardiganshire.
Penbryn in Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here.
Pencadair, near Brecknock, where Gruffydd ap Llewelyn, Prince of North Wales, met Howel ap Edwyn, A.D. 1038, with an army of his countrymen and strangers ; gave him battle, overthrew him, took his wife prisoner, whom he had brought to see the defeat of Gruffydd. But Gruifydd liked her so well, and she him, being the better man, that he kept her for his concu- bine. {Garadoc in Gr. ap Llewelyn.) Henry II came here with a great army against Ehys, but had no battle anno Dom. 1163.
Pencader, in Llanvihangel Orarth, Caermarthenshire. See Cader.
Pencaer, one of the three commots of Cantref Pebidiog in Dyfed. (Price^s Bescr.)
Pencarn Eiver, called Nant Pencam, in Monmouthshire, mentioned by Gir. Cambrensis. Here Henry II, passing the ford of Nant Pencarn, discouraged the Britons, who, relying too much on their oracle, Merlinus Sylvester, who had said that when a strong Prince with a freckled face should pass that ford, the British forces should be vanquished. (Oamden in Mon- mouthshire.) See Gwasgargerdd Vyrddin,
Pencoet, nomen loci, qu. South Wales ? (Caradoe,) Gwaith Pencoet, where a battle was fought between the Britons and Saxons, and the latter defeated. (Garadoc, p. 14c, a.d. 721.)
Pencraig, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey.
Penda or PEANDA,King of Mercia,brether-in-law of CadwaUon, and his general. ( William Mamsbr.)
Pendaran (n. pr. v.). Pendaran Djrfed (TV. 30), cotemporary with Pryderi mab Pwyll Amwyn. Pen y Darren in Gelli GS.r, Glamorgan.
Pendew, Edynowain Bendew.
Pendragon, the cognomen of Uthiir, the father of Arthur, who, upon the Britons tlirowing oflf the Eoman yoke, exchanged the Eoman eagle for a golden dragon in his standard. (The Danes and Scythians had before a dragon in their standards.) This is the reason Tyssilio [gives] for the name of Pendragon, and which is highly probable. Others have had the appellation of Pendragon.
Penegoes, church and parish in the deanery of Cyfeiliog, Powys, dedicated to Cadfarch Sant.
Penerchwys (qu. Nercwys ?), a gentleman's seat, where Lly- welyn ap lorwerth, Prince of North Wales, was brought up.
Handyth vagwyd pefr ymhen Brchw^s Yn oreu Cenau Cynan vegys.
Llewelyn Vardd, i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Penmon Mawr, falsely by Mr. Camden for Penmaen Mawr.
Penfras. Madog Benfras ap Gr. ap lerwerth.
Penfro, q. d. Pen y Fro, swydd Benfro and Sir Benfro (Engl. Penbrokeshire), formerly called Dyfed or Penfro Dyfed, the ex- treme end of the country of Dyfed ; and in Latin, Demetia. It contained eight cantrefs and twenty-three commots. The town of Penfro, or Penbroke, hath given name to one of those can- trefs, which is called Cantref Penfro, which also is divided into three commots, — Coed yr Haf, Maenor Byrr, and Penfro; so that there is Sir Benfro and Cwmmwd Penfro, and Tref Benfro. (Price's Descr.)
The town of Penfro (Penbroke) is called by Giraldus Cam- brensis the metropolis of Dimetia, He says that Amulpb de Montgomery built this castle, in the time of Henry I, with stakes and green turf, and afterwards delivered it to Girald of Windsor, his lieutenant-general, who was besieged by the Welsh, but to no eflTect. Girald of Windsor afterwards married Nest, sister of Pr. Gruflfydd, from whom came the Geraldines of Ire- land, etc. ; and also Giraldus Cambrensis that gives this account, who was Archdeacon of Brecknock. (See Girald, Carribr, and
Paun o frig leirll Penfro gynt. — lorwerth Fynglwyd,
L c.y Penfro Dyfed.
Pengakn Llwyd, some mountain where eagles l)red, qu. ? (Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.)
Eryr Penjjfwem Pengam Uwyd.
Pengoch. Mredydd Bengoch ap Llywelyn ap HoweL
Pengwern (n. L). There are several places of this name.
Pengwern, in Cardiganshire. Castell Llanvihangel ym Mhen- gwern. {Caradoc in 0. Gwyuedd.)
Pengwern, in Caernarvonshire.
Pengwern Bowys was the old name of Salop, now in Welsh Amwythig. {£1. E'en in Mar. C^nadylan.) The Princes of Powys had their seat here till Ofia, King of Mercia, about the year 784, drove them away, who, prevailing on the other Saxon kings to join him, threw up a great ditch from sea to sea, which is to be seen to this day, and called Claiodd Off ay or Offa's Ditch ; and this was to be a boundary between the Saxons and the Welsh. Upon which the Princes of Powys removed to Mathravael in Montgomeryshire ; but Pengwern was burnt by the Saxons when Cyndylan was Prince there.
Llys Bengwern neud tandde Qwae ieaaingc a eiddun brotro.
Penhernyw, peth o dir Phylip Dorddu,
Penhescyn, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey.
Peniarth, enw lie.
Penisel. Samwel Penisel. (Dr. Davies, Oram.f p. 161). Qu. whether Sawl ?
Penhwylcoed. Caer Penhwylcoed. {Tyssilio.) This is that* in Nennius caUed Caire Pensanelcoith ; and by Usher, Caer Hwel o goed. This Caer is not to be found in the Triades.
Penllech Chapel, Lleyn.
Penllech Elidir, yn y Gogledd, i. e,, North Britain. {Tr. y Meirch, 1.)
Penllech Elidir, ym Mon (Tr. y Meirch^ 1), a place in Anglesey, now called y Benllech, at the mouth of the harbour caUed Redwharf. See Lledi Elidir.
Penlloegr, a place in the parish of Uanvair ynghomwy, in Anglesey, where there is the remains of an ancient fort of this form
Penllwynog (k llwyn), a cantref in Dyfed. (Powel)
Penllyn, one of the three cantrefs of Meirionydd, so called from fen and llyn, i, e., Llyn Tegid, a large lake near Bala. It contains four parishes, viz., Llanyckil, Ilanwllyn, Llanvawr, and Llangower. (B. Willis.) See Meloch and Micnaint. Deanery of Penllyn, St. Asaph diocese.
Tudur PenlhjUy a poet. Gwr bonheddig o Benllyn, perchen Caergai. {Bd, Jones MS,)
Pen Machno, a village and church which is dedicated to St. Tudclyd. See Machno, fl.
Penmaen, lands in Denbighsliire. Penmaen yn Ehos. Pen- maen, hence Dolbenmaen in Caernarvonshire.
Penmaen Mawr and Bach, mountains in Carnarvonshire ; on the top of the first there is an impregnable fort, corruptly wrote by Mr. Camden Penmon Mawr. See Braich y Ddinas.
Penmon, a church in the east corner of Anglesey, dedicated to St. Seirioel. (J5p. Willis,) There is also an island hard by called Ynys Seirioel, where there is a chapel which bears that saint's name, in English called Priestholme Island, vulgo Preston Island. One of our poets mentions this saint's image to be formerly in great repute to help the increase of cheese, and was therefore made with cheeses in his arms. By this the monks got cheese in plenty, in barter for those images.
Gwas arall a ddug Seirioel A naw o gaws yn ei goal.
St. Seirioel was very fair in the face, occasioned by his often meeting St. Cybi at a famous well at Clorach near Llannerch y Medd ; for he had the sun in his back in coming and going home, whereas St. Cybi had it always in his face, which made him very tawny, so that it is proverbial to this day : " Seirioel wyn a Chybi velyn " — i. c, Seirioel the white and Cybi the yellow.
Penmon was spoiled by Mactus with an army of Danes a.d. 969.
Penmon Mawk, falsely by Mr. Camden for Penmaen Mawr.
Pen Morfa, a town in Caernarvonshire, AngL Marsh End. The church is dedicated to Beuno Sant.
Penmynydd, a church and parish in Anglesey. In this parish
there is a gentleman's seat, where formerly the ancestors of
Owen Tudur lived, who was the grandfather of Henry VITth,
King of England. The church is dedicated to St. Cradifael.
Pennal, a place on the north bank of the river Dyfi, where
there hath been a fort in ancient times, supposed to be Eoman.
Here was the seventh camp of Ilywelyn ap lorwerth. {Cylch
Pebyllva peir cyfa cerdd
PeDnal dir engir angerdd.
It gives name to one of the three commots of Cantref Meirion.
Pennant, one of the three commots of Cantref Daugleddeu, Pembrokeshire. (Price's Descr)
Pennant Bachwy, where the King of Scots came as an ally of Henry I against Gr. ap Cynan, a.d. 1113 ; but peace was made between them. It is somewhere on the borders of North Wales. [It is near Llanidloes. Biga, Bachwy, Cly wedog, join the Severn in one stream, near the town. — W, D^
Pennant Melangell, parish and church, deanery of Welsh Poole. See Llaiivihangel y Pennant
Penrhos Cyfeiliog.
Penrhos Lligwy, a parish in Anglesey ; church dedicated to St. Mihangel.
Penrhos Fwrdios.
Penrhos y Feilw : see Macs BJios Meilon,
Penrhyn, an old Celtic word signifying properly a headland or promontory, from pen, a head, and rhyn, highland. The name of several places in Wales ; as Penrhyn Bangor ; Penrhyn Safnas ; Penrhyn Blathaon, Caithness Point, Scotland ; Penrhyn Hawstin, in Cornwall ; Penrhyn Penwaed or Penwaeth, Land's End of Cornwall. Penrhyn Ehionedd, the seat of the Cumbrian princes, Edinborough {Tr, 7). Also a surname, Gruffudd Pen- rhyn, Esqr. o Bowys.
Gmffadd yw i badd wrth em bodd Penrhyn ag ef pwy unrhodd. — JSywel GUan,
See Blathaon, etc.
Penrhyn Bangor.
Penrhyn Gwaed, Prmnontorium Sanguinis, the promontory of blood. This is the promontory of Cornwall says Humphrey
lioyd (Brit Descr., p. 33, Edit. 1731), which he thinks to be the Antivestiseum of Ptolomy. John Major calls it Penwick Streit, i, e,, Pemiici Strata, corruptly no doubt. See Penrhyn Penwaeth.
Penrhyn ar Elays, one of the three commots of Cantref Arberth in Penbrokeshire. (Price^s Descr.)
Penrhyn Rhionedd yn y Gogledd (qu. Ehianedd ?), i. e., the promontory of maidens in the North {Tr. 7). This is Eden- borough in Scotland, the royal seat of the Northern Britons in King Arthur's time, a,d. 520, where, according to the Triadea, Gwrthmwl Wledig was propraetor or lieutenant-general under Arthur, and Cyndeym Garthwys chief of bishops, and Arthur chief tyrant or king (in Brit, teyrn) . This place is also called by others Castell Mjmydd Agned, and Castell y Morwynion, and Dinas Eiddyn. The great bay and the sea here is called by Ptolomy Boderia ; Tacitus, Bodotria ; the Scots, the Forth of Frith [Frith of Forth] ; the English Edenborough Frith ; others Mare Tresicum (as Nennius) and Mare Scoticum ; and Mr. Cam- den says that Nennius (qu. whether JSulogium /) calls it Mbr- wiridh, which is certainly a blunder of one side or other ; for Morwerydd is Solway Frith on the north side of the land. See Morwerydd.
Penrhys, Glamorgan, Fair kept here.
Pentallwch. Caer Pentallwch {Nennius) q. d. Pen tal y U wch. Thjs Camden thinks to be the town Kirkintilloch, one of the garrison towns on the Eoman wall called by Bede Guidi; but qu.?
Pentir, a chapel near Bangor, and a gentleman's seat
Pentir Ganion, a promontory in Ireland.
Pentir Gafran, a promontory in Scotland.
Pentraeth (ikpen and traeih), near Bedwharf in Anglesey; Ilanfair Bettws Geraint.
Meibion Cadifor cyd ehelaeth blant Yn y Pant nch Pentraeth. See y Pant icch Pentraeth,
Pentrev, a village, literally chief town. Pentre'rianell Pentre'r Bwauau ; Pentre'r Cwn ; Pentre Hobyn ; Pentre Heilin y Pentre Du, Cardiganshire; Pentre Bychan, Denbighshire
Pentre Coed, a gentleman's seat, Oswestry; Pentre Caer, a gentleman's seat.
Pentre Aeron, a gentleman's seat {J. D)
Pentre Cynerig, a gentleman's seat. (J". JO.)
Pentre Hobyn, a gentleman's seat — Iloyd.
Pentre Hyfaidd, a gentleman's seat. («/". 2>.)
Pentre Madog, a gentleman's seat (/. D)
Pentre Pant, a gentleman's seat. {J. D)
Pentyrch, a place in Glamorganshire [and another in Caer- einion in Montgomeryshire with a tremendous rock called Moel Bentyrch. W. JD.]
Penwabth, Penwaedd, or Penwaed (n. pr. v.). Penrhyn Penwaeth Ynghemyw, the extreme part of Cornwall to the south (JV. 2).
Penwedig, one of the four cantrefs of Cardiganshire, possessed by the Normans in 1116, as most of the country was. Castle of Penwedig belonging to Howel ap 0. Gwynedd, 1151.
Penwellt, one of the three commots of Cantre'r Clawdd, between Wy and Severn. (Price's Descr)
Pbnwyn, the cognomen of a man.
Penyfed, a gentleman's seat in Eiddionydd. {J. D.)
Penystrowallt, rect^ Penystrywaid. See Tstrywaid.
Penystrowydd, or Penystrywed, or Penystrywallt, qu. church dedicated to St. Gwrgi ? (B. Willis,)
Pbnythen or Pennstthen, one of the four cantrefs of Mor- ganwc. (Price's Descr,)
Perdix, the name of an ancient British prophet mentioned by Leland, on whom he has bestowed a large chapter. (Leland, Script Brit,, c. 9.) He prophesied in the time of Ehiwallon, the 13th King of Britain, and is mentioned by Ponticus Virunnius in his Epitome of the British History, who says a large Perdix, meaning the bird partridge, prophesied in the Temple of Diana ; and perhaps the prophet's name in the British might be Pettris, which might give rise to the story. But our writers in the British make no mention of such a person. Time has swallowed him up, though Virunnius met him somewhere.
Peredur, mab Efrawc. {Mdbinogi)
Peredur, mab Elifer Gosgorfawr, and father of Gwgawn Gwr-
awn. {Tr, 14.) Peredur and Gwrgi were both killed in battle, A.D. 584. {Aer, Camhr,) Qu. whether killed in the battle at Gwanas ? See Beddau Hirion,
Peresgri, nn o dair gwraig Bry chain Brycheiniog. It is likely this was the Spanish woman. Vid. Neffei.
Perfarch ap larddur.
Perfedd, one of the three commots of Cantref Penwedig, Car- diganshire. Another in Y Berfeddwlad, the middle
country : so Perfeddbwynt.
Enwaf y Cwmmwd einym
Perfedd hyd Wynedd da ym.
Beio ap leuon Ptf .
Pergwmlys, a house near Neath, Glamorganshire.
Porthiant a fa i'r lluoedd
Pergwmlys pnr ag ami oedd.— Jfiitc Oae Llwyd,
Perif (n. pr. v.), the same with Priaf, says Edward Ilwyd ; Priaf is Priamus.
Perif ap Cadifor, a poet, an. 1180.
Peris Sant. Llanberis, a church in Caernarvonshire. Caer Bens, in the Triades, is the same with Caer Peris in Nennius, which Usher makes to be Porchester. So also Galfrid. {Th. Williams,)
Perith, a town in Cumberland ; q. d. Pen rhudd, as Camden guesses.
Perri. Harri Perri, author of a treatise of Ehetoric in the British tongue, published an. 1580.
Perselau, Preseli, Parseli, Pryseu, or Pkebelau. Mynydd y Preselau, a mountain in Penbrokeshire.
Person. Ithel Berson ap Ithel Vychan.
Perth, a bush, is found in the composition of the names of places ; as, Perth yr Aur ; Perth Eirin ; T/n y Berth ; y Berth Lwyd ; y Berdd Ddu, a gentleman's seat. Perth, a town and shire in Scotland
Perwefr, nom. foem. {H. ap Ow, Gwynedd.)
Perwyr, daughter of Ehun Ryfeddfawr. {Triad)
Perydr ap Eniudd Bach ap Brochwel.
Peryddon (fl.), ancient orthography Periton. Lat., Fluvitrs Peritonis. (6?a//:,l. vii, c. 3.) M. B. K In both the Paris editions
of Galfrid (fol. 54) the river is called Fluv. Perinoris ; but in ComrQelinus' edit., Perironis ; falsely for Peritonis. In my Latin MS., Perironis and Peridonis. See Dyfrdwy,
Peteona: see Gallgo.
Petrual. Cefn y Petrual in lianfair Dalhaeam. Hhos Petrual, a common a mile and a half from Carnarvon town.
Petrual Clwyd. {Dr. Davies,)
Peulin (qu. ?) ap Heulyn, q. d. Apollo, son of the Sun.
Peulan Sanfc. Llanbeulan church in Mon : qu. whether Beu- lanus (Nennius) or Paulinus ? See Elfod.
Phelipa, gwraig Fleddyn ap Ithel Vychan o DegaingL
PHICHTLA.ID or Ffychdeyd, wrote also Phichti, and not Ffychti, the Picts (in Scotland pronounced Pihts or Pites), a colony of northern people which I take to be Cimbrians from the Cimbric Chersonese, and who settled among the northern Britons about the Orkneys, and mixed with them. They painted their bodies as the Cimmerians and other northern nations did. According to Tyssilio's Brut they came there in the reign of Meuric ap Gweirydd, about 70 or 80 years after Christ, under Eodric their King, A.D. 72, says H. Llwyd {Brit, Bescr,, p. 47), from Scythia, whom Meuryc fought and killed, and erected a stone with an inscription at Gwys Meuric (not West Maria, as some people dreamj.
The subdued people, says TyssQio, had leave to live about Cath- ness (probably in the Orcades), and they took them wives from Ireland, the Britons refusing to give them any. (But it seems this is a mistake, for they were soon mixt with the Britons, and lost their own language, if it was not Celtic before they came ; for the Cimbrians are supposed to be Celtse.) Because of their alliance with the Gwyddyl (or Irish), or the Gallwyddyl of the Hebrides, Tyssilio calls them Gwyddyl Phichti, t. e., Irish Picts ; and the Triades also makes them to be the second colony of invaders of Britain, under the name of Gwyddyl PhichtL Tys- silio owns he had no materials to write the history of the Gwyddyl Phichti, nor the Gv^ddyl iawn, i. e., the Pictish Irish, nor the right Irish ; therefore he proceeds with the British his- tory. The Irish historians call the Isles of the Hebrides Inse Call, i, e., the Isle of the Gauls. Probably these were some of
the first planters of Britain unmixed, which the other Britons called Gwyddyl, or wild men ; and the Irish, in their language, called them Gallgaoiihd (FlaJierty, p. 323), as if a Briton would say Galhvyddyl, i. e,, wild Gauls.
Engl Gallwyddel gwnaon eu rhyfel. — Frif Qyf. Taliessin,
Tyssilio bringing the Picts fipom Scythia, and calling the land given by Meuryc ap Gwerydd Scotland, seems to favour the opinion of the Scots coming from Scythia ; and that Scytiaid and Scwytiaid were the same, i, e., Scythi and Scoti. The book of the Culdee of St. Andrews, quoted by Usher (Prim,, p. 579), says all Britain had received the Christian religion before the Scots and Picts came. This he took from Tertullian probably. But Fordun, the Scotch historian, says they came here before Christ's incarnation. Buchanan tells you the very year the Scots came to Britain, that it was when Alexander the Great took Babylon. (Buchanan, Ber. Scot in Bege, 1.) Tyssilio, in the reign of Carawn (Carausius), says that for the good service the Ffychteyd (Picts) did him against Eomans and provincial Britons, he gave them all the country called in his time TsgoU lond, where they remained to his time among the Britons ; i, e., he gave them leave to live all over the country, among the Britons ; and by this means the North Britons came to call themselves Brython, or painted men, as Myrddin Wyllt doth, {Hoian^ Myrddin.)
The South Picts were converted a,d. 412, and the North Picts about A.D. 560. (Lloyd's West, Ch., p. 50, from Bede, Adamna- nus.) Now, according to Lloyd, all the people of the country now called Scotland were called Picts. Those to the north of the great Grampian Mountains called North Picts, and those to the south called South Picts. Where were the North Britons then, if they were not Picts, or mixt with the Picts ? But the language was British, as appears by Myrddin the Caledonian's works ; and it will appear in this book that the names of places in the north are also British. See Mar, Buchan, Cathenes, Aber- deen, Strath Nevern, Erch, Glen Elg, Glenshiel, Lochaber, Aber- nethy. Boss, Dalwhinie. (See Edward Llwyd's Letter.)
The modem Scotch history says the Picts came here a good wliile after the Scots (Dav., Gamer,, p. 5 and 207) ; but Bede says
the Britons came first into the island, next the Picts, next the Scots. Ammian. Marcellinus mentions the Picts and Scots re- pulsed by Theodosius, and he wrote about a.d. 378 ; and no author mentions them before the time of Vespatian, about which time Meuiyc was King of Britain as aforesaid. Eumenius, in his Panegyric to Constantius^ about the year 296, is the first Boman that mentions the Picts. They lived first in the Orcades (-ff. Z.) ; the Attacotti in the Hebrides. The Picts divided into two people by Eumenius, the Dicalidones and Yecturiones, Deau Celyddon and
Phili or Phily : see FfM.
Philyb and Philyp ; English, Philip. (6r.) Phylip Dorddu.
Phivion ap leuan Colier o Harddlech. Qxl whether English or Welsh ?
PiccYLL. Howel Piccyll ap Davydd o Faelor.
PiciHERNES, near Holyhead.
PiLWM, in Anglesey.
Pill ap Cynan ap Gwrydr Goch.
PiSTAlR, qu. Llanbistair ?
PiSTYLL, a fall of water (from piso) ; so PistyU Bhaiadr Moch- nant is a vast cataract on the river Mochnant in Montgomery- shire. Pistyll, near Nevyn.
Plant, children or issue. Plant Llywarch Hen; plant Cunedda Wledig,etc.; the descendants of such men. This is thebegiiming and foundation of the clans in Scotland and Ireland, as Mr. Edward Llwyd observes. See his letter to Mr. Davies of Han- nerch, where he makes the Irish a colony from Britain, and he calls them C. Britons, because in Irish the words where we in Wales use P, they change into C or K : ken, a head, for pen,
PlIs, used in the names of places, and signifies a gentleman's house, hall, or seat ; and Plasdy, a slated house, to distinguish it from a thatched or farmhouse. Plas y Ward ; Plas lolyn ; Plas y Ciyg ; y Plas Coch ; y Plas Gwyn ; Plas Canol ; Plas 7 Brain ; Plas Madog in Ehiwabon ; y Plas yn Uanvair ; y Plas yn Amlwch ; y Plas Candrj'U ; yr Henblas ; y Plas Bach ; Plas Power ; Plas Hofa ; Plas Ehoscolyn ; Plas Maen Gwynedd ; y Plas Isaf ; y Plas Uchaf.
Plemmydius, a British poet mentioned by Leland, who he supposes to be very ancient; but as nothing remains of his works, nor of Oranius and Gildas, two other smcient poets in the same place named, he attributes it to the havoc and destruction made by the Picts, Scots, Irish, and Saxons. He quotes Lilius Greg. Giraldus of Ferrar, who mention these three celebrated British poets. (Leland, Script. Brit., c. 10.) In one of our British poets I find the first two mentioned :
Plennjdd ag Orion plennant
Oi plwy ddysgeidiaeth yw plant. — 8r, W, Glyn,
But as Lilius Greg. Giraldus is but a modem author, who died but in the year 1552, 1 am apprehensive these are corruptions of some British names of well known poets; for how could a stranger know more of our poets than we do ourselves ? And I am also of opinion that Oronius is nothing else than Goronwy, of which name we have had several noted ancient poets, as Goronwy Ddu o Fon, Goronwy Gjrrriog, etc. ; and that Sir Wil- liam Glyn got his Plennydd ac Orion out of lil. Gr. Giraldus as well as Mr. Leland, for I believe they were all three near co- temporaries. What British name is like Plemmydius I cannot teU.
Since I wrote the above I find in Ponticus Virunnius what Mr. Leland had not taken notice of (and Ponticus Virunnius wrote about A.D. 1490). He says the ancient Britons were noted for poets, philosophers, and orators, among whom he names Plenydius and Oronius ; for so it should be read, and not Pleny- dius Oronius. Who can this Plenydius be but Bledynius, i, e., Bleddyn Vardd ; and Oronius is, no doubt, Goronwy. See Pont. Virunnius, 1. i.
Plenlyn Meab (Oamden), corruptly for Penllyn Mear, called by the English Pemble Mear. See Llyn Tegid.
Plennydd : see Plemmydius.
PoLiON. Pant y Polion, i. e., Pant Paulin, at Caio in Caer- marthenshire. {JS. Llwyd)
PoLLYN (n. pr.), Paulinus.
Pomona, a large island among the Orcades.
Pont, a bridge, in the names of places in Wales ; as. Pont y Gwyddyl ; Pont y Pwyl or Pwl, in Monmouthshire. Tal Hen-
bont, a gentleman' 8 seat in Llejmt Tal y Bont ; y Bont Vaen, Glamorganshire, Cowbridge; Ehydpont in Anglesey; y Bont DdiL Pont ar Fynaich, Pont ar Gamddwr, signify the bridges on the rivers Mynaich and Camddwr, etc. Pont Ehyd y Cleifion, Badnorshire, a village, and fairs kept. T Bont Goch. Pont Nedd Fechan, a village in Brecknockshire. Fairs are kept here. Y Bont Newydd in Caernarvonshire. Pont Neuf, in France, of the same sense.
Pont Orewyn, abridge on the river ; qu. Irwon ? (Powel,
Caradoc, p. 373) ; probably Pont ar Ewyn ; or ar Irwon, near Buellt, where, in a wood just by, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last Welsh Prince, was slain by treachery of a Bishop of Bangor^ Madoc Min. (JD. J,) Others say Einion was then Bishop of Bangor, in great favour with Edward I.
Pont Wilym.
Pool : vid. Welsh Poole and Trallwng.
PoRECS, the 19th King of Britain.
PoRECS ap Coel, the 46th King of Britain.
PoRTH, river. Aberporth, Blaen Forth Gwithen, Cardiganshire.
PoRTH Cerddin, a haven in Dyfed. {E, Lhvyd)
PoRTH Y Casul, a little creek, some say, on the sea-side, near Celynnog in Arvon, where it is said the cloak landed of its own accord, which Gwenfrewi sent by the tide as a present to Beuno, and the water was so compliant to it that it came quite dry. (Tradition.)
Forth Cleis, a small creek on St. David's Head, Pembroke- shire, where Grufifydd ap Cynan landed with his Irish auxiliaries anno Dom. 1079.
[Forth Cleis, one of the gates of Bangor Iscoed. — W, D.]
Forth Dinlleyn, a harbour in Ileyn, Caernarvonshire, See Tinlleyn.
Forth Eurawg.
PoRTHFAWR Gadw, father of Cadreith. {Tr. 15.)
Forth Largy, Waterford. (Camden in Waterford.)
Forth SinicrIn, a place near Caerllion ar Wysg, where a curious coflSn, etc., was found. (E. Ilwyd, Notes on Camden.)
Forth Skeweth. (Camden, Britannia, in Monmouthshire.) Marianus calls it Forth Skith, and says Harold built a fort
there in the year 1065, which the Welsh immediately, under the conduct of Caradoc, overthrew. (Camden,) Eect6 Porth Yscewyn. See Tscewyn.
PoETH Wyddno yn y Gogledd (Triad), one of the three princi- pal seaports in the Britains' dominions after the Saxon conquest of Loegria, the other two being Porth Wygyr and Porth Yscewyn. {Triad 5.)
Porth Wygyr ym M6n (Tr, 5), one of the three principal ports in Britain, probably Beaumaris. See Givygyr river.
Porth Ychen, near Llanelian in Anglesey, where Elian landed in his voyage from Rome, with his men and oxen and team (wSdd) and all his effects. (Om, Qwyn in Elian's Leg. N. 3.)
Porth Yscewyn : see Yscewyn, etc.
Porthaethwy, the ferry to and from Anglesey, near Bangor ; recti Porth Ddaethwy, or Daethwy's Port, as appears from Din- daethwy, one of the six commots of Anglesey, which signifies Daethwy's fort or castle.
Porthaml, in Anglesey (q. d. Portus Bmilius ?) ; also Porth- ami on the river Wysg,
Blodan gwyr dean blodeayn Porthaml Wrth ymyl y Peutjn. — Rhis, lonoerth,
PoRTiNLLANE, rightly Porthdinlleyn, a harbour in Caernarvon Bay. See Lleyn, North Wales.
Post Prydain, an epithet given to some great generals of the Britons who fought valiantly against the Saxons on their first coming to Britain. Urien Eeged hath this epithet also given him by Ily warch HSn :
Llary udd llywiai wlad
Pen post Prydain ryallad, etc. — Mar, Urien Beged,
And Gr. ap Mad. ap Mredydd by Llygad Gwr :
Post Prydain nrddain wrdd gyhyssed Penyadur llafndur llaw egored. — LI, G.
See Pdbo Post Prydain.
Pothon (Y). Davydd ap y Pothon o Benllyn. His right name was Davydd, a grandson of Bhiryd Flaidd.
Powell. David Powell, Doctor of Divinity, vicar of Ehiw- fabon in Denbighshire, published Giraldus Cambrensis' Itinera^
rivm Cambrioe and Ponticus Virannius with notes, and also Caradoc's Chronicle of the Princes of Wales with some addi- tions, in which he hath shewed great learning and a considerable knowledge in our antiquities.
Po^s, wrote also Py wys, and not Pow^s or Powis, once a principality of Wales, and about A.D. 1190 divided into Powys Vadog and Powys Wenwynwyn. It once extended eastward to the rivers Dee and Severn, with the country between Wy and Severn, and in a line from Broxen Hills to Salop ; but after making Offa's Ditch, and the Saxons and Normans gaining the plain country towards Salop, it extended from Pulford Bridge^ north-east, to the confines of Cardiganshire at Llangurig, souths west ; and in breadth, from the west part of Cyfeiliog to Els- mere, east Uywarch H6n admitted to Powys after his expul- sion by the Saxons from his country, calls it Powys Parad^ys Gymiy.
Ynys Bowys in Llangranog, Glamorganshire. See Dinas Bywys, [Denys, daughter of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. — W. D!\
PowTS Castle, anciently two castles within the same walls. The Lord of Powis and Baron Dudley. {Camden.) Built^ or begun to be built, by Cadwgan ap Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, A.D. 1109. Camden caUs him a renowned Briton because he sided with the King of England.
Gwenwjn yn amwyn am dir breiniawl Po^ys ai diflfwys a'i glwys a glyw ei bawl.
Ein, ap Gtrgavm^ i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Dwyn y byd yma dan bwys
Dwyn byw dynion o Bowys. — H. KUan.
Powys wen wlad Vroohfaol.— CynddelWf i Yw. Cyfeiliog.
Powys Vadog contained Cantref y Barwn, Cantref y Rhiw, Cantref Uwchnant, Cantref Trefred, and Cantref Ehaiadr. (Price, Descr,)
Powys Wenwynwyn contained Cantref y Fymwy, Cantref Ystlyc, Cantref Uyswynaf, Cantref Cydewen, and Cantref Cynan. (Price, Descr.)
Pbadwen (n. pr. v.).
Pradwen imp para* dyn yw. — 0. Ghcynedd.
Prawst (n. pr. foem.). Prawst veroh Elisseu oedd fam Gynan {MS,) a Llywelyn ap Seisyllt. Trawst, says Caradoc in Edwal,
Pbedur, the 31st King of Britain.
Predur Tbirnoo.
Prestetonb, in Doomsday Book^ Cheshire, corruptly for Prys- tatyn, a village in Englefield, manor of Shuddlan.
Priaf (n. pr. v.), Priamus. Sibli Ddoeth oedd ferch i Briaf frenhin. (MS,) — Br&uddwyd a Phroplvyydoliaeth Sibli,
Priodawr, an ancient Celtic word, literally proprista/rivs, Coel Godebog, priodawr o'r Gogledd. Elidir Mwynvawr, priod- awr o'r Gogledd. {MS,) These were Northern Britons who had great property in North Britain ; and this term priodarvr, or proprietor, seems to be a local word among the Pictish Britons ; whence priodi, to marry, is to make a person one's property; from hence, perhaps, praetor. Anciently wrote jprio^, priotatvr. See Owledig and Oavyr,
Prydain, Prydein, Pryden, one of the ancient British names
of the Isle of Britain. Camden's account of the name of this
island is this, — that the Greeks called it Albion {Pliny) ; that
it seems to have been so called by the Greeks in a fanciful
humour, from Albion the son of Neptune, as Perrot and lil,
Giraldus have before observed; that the British poets call it
Inis Wen (Selden, Annot Polyolb,, p. 20) ; that Orpheus, in his
ArgonatUics, if they be his, call the island next Ireland, White
Land. In the old Parodia against Yentidius Bassus it is called
Insula CertUi, i, e., the green or blue island, — Glas Ynys, which
has an affinitv with the old name Clas in the Triades, So
Claudian says of it,
cujns vestigia verrit
Prosper Aquitanus calls it the Roman Island, and Gildas hints at that name ; that it was a presidial, but never proconsular ; that the name Samothea, from Samothes, sixth son of Japhet, is borrowed of Annius Viterbiensis' forged Berosus ; that it is probable the natives were called Brit or Brith in the old bar- barous language, by a Greek verse which passes under the name of Sibyl (see M)rrddin'3 Ghwibleian) ; that Procopius calls this island Britia ; that in ancient inscriptions set up by the Britons
themselves we read Brito^ Britones> Brittus ; that the Saxons called the Britons Bpitraj-, particularly Witichund^ through his whole History, useth the word BritsB ; and the word Brith^ in the ancient language of this island, signifies anything that is painted or coloured over with various colours ; that in the names of almost all the ancient Britons there appears some imitatioB of a colour, as Cogidunus, from coch, etc. ; that Isidore says Britannia came from a word of the inhabitants. So Mr. Camden concludes Britannia came from Brith and Tania, a Greek word, found in an old glossary, for a region (which Gasaubon is not satisfied with, and says it is a mistake of glossographers for tainia, a slip of land). Lucretius and Gs^sar have named it Britannia, and they are the first of the Latins [that] make men- tion of it.
This is all Mr. Gamden says of it ; and Gasaubon, in the room of Brith-tania, would have the name come firom the British word brydio, to warm, to boil, because the seas boil and are more out- rageous than other seas ; but this hath no foundation in truth, for they are not warmer or more outrageous.
Mr. Humphrey Lloyd derives it from Pryd Cain, quAccording to the most ancient Irish antiquities [antiquaries ?] Britain was so called from Brittan, son of Fergus Fitz Nemech, formerly called Inis Mdr, agreeable to Aristides' Insula Magna, whereof Selden in if are Clausum, (See Ogygia, p. 11, 12, 66, 170.)
Our British* traditions say it was called by one Brutus Ynys Brtit, i. e., Brut Ynys, and hence Britannia ; and afterwards Prydain by Prydain ab Aedd Mawr, who conquered it.
Pkydelaw Menestyr Gwallgofiad, one of the oflacers that came with Elidir Mwynfawr in his North Wales expedition against Bhun ap Maelgwn. (Tr, if. 1.)
Fryderi ap Dolor Deini oDdeifr a Brynaich (Durham, qu. ?); wrote also Pryder. He was one of the strong cripples. (2V. 21.)
Pryderi, mab Pwyll Amwyn, un o'r tri gwrddfeichiad (TV. 30), arglwydd ar saith gantref Dyfed. Tir Pryderi in Bro GadelL {D. ap Oioilym,) Pan ladded Pryderi yn Arfon a Gwrgi yn Ngwanas. {M8. D. Jones,)
Ydd wyf prydems fal Pryderi.
Einion ap Qtocdchmai, to Nest ferch Howel (probably
daughter of Howel ap Ow. Owynedd). See Mahinogi.
Prydu ap Braint Hir ap Nevydd ap Geraint.
Prydwen, the name of King Arthur's shield. {Tyssilio.)
Prydydd, the common acceptation of the word now is a poet ; but it seems to have been, among the ancients, the title of a branch or class of the bards whose business it was to keep an account of time in verse. The word is derived from pryd, time ; and prydydd is literally a chronicler, as darllenydd is reader, sgrifennydd, a writer, etc. Prydu, among the poets about the Norman conquest, was to sing and record praises. So Gr. Gryg to D. ap Gwilym.
Sir John Price, in his Defence of the British History y guesses that the name of the Druides might come from the word Pry- duides, by which he means poets or bards ; but his pryduides, though ingenious enough, is a made word from prydydd, pi. pi'ydyddion, and hath nothing in it of Druides.
Prydyn, a name given to North Britain or Scotland by the provincial Britons and Eomans when inhabited by those stout Britons who would not yield to the Boman yoke, and were called painted Britons, or Picts, who are there still, mixed with the Irish Scots, etc. In the Notitia, Britannia Minor.
.Prys Dolffyn, nomen loci in Mona and Flintshire.
Pryseddfod or Prysaddfed, nomen loci in Mona.

Pbys Iorwekth, nomen loci in Mona.
Prystatyn or Prestatyn, a commot and castle in Tegengl, A.D. 1167. {Oaradoc; Price's Bescr,)
Prysgaga or Prysgageu, in Cardiganshire.
Prysglwyn, nomen locL
Pryslygod, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.) Lloyd's.
Prysefel, nomen loci in Mona.
Prysor. CasteU Prysor in the parish of Trawsfynydd, sup- posed by Mr. Edward Ilwyd to have been built by the Bomans, but gives no reasons for it. {Notes on Camden,)
PuLESTON, enw lie, qu. ? John o Puleston ; hinc Pilstwn.
PuMLUMON Mountain, rightly Plymlumon, fipom plwm, i.e,, lead, with which that country abounds; a high mountain on the east border of Ceretica. [Pumlumon, five standards or five beacons. — L M.]
PwLL is a British word used in the composition of the names of places in Wales and Cornwall ; signifies a pool of water. PwU y Crochan ; PwU PUlo ; PwU y Tarw, etc.
PwLL river. Aberpwll, near Moel y Donn, Caemarvonshire.
PwLL Halog (nomen loci).
PwLL Cynffig, in Glamorgan, a town swallowed, as tradition has it.
PwLL Gwyngyll, a place in Anglesey ; hence Llanvair PwU Gwyngyll, church and,parish.
PwLL Cynan, the west boundary of Morganwg, or lordship of Glamorgan, when taken by the Normans. {Dr. Fowel, p. 122.)
PwLL GWTTIG (n. 1.). Here a battle was fought by Trahaem ap Caradoc, King of North Wales, with Rhys ap Owen with all the power of South Wales, where Ehys and his brother Howel were defeated, and at last taken and killed, to revenge the death of Bleddyn ap Cynvyn, a.d. 1075. {Oaradoc in Trahaem.)
PwLL Ceris (nomen loci) : see Ceris.
Pwllheli, a seaport in Lleyn, Caernarvonshire. Qu. whether Pwll Eli, and that the river from the west was called Eli ?
PwLL Ffanogl, a creek in the river Menai in Anglesey.
PwMTFRED {MS,), Pomfret. A dorresid ei ben gerUaVr Pwm- ffred.
Pwyll (n. pr. v.).
PwYLL Amwtn, father of Pryderi. {Tr. 30.)
PWYLL GWTDDEL (n. pr. V.).
PwYLL Pendefig Dyfed ap Casnar Wledig. {MaJnnogi.)
PwYLL or Y PwYL, Poland. {R. Vaughan)
PwYLiAiD, Polanders.
PwYTH Meinlas, where Caesar first landed in Britain.
Pybyb ap Caper ap Puder ap Stradwar ap Pandwlph ap Cyn- wlph.
Pyctas, the name of certain light skiffs, or scouting vessels (or, as we now call them, tenders), among the ancient Britons mentioned by 11. Vegetius {Be Be MilU., 1. iv, c. 37). They had about twenty rowers, and attended the bigger sort of pinnaces, or, as now called, men of war. Their sails, and even the saUors' clothes, were dyed of a sea-green, that they might approach the enemy imdiscovered, and so make sudden attacks and intercept transport, etc. This word, in some copies of Vegetius, is wrote pictas and picates; and in the old French translations of Vege- tius it is picaces and pigaces ; and it is Godeschalius Stewechius' opinion on this place, that they were called pincas, for that as this day in Britain and Holland such vessels are called pinks or een pinke. What a beating about the bush there is here about the name of a kind of vessel ! The English and Dutch, who are Germans, may lay claim to the word een pinke, but the ancient British tongue hath it not. Vegetius was a Constantinopolitan, and lived about the year 386, just on the decline of the Boman empire in Britain ; therefore he must mean these British ships of war belonged to the Northern Pictish Britons who infested the Soman or Southern Britains with their shipping. (Selden, Mare Olaus,, p. 229.) What is more natural than for a Koman to call the small craft of the Picts, which were really coloured sea-green, pyctas i The Bomans in Britain (or, if you please to call them Southern Britons who were really Boman) called them so ; and they also called those stout Northern Britons who refused the Boman yoke Pidi, because they painted themselves, though these Britains called themselves in their own language Brython, as appears by the works of Myrddin Wyllt, who was a Caledonian Pict» and whose poems are imderstood to this day in Wales, where he ended his days. There is no great conjuratiou
then to find that Fyctas or Pictas was a British Latin or bastard Latin name given by the Eoman party to the tenders or privateers of the Pictish Northern Britons who gave them so much trouble. The very account of their dyeing their sails and clothes shews it. Vegetius says the Romans observed these Britons called them Pictds ; i. e,, the provincial Britons called them so in Latin, which was the common language then among the Eoman Britons, or else a mongrel mixture of Latin and British.
Pydew, a draw-well, an appellative for water in the name of some places. Pydew, in Creuddyn, etc.
Pyll, a son of Llywarch Hen, killed in battle : hence Pylli, nomen loci in Cardiganshire. Pyll, father of Gweir. {Oaradoc^
Pymer, King of Loegria in the time of the Pentarchy and confusion, the 20th King after Brutus.
Pyr, the 67th King of Britain ; Latinized Pymis. Maenor Byrr ; and Ynys Byrr, Caldey in Penbrokeshire, from Pyr, abbot of a monastery on that island.
Pywyk Lew ap Bwydeg.
Ragat, a place in Meirion. See Oaer Beged.
Ranullt (verch Reinallt brenin Manaw) oedd fam Wladua verch Gr. ap Llewelyn ap lorwerth Drwyndwn.
Reget : vid. Mwreyf and Urien Beged.
Regni, a people of Loegria.
Regnum, qu. Yr Hengwm ?
Reinallt ap Meuric ap Rhys.
Reiol (Plas) Ynghaerd^: qu. an id. palace royal?
Reweniov, in Doomsday Book, Cheshire ; corruptly wrote for Ekyfoniog. " Robertus tenet de rege Ros et Reweniov'', i, e., Rhos and Rhyfoniog.
Read Vach : see Bhaiadr Bach,
Rhaeadb, a cataract (from rhtto, qu. rJmaddivfr, i, e,, roaring water).
Rhaolan, a church and parish [and castle — Wl D.] in Mon- mouthshire. Y Llys yn Rhaglan; Neuadd Rhaglan; et hinc denomin. Robert Rhaglan.
Rhaiabr, a cantref in Powys Vadog, containing Moclinant is Ehaiadr, Cynllaeth, and Nanheudwy. (Price, Dea'cr,)
Bhaiadr Bach ap Asser neu Arseth.
Bhaiadr Gwy, a town in Eadnorshire, on the river Gwy ; i, e,, the Cataract of Gwy. The castle built by Lord Eees, a.d. 1178.
Ehaudr Mochnam' : see Pistyll Bhaiadr.
Ehain ap Brychan Brycheiniog. Mae iddo deml ym Manaw.
Rhat ap Asser ap Hedd Molwynog.
Ehedyn. Mynachlog yr Ehedyn or Yr Hedyn, the ruins of a small monastery or cell of monks on the land called Bryn y Oe/eiliau, near Bettws Llanfihangel in Eryri, on the river Conwy.
Ehedynog Velen (Y), nomen loci in Caernarvonshire. Ehed- ynog is Feliceus, See Tal y Bhedynog,
Eheged or Beget (n. L), a country in the north of Britain ; Latin, Regedia. (E. Zlwyd,) Called also Mwreyf, where, in the time of Uthur Bendragon, Urien Eeged was Prince. His son, Owen ap Urien Eeged, was one of King Arthur's great oflBcers. His country was given to Urien ap Cynfarch by Arthur, says Tyssilio. This Mwreyf is called by Galfrid Murefrensium.
Gwae Reged o heddy w.
Llywarch Hen, in Urien Beged's Elegy.
Tir Eeged. (Grorhofifedd ff. ap 0. Owynedd)
Ehei, or Bhai, gwraig Gyrthmwl. {Llywarch EeUy Marwnad Cynddylan.)
Eheidiol (fl.), in Cardiganshire, rises in Plumlumon, and, taking in several rivers, falls into the sea near Aberystwyth. It is wrote also Eheidiawl.
Llewychedig Uafn yn Haw reddfawl
Yn lladd dy wrthladd i wrth Lys Bheidiawl.
Einion ap Gwgan^ i L. ap lorwerth.
Eheiniad : vid. Owyndda Rheiniad, {Tr, M. 1.) Eheon and Ehyd Been.
Nend gweigion Arfon is Rheon Byd.
Qwilym Ddu^ to Sir Gr. Llwyd.
Bhial, enw Ue yn swydd Fflint.
Bhiarot Y Eram, some noted king-at-arms or herald^ to
whom (it was remarkable that) two Princes, Llew Llawgyffes and Gwdion, applied for names and arms. (TV. 77.) In Trioedd y Meirch, No. 5, this man is Bahawt eil Morgant.
Shidian. Llanridian, Glamorganshire. There are fiEiirs kept here.
Ehiengab, daughter of liuddocca ap Cariadog Freichfras. {J. R)
Rhiengar, verch Brychan, mam Geinydr Sant.
Ehieinwg : see Ereinwc.
Ehin, river, the Rhine in France. Morrinwyr, the Morini, that inhabited between the Rhine and the sea.
Mn film jn nhre'r Rhin Yn darllen Ilyfran Mjrddin.
Ehineri (n. pr. v.). Rhineri fab Tangwn, one of the tri gwrdd- faglawg ; qu. strong crooks ?
Ehionydd (n. pr.). Penrhyn Rhionydd yn y Gogledd, where the north coronet or talaith (diadem) was wore under the crown of London. {Tr, 2.) Edinburgh. See Din Eiddyn, This is the same with Penrhyn Rhianedd and Castell y Morwynion, t.e., the Castle of Virgins. Penrhyn Rhionedd, the seat of the Princes of Cumbria. {K Llwyd,)
Rhibyd Flaidd, a noted warrior in the time of Owein Gwyn- edd. Prince of Wales. He was lord of Pennant. {Oynddelw, i Eiryd Flaidd.)
Pnodawr Pennant pennaf achelwr
Uchelwyr vodrydafc
Mae yn vlaidd am car, etc. — Oynddelw.
Llin Bind glendid glander. — 0. LL M.
Vid. Garmon a Blaidd,
[Ehisgae, in Monmouthshire, the Welsh Gotham, He hynod am ffyliaid. Odid nad prydyddion ydjoit oil y trigolion, os gwir y chwedlau digrifon y siaxedir am danynt. Un o honynt yw lolo.— /. M.]
Rhitta Gawr, a Prince mentioned in BriU y BrerJdnoedd. He seems to have been a freebooter or pillager on the marches towards Scotland. The story is, he had a cap made of the beards of the princes or great men he had conquered, which be had
flayed and sewed together ; and had left room for the beard of Arthur to crown it, as he was the chief of kings. So in a bravado he sent a message to Arthur to flay his beard, and to send it him, or else to come and fight him hand to hand, end whoever should get the day should have the other's beard and cap. Accordingly King Arthur accepted the challenge, and gained the prize. (Tymlio.) This and some other passages in the British history, where there is mention of the word caivr, was by Galfrid into Latin translated {ffigds) a giant, whereas the meaning of the word among the ancient Britons was a prince or a man of great power ; and by being ridiculously worded, hath given them the air of fable ; whereas it is no more improbable that Arthur (the Prince of the Britons that had been lately Eoman provin- cials) should fight Rhitta, a Pictish Prince, in a single combat, than that the great Canute, who was King of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, should fight Edmund Ironside the Saxon in sight of both their armies ; and a challenge of this nature hath been in the time of Henry VIII, between the King of Prance and the Emperor of Germany.
Rhiw, an ancient Celtic word in the composition of the names of places in Britain. It signifies high ground qr side of a bank. " Cadw dithau'r rhiw", says Llywarch Hen to his son in the battle ; i.e., keep the upper ground. Ehiw Gyferthwch yn Eryri (TV. 30) ; Ehiw 'r Saeson, Montgomeryshire ; Ehiw Leding ; Ehiw Arthen. In the Greek, rhion (fiu)v) signifies the top of a mountain or promontory. In the Latin, rupes is a steep bank or rock.
Ehiw (Y), a cantref in Powys Vadog, containing the commots of lal, Ystrad Alun, and Hope.
Ehiw Dydrnwy.
A mi ddisgoganaf gwaith Machawy Adfydd geloraa rhydd yn Bhiw Dydrnwy.
Hoiane Myrddin.
Emw Felen [Llywarch Hen), a mountain or high land near Llangollen, where Gwell ap Llywarch Hen was buried.
Ehiw Eeddgain, mentioned by Einion ap Gwgawn in Canu i Lywelyn ap lorwerth.
Ehiw Hirieth, a gentleman's seat (J. D) See Hirieth afon.
Ehiw'r Hyddod. {6. Olyn, i Hywel.)
Ehiw Tanad, the house or monastery of Ehys Abad Ystrad
♦ Awn hyd yno a'n dilyno i
A'n rhaid tjno yn Khiw Tanad.
O. Glyn^ i Bys Abad.
Ehiw y Caws. Aberrhiw y Caws.
Ehiwabon, rect6 Ehiw Fabon, a town in Denbighshire; ■
church and parish, vicarage. See BMw, \
EhiwalaIiLT {Price's Descr,), one of the commots of Cantref Melienydd, between Wy and Severn. Qu. whether Ehiwlsdlt ?
Ehiwallon ap Cunedda, the 13 th King of Britain.
Ehiwallon ap Dingad. i
Ehiwallon Wallt Banhadlen, one of the tri deifniog Tnys Prydain. {Tr. 10.)
Ehiwallon ap Urien, yn ymladd a'r Saeson. {Tr, 49.) In some battle this Ehiwallon fought with the Saxons. His men tied their feet together by pairs, resolving to die or keep the '
field. {Tr. 49.) See also Serigi. j
Ehiwallon Eurhualog. This Ehiwallon and the other two Eurhualog, or golden-fettered (which were Ehun ap Maelgwn and Cadwaladr the Blessed), were so taU that no horses high enough could be got for them without their using a kind of stirrups made of gold chains, and a pan of gold for the knee. {Tr, 22.) I
Ehiwddolion, a place between Bettws and DolMryddelen* Here is a stone called Carreg yr Ysgrifen, with these letters, as D. Jones says, luz.
Ehiwedog, rectfe Ehiw Waedog, in Meirion.
Ehiwlallt, nomen loci, (i. 0. Cothi.)
Ehiwlas, a gentleman's seat, Meirion.
Prysur hael Prys o'r Bbiwlas. — leuan Tew. Ehodni Eiver. Aber Ehodni, and not Hodni, which see, qu. ?
Bhif lenan ddwylan ddeiliad
Ehyd jnglynn Bhodni yngwiad.
Llewelyn Oock y Bant, Aber hydr-aer Ehodni.
Pnjdydd y Mochy i Lywelyn.
Glyn Ehodni, one of the four commots of Pennythen in Mor- gan wg : so there may be Hodni and Ehodni.
[Bhodni, a liver of Glamorgan. Olyn Ehodni in Glamorgan. — /. M.]
Ehodri, generally translated in Latin Eodericus (n. pr. v.).
Ehodri Mawr, or Eoderick the Great, King of Wales, famous for dividing Wales between three of his sons. He was son of Esyllt, daughter of Cynan Tindaethwy. He was killed in a battle with the Saxons in Anglesey, a.d. 876 ; and also Gwyriad, his brother.
Ehodei Molwynog, son of Idwal Iwrch, son of Cadwaladr, King of Britain, who reigned in Cornwall and Devon about thirty years, smd tiU about the year 750, and then was drove by the Saxons to Wales. He was father of Cynan Tindaethwy.
Ehodygeidio, the parish of Ceidio, in Anglesey. See Ceidio,
Ehoddvyn, the river Ehone in Gaul, in Latin Ehodanus, k rJiedec, says Camden. What river doth not run ?
Ehoddwydd. Castell y Ehodwydd in lal, built by 0. Gwyn- edd, A,D. 1149.
Ehoddwydd Arderyd, a place in Scotland, where a great battle was fought in the civil war between Ehydderch Hael and the more northern Picts and Aeddan Fradwg. This battle was seventeen years after the death of Arthur, a.d. 557 {Aer. Oamh.), when all Britain was in confusion. It was occasioned by a trifle mentioned in the Triades, Hoiane Myrddin, etc.
Ehoet ap Donet ap Tudwal.
Ehomani, the Eomans.
Teymedd anrhyfedd eu cynnyfeddi
Gwyddyl a Brython a Rhomani. — Hoian, Myrddin,
Ehonabwy (n. pr. v.). Breuddwyd Ehonabwy. {Zly/r Coch o Hergest)
Ehonech, Island {Capgrave in the Life of St. Cadoc) ; perhaps Caldey. Qu. ?
Ehon Gymynian, the name of King Arthur's glaifov billhook, which broad hatchet, and hi^ sword called Caledfwlch, and his shield on his shoulder, called Prydwen, are his arms described by Tyssilio, in his first battle against the Saxons.
Ehonwbn, the Saxon Princess called by Verstegan Rowenna, but by the Triades Rhonwen. It is remarkable that Kennius doth not give us her name, and only says she was the fair daughter of Hengist, and that she served King Gwrtheym with wine and strong drinks till she made him drunk, and he was with love of her; but Verstegan proves, out of Utilapius, a German, that she was not Hengistus's daughter, hut his niece ; and one of our British poets says as much, and that she was the daughter of Hors :
A Bhonwen ferch yr hen Hors
T rhiain, ferch yr hen Fors.
She is also, by the British poets, called the general mother of the English, whom they call HU Bhonwen and Llwyth Shonwen and Plant Shonwen.
A chrog Lwyth Bhonwen wrth ganghenuan Ac ennyn tewyn yn eu teiaa. — L. 01. Cothi,
Drwy dal yr arth drwyadl wenn
T tr^onnir Plant Bhonwen. — D. LI, ap LI, op Oruffydd.
Jo. Major {Eist. Scot.) calls her Bonouen.
BHds is a British word used in the composition of several names of places in Britain. From hence comes Boss, a town in Herefordshire; and Boose, a cantref in Penbrukeshire, inha- bited by Flemings; and abundance of places in Wales and CornwalL The word signifies, at present, a wet, splashy, heathy ground, and so Dr. Davies also translates it. Such grounds are Rhos Vadog, Bhos Lligwy, Ehosdre Hwfe, Bhos y Gaer, Bhos Widol, Bhos y Bhiw, Bhos Gellan, etc. But anciently the word Bhos had another sense, and signified something like the Latin ni8, a plain, inhabited, arable country. Such are the countries before mentioned, of Bhos in Penbrokeshire, Bhos in Hereford- shire, and Bhos in Denbighshire. Llanelian yn Bhos ; Llan- drillo'n Bhos ; Eglwys Bos, etc., churches and parishes in that district or deanery. Bhoscolun, or Colyn, or, as some say, Colofn. Bhosaur, Bhossir, or Bhoss]^', Newborough. Bhosbeirio Church, Anglesey. Boss-shire in Scotland. Bhosnant in Dyfed. (Irish History, etc.)
[ISiivs, in Glamorganshire, is a fine plsdn, very fertile, and
may be esteemed not only one of the best parts of the county, but of the islcmd of Britain. Bh4b8 is masculine ; BJids, femi- nine. — /. M.]
Ehos, a cantref in Penbrokeshire, called by the Flemish inha- bitants Boose. It contains three commots, XJwch Dulas, Is Dnlas, and Creuthyn, (Price, Descr,)
Bhosmanach, a place in Anglesey, near Dulas; so named, probably, from monks, being near the famous collegiate church or monastery of Elian Sant. See Bosmanach and Pedrog.
Ehosser, I suppose the same with Soger. (J)r. Dames, p. 162.)
Bhossiel, Bochel in France.
Bwrw Bhossiel ar win melys
Ni fwriwyd trai ar ford 'Rhjs.'^Hywel Dq/ydd,
• ^^
Bhosstr, Bhosir, Bhossir, Bhosvair, Bhosaur, Bhosair, and Ehoshir, Newborough in Anglesey. The Englyn produced by Mr. E. Llwyd in his notes on Camden's Anglesey proves nothing, which shows how little Mr. Llwyd knew of the poetry of the Britons, and their rules to secure the language. The word Bhossyr doth not come within the cynghanedd to make a proof Cantref Bhossyr, one of the three cantrefs of Anglesey, contain- ing the commots of Tyndaethwy and Menai (Price, Descr.)
Bhual, a gentleman's seat. (J. D)
Bhuawn Pefyr ap Gwyddno, un o'r tri eurgelein. {Tr, 63.)
Bhud, qu. ? Sc.
Bhudd (red). Gwgon Gleddyfrudd.
Bhydd Fedel Frych (n. pr. v.).
Bhudd Fedel rhyfel rhyferthwy. — Yw, CyfeUiog.
Bhttddallt. Gruffudd or Bhuddallt, ap Madog Vychan ap Madog GrupL
Bhuddlad Sant. Uanrhuddlad (in Anglesey) Church.
Bhuddlak (& rhvdd and llan, q. d. red place) ; hence the English name Butland or Buddyland. Bhuddlan Tegeingl is the town and castle of Bhuddlan in Flintshire, first built by liew- el}m ap Sitsyllt, Prince of Wales, says Camden. The monastery began to be built ad. 258. {M8,y but qu. ?) At Bhuddlan, in Flintshire, was made the Welsh Statute of Butland in the time of Edward I.
Ymladd Ehuddlan, A.D. 795. Caradog, King of North Wales, waa slain by the Saxons, {CaradoCy p. 20.) Wrote also Eutglan in old MSS.
A Bntglan yn rhutlaw amgant.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Ln. ap lorwerth.
Mr. Camden, in his Britannia, after his description of JRhudd- Ian, gives us the following surprising account ; surprising, indeed, to come from an author who is so apt to charge others with ignorance and fabulous accounts :
" Below this Castle*' (says he) " the river Clwyd is discharged into the sea ; and tho' the valley at the mouth of this river does seem lower than the sea, yet it is never overflown ; but by a natural tho' invisible impediment, the water stands on the very brink of the shore, to our just admiration of Divine Providenca"
One would think that Mr. Camden was asleep when he wrote this, or else that an itch of relating wonders where there are none is natural for the describers of countries. This is worse than Giraldus Cambrensis' one-eyed fish and floating island (Oamden in Caernarvonshire) ; or, indeed, any of Gralfrid's or Nennius' wonders, for they don't apply their wonders to the false admiration of Divine Providence.
Did any river ever run up hill ? K not, why then should he think that the Clwyd did ? But if to the contrary, if the river Clwyd ran down to the sea, through that surprising valley, as all rivers naturally do, must not the valley be higher than the sea ? Then where is the wonder that the sea should stop at high- water mark in this, no more than in the mouth of the Thames ? An author that is so inaccurate in his philosophy is not to be relied upon in relations of this kind. To account for this blunder of Mr. Camden, he stood on a hill when he observed the valley about Vorryd ; and the high waves of the sea beating upon the shore, and rolling back as if some invisible hand had drove them and the sea towards the Isle of Man, making an angle nigher the level of his eye than that of the valley, he concluded, for want of skill in optics, that the valley was lower than the sea. So his eye deceived him because he made no use of his reason. But enough of this.
Bhuddlan Deifi. From rhudd, red, came also Bodrhyddan, a gentleman's seat near Rhuddlan. Bhuddlan (Bwlch), in Perfedd, Cardiganshire.
Yn Rhnddlan degfan Deifi drachas Eingl Yn Rhnddlan Degeingl teg a threfi.
Prydydd y Moch^ i Ld. ap lorwerth.
Rhuddlwm Gawr, some lord or man of power, cotemporary with Coll ap Collfrewy. (Tr. 32.) Hud Rhuddlwm Gawr a ddysgodd i Coll mab Collfrewy. {Tr, 32.)
Ehuawn. Bedd Ehuawn. Bedd Ehuawn Pefr.
Hyd Gkiwmwy vudd rhwy ar fedd Rhnawn.
Manonad Trahaeam,
Rhuddnant, a river in Cardiganshire, runs into Mjmach.
Rhufain, Boma, Rome.
Rhtjfaon ap Cunedda Wledig, who gave name to Rhyfoniog. (Price, Descr)
Ehufawn Pefr (n. pr. v.). Cyfoeth Ehufawn Pefr. (Araith lolo Ooch,)
Ehufawn Pefr, mab Deorarth Wledig, was one of the tri gwyn teym Ynys Prydain. {Tr. 9.)
Ehug or Grug. Llanrug, Caernarvonshire.
Ehun Baladr Bras, the 8th King of Britain, son of Ileon. In his time Caer Paladur, since called Caer Septon (Shaftsbury), was built, where a man called AccioU foretold what would happen to the Britons ; and this man was afterwards by ignorant Latin writers called Aquila, and they feigned that an eagle uttered those prophecies ; and so they were, after them, in the Eomans' time, called by the Britons Prophwydoliaeth yr Eryr o Gaer Septon, neu'r Brophwydoliaeth Fawr, t.e., the Great Prophecy. The Britains paid as great a regard to these prophecies as the Bomans did to the Sibylline Oracles, and the very fate of the nation often depended on them, as appears by Cadwaladr and Alcm, King of Armorica, consulting with this prophecy whether Cadwaladr should return to his kingdom or no, after a vision or a dream he had seen, where an angel ordered him to go to Bome. See Leland, Brit. Script, c. 5 and 6. Leland, following other Latin authors, writes him Eudubrasius Luelli filius, and
Budibracius ; and ignorant transcribers have ridiculously called him Hudibras and Budhudibras ; and it requires a spirit of pro- phecy to find out, i¥ithout other helps^ that this was Bhun Baladr Bras, i.e., Bhun with the thick spear, as all our writers in the British tongue call him.
Bhun ap XJrien Beged was the name of Paulinus, Bishop of
in King Edwin's time, whom he baptized before he under-
' took to preach to the Saxons. He took the name Paulinus at Bome. Bede (L i, c. 9) says Paulinus was ordained Bishop, A.D. 625, by Justus, and he was sent by Eadbald, King of Kent, with Edelbuig his sister, who married Edwin, King of Northumber, to take care of her religion, Edwin being a pagan {Bede) ; and he converted and baptized Edwin. (Nennias, a 65.)
This Bhun ap Urien was brought up in Bome, and was sent by Pope Gregory, in company witl^ Mellitus, Justus, and Bufinus, to assist Augustine ; and, being master of the British language, was a proper person enough.
In one copy of Nennius it is Bimin ap Urb,t.e., S. Paulinus ; an- other, Bim mapUrb; another. Bun mapUrbgen (L.Ooit); another, Bunmap Urbgen ; another, Sanctus Paulinus; another. Bun mep Yris Bechen. Is it not surprising that Dr. Gill, the annotator on Nennius, should be so ignorant as to read this Bun map Urb- gen=Bomanus UrbigensB ? Had he not read in Nennius, in the very chapter, that Hussa fought with four British kings, Urb- gen, Gwallawg, Bhydderch, and Morgant ; and that Urbgen and his sons had fought valiantly with Deodric of Northumbria? And doth not every man, the least acquainted with our British affairs, kncfw that Urien, Gwallawc, Bhydderch, were Princes then on the borders of Scotland ? See Myrddin Wyllt's works, and Ilywarch Hen's, and the Triades ; and they all speak it aloud, Llywarch Hen, in Marwnad Urien, mentions this Bhun which Mr. Edward Ilwyd mistook for Bhun ap Maelgwn, not knowing that Urien had a son of this name.
Bhun ap Predur, the 42nd King of Britain.
Bhun, mab Einiawn, un o'r tri thrahawc, probably ab Urien.
Bhun, mab Beli, un o'r tri rhuddfoawc. (jTr. 25.)
Bhun Byfeddfawr. (TV, 74.)
Bhun ap Maelgwn Gwynedd; hence Caer Bhun, and not
Goer Hen, as some people dream. Bhun ap Maelgwn succeeded his father in the kingdom ; but the Saxons gaining ground, he fixed his court at Diganwy. He being not born in wedlock, EUdir Mwynfawr (priodawr o'r Gogledd), a Prince of North Britain^ landed at Redwharf, in Anglesey, to claim the crown, and was killed at Abernefydd in Caernarvonshire. His relations in the north came with a strong fleet, and landed at the Eifl in Caernarvonshire, and burnt the country from thence to Hergyn, Khun gathered the power of Grwynedd, and met them, drove them to their ships, followed them to Forth Ewerydd (Solway Frith), and defeated them, or made up matters with them; so that his assistance was required, with his victorious army, to expel the Scots and Saxons who encroached upon them. In this afifair he was employed with his army so long, and in enter- tainments and debaucheries after his conquests, that his sol- diers' wives, grown impatient of so long an absence, and pos- sessed with the spirit of jealousy, as they came to understand their husbands preferred other women to them, took their own slaves to their beds, and contracted new marriages. On Bhun's return home with his army they had some difficulty to recover their own habitations ; and in retaliation for their losses, ser- vices, and shames, to his own immediate neighbours and sub- jects, the people of Arvon, he gave certain privileges, to be seen to this day in our ancient MSS. of the law, called Brdniau Owyr Arvon. This was about the year 570 or 80.
Bhuocutm (Ynts), Tanata Insula vel Butupina. The castle built by Gweirydd, King of Britain. (M8) [Bhyothym, Isle of Thanet— JT. D.]
Ehuon and Ehufon (n. v.). — Dr. Davies,
Bhuthun or Ehuthyn, English, Buthin, a town and castle in Denbighshire ; now called a lordship of Bhuthun, which is Dy- ffryn Clwyd, containing three commots. Metenor Bhuthun, a commot of Cantref Pennythen, Morganwg. Bhuthun, a lordship in Glamorgan. {Dr. Powel, p. 122.)
Bhutupy (Ty8sUio),thG seaport where Vespacian first attempted to land in Britain, which I take to be Bye in Kent. But is Bichborow in Kent (Cafnden) ? where there was a common passage over to Porth y Morinwyr in Gaul (Portum Morinoro-
rum — Pliny), called also Gressoriae. Caznden thinks this to be Bolougne.
Bhwth. Llewelyn ap Cynfrig Rwth.
Bhwtdbts Sant, said to be an Irish saint, built a church in Anglesey, Llanrhwydrys.
Ehybrawbt, un o-r tair gwraig Brychan Brycheiniog.
Ehychwyn Sant. Uanrhychwyn, Caernarvonshire.
Ehychwyn Farfog, o Fodolwyn yn KhSs. Ehychwin, ait Dr. Da vies.
Rhychwain, o Fodrychwain : qu. an id. ?
Bhtd^ used in names of places, and signifies a ford. Rhyd Nug (n. 1.) ; Bhyd Gariadog in Mon ; Rhydcors, a castle in South Wales ; Rhyd yr Efail ; Rhyd Fadog ; Y Forryd ; liechryd ; Rhyd y Cerrig Gwynion ; Rhyd Foyr, Carmarthenshire ; Rhyd- wygyr ; Rhyd y Gyfartha, Anglesey ; Rhyd y Carw, a gentle- man's seat. {J. D)
Rhyd Foblas. (Zlywarch Hen.)
Ar Rhyd Forlas y lias Qw^n.—Ll Hen. See Marias.
Rhyd Gogh (Y), a place frequented by wood-rovers in the time of leuan Sew [Tew ?], who wrote in praise of them for their civility to some telynorion,
Rhyd ye Halen, in Ffestiniog parish. Qu. whether on the river Halen or Elen ?
Rhyd Helyg, or Rhyd Helyg ar Wy, Willowford upon Wy. (Price, Descr.)
Rhyd Owain, a gentleman's seat. (letban Deulwyn)
Rhyd Pencarn : vid. Pencam,
Rhyd Rheon. Cynadl Rhyd Rheon. {Afalle7iau Myrddin)
A gread adar gar Gaer Rheon. — Hoi, Myrddin,
Rhydion ap Eidol, the 64th King of Britain.
Rhydodyx, or Rhyd Edwin, a gentleman's seat, Caermarthen- shire.
Rhydwygyr, a place in Anglesey, on the river Gwygyr.
Rhydychen, Oxford; Galena or Caleva; Lat. Rhedycina; should be in English called Oxenford, and not Oxford. [Owse- ford, from Isis, the river. — W. D."]
Rhydd, or Rhudd, or Ruthyn ; hence Llanrhudd or Uanrhydd Church (St. Meugan), Denbighshire. (B. WiUia)
Rhydderch (n. pr. v.), a very ancient name ; Latinized Rode- ricus ; but I think wrong, for the name is derived from rydd, &ee, or at liberty, and erch, terrible. See Nennius in Hussa.
Rhydderch ap Rhydion, the 65th King of Britain.
Rhydderch Hael, a Prince of the North Britons about the year 560 {Tr. 46) ; i.6., Rhydderch the (Jenerous or Free. He is often mentioned in Myrddin Wyllt's works, and also in the 2Via£fe5,46,74 The civil war between him and Aeddan Vradwg, another northern Prince, was occasioned by a trifle, — such a trifle as a lark's nest {Tr, 40) ; un o'r tair ofergad, i.e., one x)f the three trifling wars.
Dysgl a Qren Bhydderch was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. The meat and drink that was required in this dish would be there in an instant, so he kept an open house. I sup- pose this was his great common hall dish, which was kept in memory of his generosity, where there was nothing refused that was desired or called for. Vide Eluned.
As Rhydderch HaePs palace was at Alclud, a city of the Stratclwyd Britons, by Tr. 6, and Myrddin in the Forest of Celyddon, it seems that was in Rhydderch's territories. All to the Grampus Mountain was called Caledonia ; from hence Cul- loden, where the battle was fought.
Angharad Ton Felen, merch Rhydderch. {Tr. 74)
Rhyddry, parish, Glamorganshire. [Rhyd-tref, plwyf y Rhyt- tre, vulgo. — L Jf.]
Rhyddwyn or Rhuddwyn,* a mountain. {Arch, Brit, p. 262.) Rhyddwyn a Myvyr a Berwyn.
Rhyfoniog, or Rhyvonioc, one of the five cantrefs of Berfedd- wlad, containing the commots of Uwchaled and Isaled in Den- bighshire (Price, Deacr) ; so named from Rhufawn ap Cunedda Wledig. Rhyvonioc was seized upon by Egbert, King of West- sex, A.D. 817, and destroyed the country as far as Snowden ; and a battle fought near Beaumaris, at Llanvaes.
Rhygenydd or RmaENYDD (n. pr. v.). Dysgl Ragenydd Ysgol- haig, one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. This is also attri- buted to Rhydderch. See Eluned and Bhydderch Hdd,
Ehyqyn. Coed y Rhygyn, a house in the parish of Traws Fynydd in Meirion.
Ehymni, river (Camden, Britannia), and Rhymny.
Rhyothym (Ynys), the Isle of Thanet. Rhiothim was a Prince in Armorica on the first coming of the Franks to GauL Vid. Vertot.
Rhts (n. pr. v.) ; Latin, Rhesus. {Dr. Dames.) Noted poets of this name were Rhys Groch o Eryri ; Rhys Meigen ; Rhys Nanmor o Faenor Fynyw, an. 1460. Soldiers : Sir Rhys ap Tomas, that brought in Henry VII ; Rhys ap Tewdwr ; Rhys ap Gruflfudd, Prince of Wales. In some MSS. it is wrote Rhfts. Rhys Gryg, called also Rhys Vychan ap Rhys ap Tewdor Mawr. See Meddygon MyddfaL
Rhts, son of Gorboniawn, the 37th King of Britain. Camden writes it Rhese, and he says they think it derived from Rhesus in Homer. Rhyswr, in British, is a hero.
Rhystoo, enw Ue, Brecknockshire. (0. LI. Moel.)
Marohog yr Tstog ar iau Mae dy Iwyth am daleithiau.
v. ofp LI. Moelf i Gad. ap Gr. o Rystog.
Rhtsttd (Sant) ap HoeL Llanrhystyd in Cardiganshire, where was a castle built by Cad. ap Gr. ap Cynan, 1148.
Rhywawt ail Morgan, un o'r tri gogyfurdd, {Tr. 89.) One of the three trifling poets. {Tr. 18.*) Probably the same name with Reuchidus in Nennius^ c. 65. A Bishop in Nennius' time, but not the same person.
RiCAKT ap Einion ap Cynfrig.
RiGUALLON, wrote anciently for Rhiwallon {E. Hwyd), to retain the etymology from rhi and gwaUon. So Myngwy for Mjmwy (it myn and gwy).
RoBYN ap Gr. Goch. It is not the same with Robert nor Rot- bert. Hence Robinson.
RoELENT, in Doomsday Book, corruptly fol* Rhuddlcm in Flint- shire. " Hugo Comes de Lege Bodent ibi tempore Regis Edwardi jacebat Englefield ; castelli c[uod Boelent vocatur et caput est hujus terrsB ; ad hoc manerium Boelmt, jeu^nt h88 Barewichss'', etc. This about the year 1083.
BOGIADE, a manor in the county of Monmbuth. RoRE (n. pr. f.), daughter of Usher, iin o'r tair gwrforwyn, i.e., hermaphrodite. (JV. 64.) [JKAare, a virago, in Glamorgan. — I.M^
EOTBEBT, qu. ?
EowLiNG ap Grufifudd ap Dafydd.
EuG, a gentleman's seat, Merrion.
EuTHiN, one of the mesne lordships of Morganwg. {Powdl.)
Eymny Bridge, the east end of Morganwg on the river Ehymni. (Dr. Pawdl)
[Tthymni Eiver divides Oihwyr in Glamorgan from OwaurUlwg in Monmouthshire. It is otherwise called A/an Eleirch, and the parish and village oi Ehymni called most commonly Treddeirch. —I. M.]
Rympyn (fl.) in South Wales {Powell), where Mredydd, King of South Wales, was slain by Caradog of Gwentland and the Normans, a.d, 1069. {Caradoc in Bl ) Camden (in Glamor- gan) says from remny, divide, meaning rhannu,
[Rhympyn is the same as the Ehymni, and stiU so called in the survey and records of Rhymni alias Rompney manor. There are many places of considerable antiquity on the river Eymney or Ehymni, viz., on the east or Monmouthshire side, in Eymney parish, an ancient British camp, very entire. Near it the ancient Monastery of Eenesham ; higher up, Llanjihangel Fedwy ; above that, Mechain parish, village, and castle. On the west or Glamor- gan side we have Ehathy the Eatostabius of Ptolomy ; higher up, Zlan Udeym, where Edeym ab Gwrtheym Gwrthenau founded a monastery for three hundred monks, or saints as they were caUed. Further up there is Llanfedwy. The church, now in niinsr, was dedicated to St. Medwy or Medwinus. In this parish v stands Ehiw-perra Castle, rebuilt by Inigo Jones, a fine house. Still further up is Bhydtre, where are still open some old Eoman mines, above the GaerffiXi or Senghenydd Castle. Still higher up, Oelli Goer. Above this, Marchnad y Waun, a market village, Llancaeach Castle, Capel Gwladus, etc., etc. The river runs through a fine country, abounds with salmon, etc. — /. if.]
Eythmarch (n. pr. v.). (Powel, Caradoc, p. 156.) Qu. whether EhyddmMch, Archbishop of St. David's, son of Sulien, Bishop, i.e., Julian, an. 1078.
Sabel, pro Isabel, qu. ?
Sacsonia, the country of the Saxons.
Sadwrn, Lat. Satumus, a Prince of the CeltsB, from sad, firm or steady, and divm, a fist But Sadwrn or Satom doth not signify strength in the Celtic (as some will have it), except in this sense. See Ainsworth.
Sadwrn Sant Uansadwm, a church in Anglesey. See Satumin.
Sadwbn was a famous hermit at Henllan, to whom Deifyr, a hermit at Bodfiari, sent Gwenfrewi to be directed to go to Gwytherin. (Life of St, Winifred.) His name is Latinized Satumius (//wcr.) for Satumin.
Saeran Sant. Church at Ilanynys, Denbighshire.
Saeran ap G^raint Saer o Iwerddon.
Saerym (n. pr. v.).
Mjn Saerym Sant a Seirioel. — Gr. ah Meredydd.
Saeson or Saesson, Saxons. Saesonach (leuan Tew). Now English.
Saethon, a gentleman's seat in Caernarvonshire. Qu. from a river of that name ?
Saethydd, a cognomen ; as, Cadwgan Saethydd. («/". D.)
Sainclere Castle, in Caermardenshire, a.d. 1189.
Saint or Seint, a river by Caernarvon town, which some say is the Segontium of the ancients. Nennius, in his CcUaloffue, hath Caer Segeint, as Usher hath also from him. Afon y Seint. Mr. E. Llwyd says it is Afon y Sant, from Peris Sant ; but Segon- tium waa before Peris was bom.
Sais, an Englishman or Saxon. An English wood-rover or thief is also called by the poets Gwyddel ; i,e., either wild man or woodman ; which is the name also given an inhabitant of Ire- land, for the same reason at first probably. It was also used as an appellative to those, it seems, that understood English, as Rhys Sais o Faelor ap Ednyfed ap llywarch. When a Saxon had cstrried Elltyd^s wife big with [child] into a wood, and killed
Gwedi'r Sais a'r gwaed a'r sann, etc.,
he proceeds,
E a'i gwyddai y Gwyddel^ etc. .See Ysgodog,
Saisneg, the English tongue.
Seisnigaidd, Anglified.
Ralbri, enw He. Sr. Thomas o Salbri, qu. ?
Sallawg. Caer Sallawg. {Myrddin) See Caer Sallaiog,
Samson Sant, Bishop of Dole in Gaul. His acts published by Mabillon and the BoUandists. He was born in South Wales about the year 490. His father was Amon ; his mother, Ann ; both of noble extraction. Brought up by lUdud in his Monas- tery of Llan Illtud, in Glamorganshire, about the year 512, was made Abbot of the Monastery of St. Pyr in Caldey Island, called Ynys Byrr; about 516 went to Ireland; about 520 waa made Bishop by Dubricius of Caerlleon, but had no see. Thence he went to Armorica, where he founded several monasteries ; and the chiefest was at Dole in Britanny, which became a bishop's see. Some say he lived to a hundred or hundred and twenty years of age ; but Mabillon thinks he died about the year 565. His name is subscribed in the Council of Paris, A.D. 557. Some say he had been Archbishop of York, and was succeeded by another Samson at Dole, which had been Archbishop of Menevia. (Brit. Sancty July 28.) Leland says his uncle was Umbrael, and his father Ammonius Venetus, i. e., Ammon of North Wales.
Samuel Britannus. [Leland) He was a friend of Nennius, and by whom Nennius had been instructed as well as by Elbo- tus. He has made many additions to Nennius' History, which explain it. Leland concludes he was a monk, for that few others had learning in those days. (Leland, Script Brit, c. 48.) In some copies of Nennius he is caUed Samuel Beulan, and pro- bably may be that Peulan to whom a church in Anglesey is dedicated, Llanbeulan, The History was probably published, after Nennius' death, by this Samuel Beulan, and that in England or Scotland ; for I am certain the copies we have of it in the Cottonian Library and Oxford Library were not done in Wales, as plainly appears from the 53rd chapter, where Mac is put for Mob to the pedigree of Gwrtheyrn, where, in our ancient British MSS., the letter M is only put for mah, a son ; as Pascent m.
Vortigem is made there Mac Pascent Mac Vortigern, etc. Seve- ral of Beulan's notes or interpolations are also lame and useless^ and it is a pity we have not the author in his native simplicity. This Beulan in some copies is falsely wrote Beularius.
Sandde (n. pr. v.).
Sanddb Bbyd Angel escaped with life from the battle of Camlan. He was so fair and like an angel that his enemies would not hurt him- {Tr. 85.)
Sandde Hardd, o Fortyn, tad Moriddig.
Sandde ap Llywarch Hen, killed in battle.
Sanffraid or Sanffred, ferch Cadwtheg Wyddel, q. d. Saiit Ffred, i.e., St. Brigit, an Irish lady and a nun; in English, St. Brides ; and the Virgin of Kildare. Her British legend, from lorwerth Fynglwyd, is this : That she was a nun, and daughter of Diptacus, a Duke ; that on her entering a nun, her step- mother's leg was cut ofiF, but on her request a leg and foot grew in its place. She extracted honey out of the stone for a poor man, A ploughman broke his plough, and she gave her distafif, which made him a chelydr [chwelydr] for his plough. The butter turned to ashes; and the ashes again, in her hand, turned into butter, and ale enough in two basons. That she gave to the village aU the cheese of the mayor's house ; and though the cheese were given away, there was not one wanting. That she understood the fifteen prayers ; and in case of hard rain she would throw her white sheet on the beams of the sun. That she came from Ire- land over sea, and swam to Dyfi ; that she made of rushes, in Gwynedd, the fish called hwyniaid (smelts) ; that she went to Bome, from Patrick's country, to see Peter ; that she turned the Mayor of London into a horse; that she released the baker's wife ; and between her and God bound the Devil It concludes : Da Ffred fwyn dyffryd fenaid. — lor. Fynglwyd,
This copy is short of what I have seen elsewhere, where there is
Y dydd y ceisiodd dy dad, etc.
That when her father proposed her in marriage to an Irish lord of which country she was, her eyes dropt out of her head, and then she was sure no lord would have her ; but she cunningly took them up again, washed them, and put them in their places, where they fitted as well as ever ; and to prevent any further
solicitations, where her virginity was concerned, she and her maids went to the sea-side, and with her knife she cut a green turf for each of them, instead of ships, to carry them over the channel to Wales, where they landed at Forth y Cappel, near Holyhead, where she built a chapel on the top of a small bank at her landing-place, whose ruins are there still, on the left hand as you go to Holyhead from the bridge. From thence she went to Glan Conwy, and built a church called still after her name, LlansanfirM. Here she performed a miracle by taking a hand- ful of rushes, and throwing them into the river of Conwy. They turned into fish, which to this day they call there brwyniaid, q. d., rush-fish, because they smell like rushes, which in Welsh is brwyn. These are called in London smelts ; in the country, sparlings ; and according to this legend, this is the original of that fish which is to be found in plenty in the river Conwy. So here is a new creation. See Nennius, Brigida.
Cappel St. Ffraid, near Holyhead [in ruins, — W. DJ] ; Ilan- sanffred, in Mechain ; Ilansanffred, in Cardiganshire ; Llansan- fired, in Glyn Ceiriog ; LlansanfPred, in Glan Conwy ; Ilansan- ffred, in Glyn Dyfrdwy.
Sanna verch DyfnwaL {Caradoe, p. 182.) Qu., a contraction of Susannah ?
Sannan Sant. Uansannan, rectory and vicarage, church and parish, in the deanery of Ehos, Denbighshire. St. Senan was of noble parents in Ireland, and Bishop in Ynys Cathaigh, in the mouth of the river Shannon ; a friend of St. David ; and died in tiie same day.
Sannan Eiver. Abersannan in Caermarthenshire. (E. Uwyd's Notes,)
Sant, properly a saint.
Sant (n. pr. v.), Lat. Xanthus, was the father of Dewi ap Sant, Archbishop of Wales. See Dem.
Sarn, a causeway, used in the names of places, as, Sam Wallog, Sam y Bwch, Sam Badrig, ridges of rocks or stones in Car- diganshire Bay ; Sam Drippiog ; y Samau (n. 1.) ; Sam, a gentle- man^s seat in Whittington parish ; Tal y Sam Grin, a village in Cardiganshire ; Bwlcb Tre Sarnau, Anglesey. [Samau, in Deuddwr ; Tal y Sarn, in Carmarthenshire and Carnarvonshire. — W.R]
Sabn Elen, a military way of pitxjhed stones, leading through the mountains near Ffestiniog in Meirion; supposed by Mr. Camden to be made by Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great. Mr. Edward Uwyd, in his Notes on Oamden, says, besides the place here mentioned, this way is to be seen at one end of Craig Verwyn, where it is called Ffordd Gam Elen Lueddog, i.e., the crooked way of Helen the Great or Puissant See Llueddog and Llvryddog. Another Ffordd (or Sam) Elen at lianbadarn Odwyn in Cardiganshire. Also a great part of the road from Brecknock to Neath is called Ffordd Elen. In the parish of Ffestiniog, from Ehyd yr Halen to CasteU Dol- wyddelen, this road is called Sam y Ddual, which is aboat three miles ; and some think that Pont Aber Glaslyn and Gymwynas, in Caernarvonshire, is part of the same road. (E. Llwyd, Notes on Camden in Meirion.) Another Sam Elen in IleyD. See Dolwyddelen.
Sarn y Ddual, in the parish of Ffestiniog ; part of the mili- tary way of Sarn Elen, which see,
Sarphle, a gentleman's seat {J. D.) [in Llanarmon Dyfifryn Ceiriog.— JF". JD.]
Sarsiniaid, the Saracens, descendants of Abraham, perhaps from Sarah. They were hired soldiers to the Bomans in the time of Aurelian and Probus, i.e., aji. 270. {Ainswortk.) They afterwards, under Mahomet, overran Syria, Egypt, Persia, Spain, Sicily. Their name is still retained in Barbary ; but the Turks, their comrades, revolting, they were driven to the East {Ains- worthy
Saturnin (n. pr. v.). In an ancient MS. of Dr. Thos. Williams I find that Morgan ap Saturnin reigned over the Britons, and succeeded Urien ap Cynfarch, who, he says, succeeded Maelgwn. In the churchyard of Uansadwrn, in Anglesey, there was dug up a gravestone, in my time, with an inscription which I copied, but have it not now by me. It was in Roman characters, and begun thus : '' Hie jacit Sanctus Saturninus et uxor ejus." But the name Saturnin is not used in Wales, and I suppose was a Loe- grian or Koman name. Cynfarch also was a Pictish nama
Morgan Fawr mab Sadymin. — Cyfoesi Myrddin.
llansadurnin, in Deheubarth, See Sadiom.
Savathan (n. 1.), Saveddan, Savaddan, and Saveddam, in Camden.
SxiVATHAN (Llyn), in South Wales, two miles east of Breck« nock. (J. D. Ehys, Gram.)
Sawddwy or Sawdde or Sawddfai, a river which fells into Myddfai, and both into Towi, near Llangadog, Caermarthenshire. Llanvihangel MyddfeL Pont ar Sawdde. See Myddfai,
Sawell, fl. {Llywarch Hen,) Dr. Davies mistakes this passage of Llywarch Hen, and makes Sawell to be a chimney :
o wng ag o bell
Pyll pwyll tan trwy Sawell.
But the preceding stanza,
Pyll pwyll tan trwy Lifon,
shews the mistake.
Sawyl (St.) or Sawel. Llansawyl in Caermarthenshire.
Sawyl (aL Sawl) Benisel, a King of Britain, the 66th, about 100 years before Christ.
Sawyl or Sawl Benuchbl ap Pabo Post Prydain, un o'r tri thrahawc Ynys Prydain. {Tr. 28.)
Sawyl ap Llywarch Hen, buried at Llangollen. {Llywarch Hen,)
ScHiuiAU, in Doomsday Book, corruptly for ^Sgeifiog. See Ys- geifiog.
ScHLYDACH, in Uywel, Brecknockshire.
Sedd Gyfedd ap Gwyngad ap N6s.
Sefnyn (n. pr. v.), a poet, an. 1260.
Segeint : see Saint,
Segontium : see Saint,
Seinlyn Sant.
Mair, Seinlyn, Marthyn, Mathea.
Seikt : see SairU.
Seirioel Sant ap Owain Danwyn. See an account of him iu Penmon,
Seirioel (Ynys), Priestholm Island near Beaumaris. See Pen- mon, [Llys Elis ap Clynnog. — W, D,]
Seisill ap Grwst, the 15th King of Britain.
Seisill ap Cyhelyn, the 26th King of Britain.
Seisyll ap Owain, the 60th King of Britain.
Seithbnin Frenin, o Faes Gwyddno, a oresgynnodd mor ei dir. {Ach. Saint) He was father of Tudno, the founder of Llan- dudno in Creuthyn. In Englynion Beddau Milwyr he is men- tioned :
Bedd Seithenin synwjr wan
BihwDg Maes Kenedir a glan.
Seithwedd (n. pr. v.). {Tr. 64.)
Selattyn, parish and church in the county of Salop.
Selb, Selau. Mallt verch Howel Sele ap M.
Seledd (n. L). Bryn Seledd and Cwm Seledd ; perhaps from Selyt
Selef. Cantref Selef, one of the three cantrefs of Brecheiniog. (Price, Descr,) Also one of the commots of said cantref. Bryn Selef, in Ilansanfi&aid, Denbighshire.
SeleMion. Caer Selemion in the Triades (Catalogue of Cities) is Caer Selemon (alias Elemon) in Nennius ; but where it lies I cannot teU, unless it is Chelmsford in Essex, the Cssaromagus and Conovium of the Romans. {Ainsworth.) A river Chelmers there. Caer Selemion is the city of the people of Selem or Selyf.
Selyf (n. pr. v.). This name is translated Solomon ; but I think it should be Selimus. Selyf SeirflFCadeu. (BreiniauPoivys.)
Selyf ap Cynan Garwyn, un o'r tri aerfeddog. (Tr. 65.)
Selyf ap Ilywarch Hen. {LL E'en.)
Selyf Ben Sywedyddion, un o'r tair colofn celfyddydion {Prydydd y Moch, to Eodri ap 0. Gwynedd), i.e,, Selimus, chief of astronomers.
Senny, river. See Dysynni,
Sennyllt (n. pr. v.), the father of Nudd Hael.
Senghenyth [now Caer Phili — W. D,\ a lordship in Mor- gannwg, one of the four commots of Cantref Brenhinol, Mor- ganwg.
Senghenydd Castle, given by Llewelyn ap lorwerth to John le Bruse.
Septon, Septwn. Caer Septon, Shaftsbury. {E, Llwyd, Th, Williams, and Oalfrid:)
Servan (n. pr. v.), the father of Mordaf Hael. {Tr. 8.)
Seri. Caer Seri [Triad, Catalogue of Cities); in another copy.
Caer Siri ; the same with what is called in Nennius Caer Ceirit. Qu. whether Cirencester in Gloucestershire ?
Serigi Wyddel, a General or Prince of a body of Irish that made a descent on Anglesey in the time of Caswallon Law Hir, father of Maelgwn Gwynedd, about an. 514. Caswallon fought them at Cerrig y Gwyddyl, near MaUtraeth (see TV. 49), and killed Serigi with his own hand at Llan y Gwyddyl, which is the Irish church at Holyhead. (Price, Descr.) The natives of Holyhead shew the grave of Serigin Wyddel, as they call him. Camden says the Britons were beat ; but he is always kind to the Britons. This battle was so obstinate that Cadwallon's men tied their legs by pairs with their horses^ Mialau (I suppose bridles), with a resolution to stand the field to the last man. {Tr. 49.)
Severus, the 80th King of Britain. This is the Emperor of Bome died and buried at York.
Sgottiaid, falsely wrote and pronounced for Ysgwydiaid, which see.
Sgotland, and Scotland : see Ysgotlond and Hsgottland,
SiAMAS (n. pr. v.), James.
SiARLES (n. pr. v.), Charles.
SiATT Eedynvre ap Cadvan liwy Coed.
Sibyl (n. f.), a common and proper name. It is also pro- nounced sometimes Sibli, as Sibli Ddoeth, or the wise, meaning the Prophetess. It seems most nations had the Sibyl, a pro- phetess of that name or appellation. Myrddin WyUt, the Pictish poet, quotes the British Sibyl by the title of Chwibleian and Chwimbleian, as if the word was formed from lleian, a nun, vestal virgin, or priestess.
Ef a ddywaid chwibleian chwedl anrbyfedd.
noianau Myrdditu
SiBB, Cheapside. Sioppau SiSb. By this it seems this name is British.
SiEFFRAi Fynwy, Galfridus Arthurius, otherwise called Mon- emuthensis ; first a Benedictine monk, afterwards Archdeacon of Monmouth, afterwards Bishop of St Asaph, about an. 1150. He translated the History of the Britons out of British into Latin, from a copy given him by Walter Archdeacon of Oxford, which
he brought from the Britons of Armorica. But as he was not a perfect master of his subject, nor was acquainted with the British historians and poets, he hath not done it justice ; besides a very great fault in making some additions of his own^ which he niixt with the original ; so the Latin book is not to be depended on. The Brut copy is common in Wales ; but the name of Galfrid, the translator^ entirely unknown, except among antiquaries. See Brut y Brenhinoedd.
A gwyr a meirch ag anr mwy
Gida Siarlys goed Sierlwy.
Hyxcel Cilan, i Or. Peiirhjn.
SiERON, St. Jerome, Hieronymus.
Owr siriol geirian Sieron
Gorhofikidd Syr Graffadd Sion. — leuan Tew.
SiGGAi, in Llantwyt, Glamorgan.
SiGLTAEN, a rocking stone. These are remains of Druidism found in Cornwall and Wales ; one of them near St. David^s ; another at Pen y Gogarth, near Conwy. 1 suppose there was one also at Maen y Chwyfan by its name, which see. One between Penmachno and Bettws, and between the rivers Lledr and Machno. See Lledr.
SiLiAN. Tresilian in Cornwall. Mr. Stukely calls it the Castle of Silvanus, and thinks that Silvanus was father of Carau- sius, and that Carausius had a son called Silvius or Silvanus. {Palceograpkia.)
SiLiN Sant Some say it is St. Giles.
Silin g^yr Cant re Selyf. — Hywel Dafydd.
Llansilin, a church and parish (vicarage) in Denbighshire. Here the famous song writer, Hugh Morus, lived. Nature never shewed herself stronger where there was little or no learning or other advantages than in him. His attempts in heroic poetry did not answer.
SiLOD verch Iank)ni, arglwydd Ffrangton.
SiLURiA : see Iselwyr. [See Sylhoyr below. Essyllwyr ; their country, Essyllwg, Bro Essyllt, and Tir Essyllt. — /. Jlf.]
SiLUKES {Camden), Iselwyr or Low Men, one of the three dif- ferent nations of Wales, — the Silures, Dimetse, and Ordovices.
The Silures, as we gather from Ptolomy's description of them, inhabited Deheubarth, i.e., Herefordshire, Radnorshire, Breck- nockshire, Monmouthshire, and Glamorganshire.
SiLUS or SiLius, Lat. Julius, the father of Brutus, the first founder of the British empire. His name was not Sylvius, as some would have it. Vid. British copy of Tyssilio.
Silvester Giraldus Cambrensis was of a noble family in Penbrokeshire, not far from Tenby, and born there. He was secretary to King Henry, and tutor to King John his son, and sent to Ireland, where he wrote the History of Ireland, much involved in darkness (says Leland). He was Archdeacon of Brecknock, afterwards Archdeacon of St. David's, and elected Bishop there. He attended Baldwin, the Archbishop of Canter- bury, the Pope's legate, through Wales, to raise contributions for the war in the Holy Land, and wrote his Journey through Wales {Itineraria Camirice), and also a topography of Wales, with a map, with several other learned works. He lived above seventy years, and died at St. David's, and was buried there. See Leland's Script. £Ht, c. 196.
He was no friend of Galfridus Monemuthensis, his contempo- rary, the translator of the British History, having some personal pique to him, which he vents with some passion against the history published by him. In one place {Top. Gamhr., c. 8) he calls it the fabulous history of Galfrid, upon a very slight oc- casion, having himself followed the chief things which are esteemed fabulous by the enemies of that history. But nothing shows the personal pique more than the trial he says was made of the Briton history of Galfrid, by a spirit which was at St. David's, who judged him fabulous. [Hist, Cambr.y L i, c. 5.) It should have been proved that this judge was not one of the imps of the father of lies.
SidN, or Suon, an ancient British fort on the top of a mountain north of Conwy town, called Caer Siion, or, in the English orthography. Sewn. This was the seat of Gwalch Gorsedd, where Maelgwn (or, as others say, his father CaswaUon) went to judge between the poets and musicians. He lived at Diganwy in Creuthyn ; caused the poets and harpers to swim the river Conwy. The harpers' instruments were spoiled ; therefore the
poets, whose tools could not be damaged, carried the day. {lor* werth ap Beli to the Bishop of Bangor, an. 1240.)
SioR, George. This word is pronounced as the English Shore, The British tongue hath not the sound of the soft G. Llan Sant Sior, St. George's in Denbighshire.
SiRl : see SerL
SiRWEBN ot SuRWERN, a place in Cardiganshire. {D, ap leuun JDu.) See Syrwern,
SiSiL verch Arglwydd Herbert.
SiSLi (nom. foem,), Cecilia.
SiTSYLLT (n. pr. v.). Llewelyn ap Sitsyllt, Prince of Wales.
SiWAN or SiWEN, dim. of Susan (n. f., Ceretica). Si wan verch Arglwydd Herbert. [Joanna or Joan, in Glamorgan. — /. M.]
SiWDA (n. pr.), qu. Judah or Judas ?
A Duw o Iwyth Siwda Ian. — Hywel Strrdwah
Skeweth : see Forth Skeweth
Snowden (n. pr.) : vid. Wyddfa and EiryH.
SoLVACH, a harbour and village in Penbrokeshire.
SoNLLi. Llewelyn Sonlli. Llwyth Sonlli. Qu. whether a river ?
Spey, a river in Scotland. {Major.)
Stil. Dwyn Stil Yngharad verch Mredydd ; t.«., to draw the stile or pedigree.
Stinan Sant, i.e., Justinian. Cappel Stinan is on the sea- coast in Eamsey Sound, and Cappel Devanog on the island oppo- site to it. See Devanog. This Justinian was hermit and martyr ; and his acts are in Capgrave, Aug. 13 ; and born in Armorica. Being a priest, he came to Great Britain, and went into a boat ; committing himself to the waves, he landed at Limenus, an island (now Ramsey), where he found a holy solitary, Honorius (Ynyr), son of Tefrawc, a British Prince, who invited him to stay there, which he did, on condition he would send on shore his sister and maid, who had a cell just by there ; and this was done to avoid scandal. St. David, who was then at Menevia, desired his friendship ; he lived there many years, but at last was murdered either by his servants or pirates. Leland says he was slain by picaias. A church was built to his honour on the oppo-
site shore. (Brit. Sanct, Aug. 13.) There is the ruins of a chapel on Ba-nasey Island, called Cappel Devanog ; and another opposite to it, on the mainland, called Cappel Stinan.
Strat and Strath are found in the composition of names of places in Wales and Scotland, in Latin and English writers, which are the same with the British Ystrad ; but not the same meaning with the Latin Strata, a paved way, as some will have it. It signifies a vale or bottom through which a river runs ; and perhaps was formed from ys and traed, a frequented place or place of feet, in the same sense as we say in English a foot- way or footpath, or to get footing in a place.
In Wales there are : Ystrad Peithyll ; Ystrad Meurig ; Ystrad Cyngan ; Ystrad Marchell ; Ystrad Alun ; Ystrad Ty wy ; Ystrad Clwyd ; Ystrad Enni ; Ystrad Fflur. In Scotland : Strathem ; Strathbogie ; Strath Dovern or Dovran ; Strathy ; Strathawin ; Strathnavem.
Strad Clwyd : see Ystrad Clwyd,
Strad Marchell : see Ystrad Marchell,
Strad Pythyll : see Ystrad Peithyll, - Stradwen verch Cadfan ap Cynau ap Eudaf, wife to Coel Godebog, mother of Cenau, Dyfyr, and GwawL (Price, Descr.)
Stradwer ap Pandwlph.
Str\dweul (n. f.), qu. whether Stradwen ? Strad weul verch Cadvan ap Cynan ap Eudaf. (E. V., Notes,)
Straith, vallis (Camden) ; but Straith and Strath and Strat, as Strad Clwyd, etc., corrupted from Ystrad,
Stratalyn : see Ystrad Alun.
Strat Conqen : see Ystrad Cyngan,
Stratfleur : see Ystrad Fflur,
Strat Meyric : see Ystrad Meurig or Meuryg,
Striqul or YsTRiGUL river in Gwent. Glyn Strigul Castle. (Price, Descr,) This Castle is near a river which falls into the Wysg, between Bryn Buga and Caerllion.
Suddas, Judas Iscariot.
SuLHAERN (n. pr. v.). Gruflfudd ap Sulhaern. (Caradoc, p. 186.)
SuLiEN ap Ceryn, the 48th King of Britain. Sulien Arch- bishop of St. David's, a.d. 1087 ; probably Julianus.
Sulien Sant o Lydaw.
SULUS (n. pr. v.), Julius.
Bratns ap Salus syth. — J. K,
SuLWYCH ap Pebid Penllyn.
[Swale flu... in ... in which Paulinus baptized. ''In provin- cia Deirorum, ubi saepius manere cum rege solebat, Paulinus baptizabat in fluvio Sualva, qui vicam Cataractam praeterfluit." (Bede.)— W. Z>.]
Sws, SwYS, and Swswen, Caer Sws, the ruins of an ancient city of the Britons in Montgomery, on the banks of the Severn, now a small village. Mr. Camden says it is reported to be both ancient and to enjoy ancient privileges. A lame account, indeed ! Mr. Ilwyd, in Notes on Cainden, says it is said to have been the seat of the lords of Arwystli, and supposes it to have been of Eoman foundation, without giving any reasons for it. Encampments about it at three several places, Gwynfynydd^ Jihos Ddiarbed, and Cefn Carnedd ; and also on the hill above Llanddinam, y Gaer Fechan, an entrenchment.
Powys a Chaerswjs wen. — L, G, Cothi.
Cawr o Seysyll Caer Sws wen
Caem roi i*n byw Cymro 'n ben. — D. I. LI,
It is called also Cadr Swysson. Cadw o Gadr Swyssons was
one of the pillars or supporters of arts and sciences. See Cadw, SwYDD Y Gre, one of the four commots of Cantref Melienydd
See Maelienydd. SwYDD Y Fam, one of the commots of the Cantref of Buellt, Swydd^Wynogion, or, in Price's Description, Swydd Ynogen,
one of the commots of Cantre'r Clawdd, between Wy and Severn.
Amgylch cyminawc cymynai Saesson
Ar Swydd Wynogion yd wynnygai. — Cynddelw,
SYBYiiLTiR, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey ; q, d. Tir Sybwll, wet ground.
Sycharth, a gentleman's seat in Powys, qu. ?
Sychnant, the name of the valley near Holywell in Flint- shire ; i.6., dry brook or dry valley. Nant is properly a brook. Several brooks of this name in Wales. Sychnant in Melynddwr, etc.
Sykker Sand, a port in Scotland, in Lat. Tuta Arena, (Jo. Major, Hist Scot., L i, fo. 9.) From the British siccr, i,e,, safe.
Sylfaen, a gentleman's seat. (*/. D.) [Castle Caereinion parish. — W, D.]
Syluaiu, a river in Scotland. (Major, ffid. Scot)
Syllwyr, the people of Esyllwg (H. Llwyd) ; hence Siluras {H, Llwyd), GwentUwg, he says, is Gwentsillwg in Monmouth- shire; Leland's Ventoluga,
Syrwen, one of the four cantrefs of Cardiganshire, containing the commots [of] Gwinionydd and Iscoed. (Price, Descr,) Wrote by Deio ap leuan Du Surwem, q. d. Gwem Sur.
Dechran o ddeaa ydd wyf Y Surwem gwlad ni sorrwyf.
Sythia (Scythia), a country on the continent, so called from the people being expert at shooting, which in the Celtic is saethu, from saeth, an arrow. The Irish antiquaries derive the ancient Scots of Ireland from the Scythians, and so Ead. de Diceto. Scythia, Scita, Sciticus, Scoticus, Scotus, Scotia. But I think the name of Scot comes more naturally from their name in the British Tsgwydiad, from the Celtic ysgwyd or ysgod, a shield ; and Meilir Brydydd, in the year 1079, calls them Ysgodogion dynion Uedflfer.
Taerus. Dafydd Ddu Taerus.
Taf, a river which rises near Vrenni Fawr, and, taking in several rivers, falls into the sea near the Towi in Caermarthen- shire. Upon this river the Abbey of Whitland, called Ty Gwyn ar Daf, was, which was built of white rods of hazle for a sum- mer house. {Camden,) See also other Tslfs in Glamorganshire and Brecknockshire that go by Llandaf to Caerdyt Mr. Ed. Llwyd says he cannot conjecture what might be the original signification of the word T^lf, but thinks the Thames to be of the same origin. (Notes on Camden.)
Taf Fawr and Taf Fechan, rivers that rise in Brecknock- shire and run by Lland&f and Caerdyf to the Severn Sea. Cam- den says this is the Khatostabius or Ehatostibius of Ptolemy, —
a maimed word for the British Traeth Tav ; but more likely a corruption of Ystrad Taf and Ystrad Tyf. (Qu. whether there be not a small river that runs into the Taf or Caerdyf, whence it might be called Caer Aberdyf.) Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks that the first syllables of Tawy, Towy, Teifi, and Dyfi, are but so many various pronunciations of Tav or Taf; but it surprises me that Mr. Llwyd should fall into such a blunder as to think that all these rivers should have the sarru name. Were words so scarce among the Britons that they could not afford different names for their rivers ?
Tafwys (fl.).
Tafarn, a surname.
Dafydd Tafarn a farnwjd Yn hael iawD, nn o'i hil wjd.
G, op J. Hen, i Gr. ap Daf. Tafarn.
Tafod Aur, i.e., Chrysostomus. Edeyrn Dafod Aur.
Taguy, wrote anciently for Tawy. {E, Llwyd)
Taix, river. Abertain.
Tal, in the composition of names of places, signifying a fore- head, as, Tal y Lan ; Tal y Bont ; Tal y Sarn, etc. Hence Eith- dal, Italy, now yr Eidal. Hence Ardaloedd, borders of a country ; talaith, a head-band or diadem ; Talaith Aberffraw. Also talar, a headland in ploughing.
Tal y Bont, one of the three commots of Cantref Meirion,
[Tal y Forwyn Castle, near Aberbechan, hanging over the Severn, now in ruins. Several things were dug up there by astro- logers in search of treasure. — W. 2?.]
Tal y Treuddyn, a gentleman's seat.
Tal y Voel, a place in Anglesey where there is now a ferry from the town of Caernarvon. This is Tal Moelvre mentioned in Gwalchmai ap Meilir's Arwyrein 0. Gwynedd, where he says 0. Gwynedd had a sea-fight against three powerful fleets, and defeated them. He says the river Menai (that arm of the sea) did not ebb that tide because kept full by the blood of the slain.
A Menei heb drai o drallanw gwaedryar A lliw gwyar gwyr yn heli.
The three fleets were from Ireland, the Baltic, and Normandy. These are his words :
Tair lleng a ddaethant liant lestri Tair praff prif lynges iw bres brofi Un o Iwerddon, arall arvogion Or Llychlynigion, llwrw hirion Hi Ar drydedd dros for o Nortmandi, etc.
Mr. Moses Williams, in his Notes on the Oeslyfr, published with H. Llwyd^s Descr, Brit, supposes the battle of Tal Moelvre to be that descent made by Mad. ap Mredydd of Powys with Henry II's ships in the Isle of Anglesey, a.d. 1157, where they robbed the churclies of Llanvair and Llanbedr ; and those that landed were all killed by the islanders, which caused the ships to make the best of their way, and weigh anchor ; and he says there is a place called Moelvre near those churches of St. Peter and St. Mary ; but it is plain this wm a different action, and is fully and beautifully described by Gwalchmai, and was a sea- fight.
Tal Prydain, a battle fought by Gr. ap Cynan. {Meilir Brifdydd.)
Tal y Llychau, Caermarthenshire.
Tal Llwyn Elgain, near Brecknock, in Caradoc. Qu. whether Trallwng Elgain ? See Trallumg.
Tal y Ehedynog Ddu, in Scotland. {E. Lhvyd)
Tal y Bolion, or Talebolion, or Tal Bolion, one of the six commots of Anglesey. Some derive it from Polion or Bulinus. Cors y Bol, a bog, lies in this commot, which has its name from the same origin ; perhaps from Bolg, and a place called Penbol. See Bolg,
Talacharn, one of the three commots of Arberth in Dyfed. (Price, Descr)
Talacharn, in Caermarthenshire, where Lord Rees did homage to Henry II, a.d. 1172. Syr Gei de Brean, Arglwydd Talacharn.
Talavan. Maenor Talavan, one of the four commots of Can- tref Penny then, Morganwg. (Price, Descr,)
Talacrau or Talacre, a gentleman's seat in Flintshire. {J, D) Mostyn's.
Talgarth, one of the three commots of Cantref Canol in Brecknockshire. (Price, Descr,) The mountains of Talgarth mentioned by Giraldus Cambrensis in Itin,
Talhayarn. Llanvair Talhayarn, a church aiid parish in the deanery of Rhos, Denbighshire.
Taliaris, rect^ Taliarus, a place in Caermarthenshire.
Taliessin, a Cambrian poet or bard, commonly called Taliessin Ben Beirdd, the chief of bards, flourished in North Wales in the reign of Maelgwn Gwynedd, who is called by Gildas the Island Dragon. Sir John Price, in his Description of Wales, calls him the famous clerk and great wise man Taliessin. It seems Maelgwn made use of him as a prophet, by which help he goyemed an unruly people enthusiastically martial. This was not a scheme of Maelgwn only, but of all the kings of the Britons before him. Taliessin was brought up by Elphin, son of Gwyddno Goronhir, lord of Cantre* Gwaelod.
Talog. Coed Talog or Coed Halog, yn Neheubarth [near Llan Erful — W. D.] ; Bod Talog, Meirion, or perhaps Halawc.
Talvrith (Y) ap Trehayarn Goch o L^n.
Talwrn, a spot of ground, qu. ?
Talwrn, a gentleman's seat. (J. B.)
Talwrn, a gentleman's seat in Eifionydd. (J, D.)
Talwrn Mawr (Y), in Anglesey. Lloyds of Talwrn.
Tallwch, father of Trystan. {Tr, 24.)
Tam. Mr. Edward Llwyd says a great many of our larger rivers began with Tav and Tiv, or, as anciently written, Tam and Tim : hence Thame or Thames, Tav, Tawy, Tywj, Teivi, Dy fi, Deva (Eom.), now Dee, Dove in Shropshire, etc. This Tam, says he, is in all probability the same with the Greek tam^s in potamos; and he therefore takes the initials pa, pe, and po, in such Greek words, to be old prepositives which the Britons never had, which implies that the I'am or Tav of the Celtse is the most ancient. But probably in the course of explaining the names of the above rivers some other etymologies may be hit upon.
Tanad, river in Montgomeryshire [issues from Berwyn Moun- tains, joins the Eirth at Llangynog, the Mochnant at Aber Ehaiadr, etc. — W. D.] Abertanad.
Ysjmy rwydd arglwydd erglywiad A glywir or tir gar Tanad.
Einion ap Owgaum^ i Ln. ap lorwerih.
Cllan Tanad, a gentleman's seat.
Tanwg Sant o Lydaw. Llandanwg in Merionetlishire.
Tanwyn (n. pr. v.) See Dr. Davies.
Tangusius, a holy man in Gwent, who brought up St. Beuno, in the time of Ynyr, King of Gwent. {Buckedd Beuno)
Tangno ap Tstrwyth. See Ystrvn/th river and Ystwyth.
Tanged ap Padriark Frenin.
Tangwystl (i tarig and gwystl), nom. foem. Also a Saxon name at Gwaith Perllan Fangor.
Pan ddiholer Tangwystl yn hir o dir Gwynedd.
Hoi, Myrddin,
Tangwystl, daughter of Llywarch Goch, lord of Rhos, Ehy- foniog, and Anglesey, was the first wife of Lly welyn ap lorwerth, by whom he had GruflTudd ap Lly welyn, though Caradoc says he was base born. (PoweFs Oaradoc, p. 298.) See the White Book of Hergest^ and also Polyd. Virgil, 1. xvi, p. 391. Upon her death he married Jone, the daughter of King John and sister of Henry III, and disinherited, or attempted to disinherit, GruflFudd, which caused great disturbance and wars ; but Llewelyn, the son of Gruffudd, at last got the Principality.
Tangwn fn. pr. v.), father of RhinerL {Tr. 21.)
Tangwyn Sant yn Llangoed, M6n, ap Caradog Freichfras^
Tanglwst, alias Tangwystl, verch Brychan Brycheiniog.
Taradr, a river's name. Abertaradr, a place mentioned in Hoiane Myrddin. See Abertaradr.
Tarddenin, afon. (Ci^foesau Myrddin a Gwenddydd)
Tarddenni. Llyn Tarddenni, a lake in Eryri, called also Llynn Cwellyn or Cawell-lyn.
Tabogi, a river in Gwent is Coed. {Tr. 30.) Yn Abertarogi yngwent is y Coed y doeth ir tir. {Id) Abertarogi, now Fries Throgoye, in Monmouthshire. (Mordents Map.)
Tathal ap Amun Ddu, brenin Groeg. Caer Dathal, which see.
Tathaius, a British saint mentioned by Camden in Mon- mouthshire, others say Lrish, who governed an academy at Caer- went in the time of King Caradog ap Ynyr, who invited [him] thither from an hermitage. See Gildas. See Lib, Landaff; Notes on Camden, Penlrokeshire.
Tawy, a river rising near Cappel Callwen in Dyfynnog hnn- dred, runs by Ystrad Gynlas, by Ilanguge, by Llansamlad, and to sea at Swanzey ; in Welsh Abertawy ; by Camden, corruptly, Abertawi ; and he says the English name is derived from siinne or sea-hogs, q. d. Sweinsey.
Tat, a river in Scotland. (Major, Hist.)
Tecca, AngL fairest. lancyn Decca.
Teccwy Sant ap Dingad.
Teccwyn Sant. Llandecwyn in Meirion. Docunus or Docu- inus. Called also by Capgrave St. Cyngarus. (Brit, Sanct., Nov. 6.) He is mentioned in Spelman's Coundh, in the Acts of the Synod of Llandaf, as abbot, as is Cadoc and lUtut, abbots.
Tegla Sant, virgin and abbess in Thuringia or in. Hesse, A.D. 725. Uandegla yn lal.
Teg. Gruflfydd Deg ap GruflF. ap Einion.
Tegai Sant yn Maes Ilanglasawc. Uandygai
Teganwy, for Deganwy or Dyganwy, qu.? King John, in the year 1211, came thus far with the power of England, of South Wales, of Powys, Chirk, and Yale, and Cydewen, and with an intention to destroy all that had life within North Wales. Here Llywelyn ap lorwerth so distressed the King and his army by skirmishing and cutting off his victuals, that his soldiers were glad to eat their horses, and to return with great loss. Next year he came again with the same army, and encamped to the west side of the river Conwy, entering Wales at Oswestry, and sent part of his army to bum Bangor, and took the Bishop prisoner. Then the Prince sent Jone, the King's daughter, who was his wife, and submitted and did homage. {CaradoCy in Lin. ap lorwerth.) In 1215 Llywelyn ap lorwerth laid siege to Dyganwy and Bhuddlan, and took them, and so left the King not one castle in his land. (Caradoc) In 1244 Henry III came to Dyganwy, or Gannoc, with English and Gasgoignes, and sent for the Irish, but was obliged to return with loss. (Caradoc, p. 310.) In 1256 Henry III and his son came as far as Teganwy with all the strength of England in great rage ; but Llywelyn ap Gruffudd sent his fleet to meet that of the Irish that sided with the King, and defeated them, and kept the straits and passes so narrowly till he obliged the King to retreat with great
loss. {CaradoCy in IJn. ap Gruffudd.) This Castle lay in Creuthyn in Cantref y Ehos. [IS. Llwyd,) Camden says it is plainly a variation of Conwy : perhaps not.
Tegau Eurfron, gwraig Cariadog Freichfras, un o dair diwair ferch Ynys Prydain, yn cael gair fal Penelope; roedd tri thlws na wasnaethynt i neb ond iddi ei hun, ei mantell, ei phiol anr, a'i chylleU. (2). J.) Tegau Eurfron's mantle was one of the thirteen rarities of the Isle of Britain. It would fit no woman but what was chaste. Wrote also Tegeu Eurfron. {Tr. 54 and 78.) See Eluned.
Tegawg ap Cyfnerth ap Madog Madogion.
Tegeingl (rectA Tegengl), a country, now Flintshire. Mr. Camden says it signified in the British Fair England. This is owing to his ignorance of the British, for Eitigl signifies Angles^ a people, and not a country.
Eingl ar gyohwyn
Bhag Llion Llychlyn. — Myrddin,
And is also the plural of Ongl or Engl, a corner or angle. There- fore Teg-Engl is a fair corner. The British name for England is Lloegr, and not Eingl, and we have no other name for it. Mr. Camden^s caution was not necessary against the author who called it in Latin Tegenio, for there might be Igeni as well as Iceni. I think it was Humphrey Lloyd. It means cornel deg.
Cantref Tegengl contains three commots, Coimsyllt, Prestatyn, and Bhuddlan.
Tegerin, vulgo Teigryn, ap Carwed.
Tegfan Sant. Llandegfan, a church in Anglesey, dedicated also to St. Tydecho. I suppose Decumanus, hermit and martyr. Capgrave says he left Wales, and led a hermit^s life in a wood on the south side of Severn, where he was murdered. {Brit. Sanct, March 1.) Tegvan Sant ap Carcludwys. (MS.) Tegfan, father of Coel Godebog.
Ap Tegfan frwydr Gamlan gynt. — Bhys Ooch Eryri.
Tegfedd Santes, sister of Tydecho. See Tydecho. Tegla. Uandegla yn lal.
Teglaf (n. pr. v.). liandeglaf yn lal, a parish and church in the deanery of lal, Denbighshire.
Tegiawc verch Tnyr Gwent. See Beuno.
Tegid Voel, Benllyn. Tegvedd neu Tegwedd, ei ferclu
Tegid. Llyn Tegid^ a lake near Bala; in English^ Pinible Mere, [Gh. Edvjards) Limne Cataigidos.
Tegonwy ap Teon.
Tegwared ap Griffri ap Carwed ap Aelaw.
Tegwared ap Iddon ap Idnerth.
Tegwas Felyn, arglwydd HwlfFordd.
Tegyngl or Tegengl, daughter of Cynedda Wledig. {Ack Cattwg,)
Teibion. Meirion (in Meirionydd) ap Teibiawn ap Gunedda Wledig, or Tibion.
Teifi, a river in South Wales, called by Tibius; by
Ptolomy, Tuerobiiis [GaTnden) ; rises in Ilyn Teifi, near the Abbey of Ystrad Fflur, and falls to the sea below Cardigan town, taking in its course many other rivers. It had beavers in it in Giraldus Cambrensis's time^ and now hath an excellent salmon fishery. Aherteifi, Cardigan town and county. By Ainsworth, Eatostathybius. TuerdbiuSy corruptly for Dwrteifi, says Camden.
Teilo or Teilaw Sant, son of Encisus or Ensic, a nobleman, and bom at Eglwys Gunniau (Uanwnnio). He was instructed by St. Dubricius, and afterwards by St. Pauleus, a disciple of St. German, at the same time with St. David. He came from Little Britain here about the same time with Dewi and Padam, being relatioas to King Arthur, and were promoted in the church, — Dewi made Penescub Ynghaerlleon ar Wysg, i.e,, Head Bishop (TV. 7), Padarn was made Bishop of Ilanbadarn Vawr in Ceretica, and Teilaw of Llandaf, with great privileges ; and with whom he made a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. The yellow plague (y fall felen) happening while he was^ at Llandaf, he went over to Armorica, where he remained with Sampson, Bishop of Dole, and afterwards returned to TJandaf. This Teilo had gained such a character for sanctity and learning that in after ages, when Popery prevailed, it was pretended that God had made him three bodies, that the church of Llandaf and Llandeilo Fawr and Penalun might have each a body to show to sanctify their several churches, and to avoid their disputing who should have his body to keep. (Tr. 44.) These preachers came over to
Britain when tlie Gwrtheyrn faction lost ground here, and Gildas and others obliged to retire to Little Britain to make room for them. See the Triad, " Tri chorpV, etc
Teirgwaed or Teirgwaedd, the father of Menyw the philo- sopher. {Tr, 31.) This Teirgwaed was cotemporary with Gwrth- eyrn Gwrthene. {Tr. 32.)
Teirtref (Y), a lordship near Bishop's Castle, now corruptly called Tatrifif.
Teirtref (Y), one of the commots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent (Price, Descr,)
Teirw : see Dinteirw.
Temis, Tamesis fl. (T. Williams and Tr. 4.)
Teneuan ap Lludd, the 73rd King of Britain.
Terfynnon (n. pr. qu. ?).
Terwyn (n. L). Gwaith Terwyn, a battle fought on Bryn Ter-
wyn in between Llewelyn ap Gruffydd and his brother
Owain or Owain Goch, a.d. 1254 (Aer. Cambr.)
Teuddwr. Cwm Teuddwr in Badnorshire.
Teudric ap Tithflfalt ap Teithrin ap Tathal ap Amun Ddu, brenin Groeg.
Teulu, a family or clan. Diwair deulu and aniwair deulu. (Triades.) See Gwys.
Teuthoneg, the Teutonic language. {E. Llwyd)
Tevriaucus was father of Honorius (Ynyr). See Tnyr, (Le* land, Script. Brit., c. 38.)
Tewdor or Tewdwr (n. pr. v.). Bhys Tewdwr; in others, Bhys ap Tewdwr.
Tewdor am ysgor am isgell grawn.
CyndddtOf i Gad. ap Madog. Tewdrig, id. quod Teudric,
Tewdos ap Cadwgon.
Teyrnllug. Cadell Deymllug ; in another place, Teymllys.
Tetvediat (Price, Descr.), recti Tefeidiat. See Dyffryn.
Theonia, Abbess of Gwytherin, mother of Elerius, the Abbot, who entertained Gwenfrewi in her [monastery], whereof she became Abbess after the other's death. (Life of Winifred.)
Throgoy, river (Camden, Britannia) ; in the British, Tarrogi. (Tr.) "Ac yn Abertarogi yngwent y tiriodd", etc.
TiBEBiNUS, the river Tiber^ which weisheth Borne. The iiame in Celtic is Dwrfrenin, king of waters. (/. Jf.)
TiBiE ferch Brychan.
TiBOD verch Einion ap GrufifudA
TiBiON^ son of Cunedda Wledig, died in the Isle of Man^ which island the Irish Scots won, headed by Builke, the son of Glam Hector. (Price, Descr., out of Nennius.) This Tibion was &ther of Meirion^ who had Gantref Meirion given him.
TiMWB. Llandimwr, tir yn perthyn i Syr R Vychan.
TiNBOD, a castle on the top of a hill in Maelienydd, mentioned in Camden's Britannia to have been destroyed by Llewelyn Prince of Wales, A.D. 1260. [Duribod, the place of a fort. — W, I).]
TiNDAETHWY, rect6 Dindaethwy, which see. Vid. also Cynan Tindaethwy.
TiNDAGOL or TiNTAGOL, a castlc in Cornwall, which Buchanan, from his utter ignorance in the British history, says is the name of a man.
TiNLLAES. Mredydd Dinllaes ap Dafydd.
TiNLLEYN, one of the commots of Cantref Ileyn in Caernar- vonshire. See Porthdinlleyn,
TiNTERNE, Monastery in Wales (at Gresham, Norfolk, No. 19, Davies MS.), the grant in being then. This was Dintam in Monmouthshire, where there [are] two parishes^ Dintam Uchaf and Isaf, to this day.
TiNWAED (n. pr. v.). Tinwaed Faglawg, one of the three strong crooks. (TV. 21.)
Tib Amalgad, in Conacht in Ireland.
Tie Mon, Anglesey, See Man.
Tie Eaulph, one of the three commots of Cantref Mawr, Brecknockshire. (Price, Descr.)
TiRiON (n. L). Williams of Tirion.
Titan or Tytan, a Celtic Prince, nephew of Sadwm. The sig- nification of the word in the British is " the house of fire*', t.e., T^ T&n ; for which reason he is taken by the Eomans for Hype- rion or the Sun.
TiviDiAUC, the river Teme in Shropshire. (Oamden) See Tef- eidiat.
Tlyswk, i.e., pretty man. lerwerth ap leuan Dlyswr.
ToGVAEL OP Dogvoel, or Dogwel, or DygweL Llanddygwel Church in Anglesey.
ToLWYTH, q. d. Tylwyth. Tolwyth Gruflfydd ap HoeL
ToMMEN, a barrow or low, being a tump of earth thrown up on the graves of great men among the Britons ; a tumulus or tomb. In some parts they are called cnigauy which word is used in South Wsdes : Tri Chrug Aeron ; Crugau Gefn Ceidio, near Bhaiadr Gwy ; Tommen y Bala; Tommen y Mur; Tommen Madog [near Pont Fadog — W. JD.] ; and Tommen Coginam in Cardigan- shire ; Tom Elwyddan (in Taliesin, Beddau) ; Tommen liansan- firaid, near Bhaiadr Gwy.
Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks that Tommen y Bala was a Boman watch-mount^ and not for um-buriaL They might be first for urn-burials, and since for watch-mounts. See Snvynllys,
Ton Sawndwb, Monmouthshire.
ToNKAU, in lianylltyd, Glamorganshire.
ToNWEN verch Gynyr o Gaergawch. See Nan,
ToNWY verch Llawdden or Uawddyn Lleddog.
ToRCHOG. Llywelyn Aurdorchog, — ^Aurus TOTquatus.
ToBDDU, a cognomen, black-bellied. Philip Dorddu, etc.
Da wr oeddyd o wreiddyn
T Torddu gjnt a'r ddau Gwynn. — Bh, D.
ToTENYS and Totnes {TyssUio), q. d. Tot Tnys. Traeth Tot- enys, or the Sands of Totenys, was the place where Brutus the Trojan landed with his fleet from GktuL (TyssUio.) This is Tot- nes in Devonshire, near Torbay. See Cathness.
Towi (by Camden, Britannia, Towy), a river which runs by Llanymddyfri, Ilandeilo Fawr, and Caermarthen ; the Tobius of Ptolomy. {Camden.)
Y dydd hwn y daodd hi
Wybr a daiar Bro Dowi. — L. Morganwg,
Wrote also Tyrvi :
Teym gwyr Tstrad Tywi Tomas mawr yw'ch urddas chwi.
Bedo Phylip Bach,
It rises in Mevenydd in Cardigansliire, runs by Llanymddyfri, Uangadog, Llandeilo Fawr, Dinefwr Castle, Caermarthen, and to the sea at lianstephan Castle.
Ac ymladd jn daer am ddwylan Tjwi
Ac jBghyfenw Difian djfod iddi. — Hoian. Myrddin,
Pan fo pont ar Daf ac arall ar Dywi
Y daw 7 diwedd rhjfel iddL — Boian. Myrddin,
TowLBWBDD GwENDDOLAU ap Ceidiaw was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain. See Owenddolau. This was a chessboard or pair of tables : the ground was gold^ and the men silver, and would play themselves when set agoing. N.B. This may pos- sibly be some piece of wheel work. See Ehined for a full account of these rarities.
Traeth Edrtwi, Newport in Penbrokeshire.
Traethy Garn, in Irish Traigh an Chaim, on the sea-coast of Sligo in Ireland, where a great battle was fought between the natives and the Belgae, a.m. 2737. (Ogygia,)
Traeth Maelgwn, yn Aberdyfi. This is the Sands on the Cardiganshire side, over against the village of Aberdovey in Wales, known by this name to this day. It is on the skirts of the bog called Cors Vochno, and overflowed every tide. On the Britons losing the crown of London, and being drove by the Saxons out of Loegria, all their petty princes agreed to meet together on this Sand to choose one of the worthiest among them for their chief king ; the intent of their meeting here being, it seems, that there might be no delay, but that they should resolve on it in the compass of one tide. Here came the Prince of North Wales, Maelgwn Gwynedd, and also the Prince of Powys, of Deheubarth, of Bhieinwg, Esyllwg, and Morganwg (in another MS., and to that place came Powys, Gwynedd, Deheubarth, Euas, Gwent, Morgannwg, and Sersyllwg) ; and by a contrivance of one Maelda Hynaf ap Unhwch Unarchen, lord of Pennardd in Arvon, Maelgwn was chose king ; for he made him a kind of a chair or seat of quills or wings, so that when the flood came none of them could stand his ground except Maelgwn by the help of his floating chair, upon which he was chose their chief king. Perhaps because he had more wit than the rest of them as well as more valour. See No. 2 Appendix to H. Llwyd's Brit. Descr.
Trafal, fl. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.)
Trahaern, one of the commots of Gantref Selef in Brecknock- shire. (Price, Descr.)
Trahaern Brydydd Mawr, a poet, an. 1380. {Arch Brit,, p. 264.) His Satire upon Cadwgan, the vicar, and his niece was 80 bitter that Gadwgan set his own house on fire, and killed his niece, in a week after the Satire was published. (E. Llwyd)
Trahaiarn vel Trehaiarn ap Tynhaiam.
Trahaus. Gwladus Drahaus.
Trallwng, or Trallwm, or Trallwngc. Some derive it from tre and llyn, as Tre'r Llyn, but is wrote and pronounced Trail wng; in English, Welsh Poole, or Poole town, in Montgomeryshire, on the banks of the Severn ; and is interpreted by Mr. Camden, the town by the lake. Mr. Edward Llwyd (in Notes) says Tra- llwn, from Tre 'r Llyn, is an etymology agreeable enough to this place ; otherwise he would suspect Trail wn to be the name of a place near this pool, for Trallwn, he says, is a common appella- tive in Glamorganshire for soft places on the roads, which he takes to be an abbreviation of Traethlyn, a quagmire. [A bog or quagmire in Glamorgan. — I. if.]
Y Trallwng teilwng fu'r tad. — Or, Llwyd ap Eign. Lygliw.
Y mwDg y Trallwng y trig. — 8* Keri,
See Trallwng Elf ad. Dafydd Say o'r Trallwng.
Trallwng Cynfyn is in Brecknockshire. Moses Williams {Notes on H, Llwyd), who derives it from Tre Llyn ; but see Elfad.
Trallwng Elfael is in Caermarthenshire (Powel, Caradoc, p. 269) ; called Tal Llwyn Elgain. Here GruflF. ap Lin. ap lor- werth fought the Normans and defeated them. A place between Llanymddyfri and Brecknock called Trallwng.
Gwnaeth drallif gp^yar neb Trallwng Elfael Pan fa ymdrafael dmd ac erddrwng.
Ein, op Madawg, 1250.
Trallwtn Cau, in Llanvair y Bryn, Caermarthenshire.
Tranch, in Treveihyn.
Trawsfyntdd, a parish and church in Meirion.
Trawsnant, a river that falls into the Towi, q. d. cross-brook ; another by Cwmervin.
Tre, or Trev, or Tref, is a British word signifying a town, village, or society of men : hence eantref, English cantred, t.e.,
100 villas : hence gartref, home ; or, as H. E., gar tir ef, which is a little strained. Tre is in the composition of the names of several towns and places, as Tre Ferwydd ; Tre Feirig ; Tre 'r Ddol ; Tre Fadog ; Tre Friw ; Tre Ly warch ; Tre 'r Maen or Tre- maine ; Trewen ; Trefor or Trevoire ; Tre ^r Dry w ; Tre 'r Gof ; Trefaldwyn ; Tre 'r Llyn ; Tre Filan ; Treflech ; XJcheldre ; y Goedtre ; y Faerdre ; y Pentre ; Tregamedd ; Tre Gastell ; Tref Loddaith, But I never met with the name of a very ancient place, or before the Norman conquest, in Wales beginning with Tre; so that it is all a joke to say, as some do, that the city of the Trinobantes was called by the Britons Tre Newydd, and not Tro Newydd, or New Troy.
Tre Aeddon, vulg6 Tre Eiddon, a place in Anglesey, near Aberffraw. See Aeddon,
Tre 'r Bardd. Ilanvihangel Tre 'r Bardd, parish and church, Anglesey.
Tre Brys [in Mochnant — W, D,], a gentleman's seat. (J, D.)
Tre 'r Driw, Edward Uwyd interprets the town of the Druid, in Anglesey. But see more of this in Eowlands' Mona Antigua, I must observe that Tref here doth not signify a town, but a house or habitation ; as in South Wales " myned i dref ' is to go home. So Trewyn, Tre 'r Gof, Trefeurig, etc., etc.
Tre Lettart, or Letterston, in Penbrokeshire.
Tre Lywarch, in Anglesey.
Brondorf farch Tre Lywarch traidd. — Qruff, ap Mredydd.
Tre 'r Twr.
Trebafared, village, Glamorganshire. Fairs kept here.
Trebuclo {Camden) for Tref y Clawdd, Knighton. The natives call it, for shortness, Tryclo or Tryclaw, and not Trebuclo, for Tre Clawdd.
Trebwll, some place in Powys.
Am DrebwU twll dy ysgwyd. — Lly warch Hen, i Gynddylan.
Perhaps Welsh Pool.
Trecastell, a harbour and gentleman's seat in M6n. Trecas- tell in Ilywel, Brecknockshire. Fairs kept here.
Tredestiniet (qu. whether Distainiaid ?), a village or town- ship in the commot of Malltraeth, Anglesey. (Prince's Extenty
1352.) Here were two loeles of free land. One of them was so free that the Prince had no revenue out of it except a suit to the comraots and hundreds, and the two grand turns yearly ; the other was a harder tenure, though free. The cashiers of it paid the Prince a rent of £4 : 11 : 2. A suit to the commots and hundreds : — for every relief, Is. 8d. ; for every gobr, 10s, ; for every amobr, Is, 8d, Must do the work at the Prince's palace at Aberffraw ; and all the heirs except two must pay cylch stolon. In this last wele there were two parcels of escheat land, and one lying ffryth, i.e,, without being set, or left in common, in the Prince's hands.
Tkedderwen, a gentleman's seat in Montgomeryshire. Moch- nant, qu. ?
Trefdraeth, a village in Penbrokeshire; in English, Newport ; one of the three commots of Cemais in Dyfed. (Price, Descr.) The castle was erased by Llywelyn ap lorwerth, anno Dom. 1215. Also a church and parish in Anglesey, near Malltraeth {k tref, a village, and traeth, sands).
Tree Alun (n. 1.) . Trefor of Trefalun.
Tree Dreyr, a cantref in Cardiganshire.
Tree Ithael, a house where lolo Goch frequented. {Rhys Goch Glyndyfrdwy.)
Tree y Grug, one of the four commots of Cantref Gwent. (Price, Descr.)
Tree Erbin, a place in Cornwall ; Erbin's town. (H. Llwyd.)
Trefaldwyn, the town and castle of Montgomery, — a town so called after Baldwin, Lieutenant of the Marches of Wales in William the Conqueror's time. {Gamden in Montgomery.) * It was called by the English Montgomery, after Eoger de Mont- gomery, Earl of Shrewsbury, who won much land there. Flori- legus says it was so called by Henry III from its situation, J/otw Gomericus, after he had rebuilt [it] ; for the Welsh had over- thrown it in the year 1095, and put the garrison to the sword. {Camden.)
Trefedryd, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire. {J. D)
Trefedwyn, a place in Tegengl, where, and at Rhuddlan and Caerwys, the causes of Tegengl were to be heard in the time of (Powel, Oar., p. 360.)
Trefeka, near St. David's.
Trefawith. Camden (in Herefordshire) says that the Britons called Hereford (before the name of Hereford town was known) by this name, from beech-trees, and ffenford from an old way ; but a little before he derives Hereford, which he writes also Hareford and Hariford, from Ariconinm.
Trefethyn, Monmouthshire.
Trefgaian, a parish and church in Anglesey. See Caian.
Trefin, Penbrokeshire, a village. Fairs kept here.
Trefilant Castle, built by Maelgwn Vychan, ab. 1230.
Treflech, near Oswestry [vulgo Treflach — W,D,].
Treflech, church and parish, Caermarthenshire.
Treflydan, in Gilsfield, a gentleman's seat. {J. J)J)
Treflygan, Cardiganshire.
Trefnant, a gentleman's seat by WelshpooL
Trefor. Several places in Wales thus named, and from thence it is become a surname of families. Sometimes it comes from tref, a dwelling, and mSr, the sea, when the situation is so, as in Cefn Trefor Pawr and Cefn Trefor Fach, near Harlech. Some- times it might come from tref and mawr, great, as Tre'fawr. So Trefor in Anglesey, which is not on the sea. Tudur Trefor.
Trefred. Cantref Trefred, in Powys Vadog, containing the commots of Croesfain, Tref y Waun, and Croes Yswallt.
Trefred Alun. Ysgawl torf rhag Trefred Alun.
Trefriw (qu. whether from treffriw or tref y rhiw), a village in Caernarvonshire.
Trefry, a place in Meirion.
Trefrydd (enw Ue). Gronw o Drefr^dd {k tref Bjid rhydd).
Treffyitnon, a town and castle in Flintshire, fortified by Hugh Earl of Chester, ad. 1210.
Tregaron, a town in Cardigansljire, so named from Carawn, a King of Britain, called by Latin writers Carausius. It lies in the lordship of Carawn or Caron. Tyssilio calls him Carawn, and the common people pronounce [it] Caron. There is a river called Caron in Scotland, and the name of the river at Tregaron is also Caron, in memory of that Prince.
Tregeiriog, a gentleman's seat. {J, D) Uoyd.
Tregynon, in St. Asaph diocese, or Tregyman Chapel, St. Knomkell in Cedewain.
Trehayarn or Trahayarn, the 89th King of Britain.
Trehedyn wrth Emlyn, in Cardiganshire. Fairs kept here.
Treredynog (wrote falsely Tredynock or Tredonock), church three miles of CaerUion, Monmouthshire^ where there is a Soman inscription.
Trewalchmai, church and parish in Anglesey.
Trewastrodion, a township or villa in the commot of Mall- traeth in Anglesey, mentioned in the Extent of Edward UI, 1352. This was probably the estate of the Master of the Horse to the Prince, from gwastraivd. In this villa there were six free weles, and one of native land, or terra ruitiva. This tenure of native land was very slavish. This wele, called Wele Bleddyn Goeg, for example, paid yearly rent to the Prince, 17«. 6rf., and suit to the lord's mill at TindryvoL Eelief and amobr, 6s. 8d.; both must pay part of Slaurum [?]; must carry the lord; must pay cylch stalon, cylch rhaglon, cylch hebogyddion, cylch dour- gon ; and make their part of any house in the manor of Aber- £&aw, as the Prince thinks proper. So in the effect they were the Princess slaves as well as the proprietor's slaves. Free land may fall to be native land. See Tredestinet.
Trewen. Swydd y Drewen.
Treweithan, a gentleman's seat in Montgomeryshire and Monmouthshire. Jones.
Trewommon, al. Brimestone, in Penbrokeshire.
Trewyddfa, Glamorgan. Craig Trewyddfa,
Trewylan, a gentleman^s seat. Kynaston.
Tren, river. Blaen Tren, Carmarddenshire. Tren, a river in Llywarch Hen's Marwnad Cyndylan. Mr. Edward Ilwyd thinks it to be the Tern in Shropshire. There is a small river between Cardigan and Montgomeryshire called Trennig, i.e,, little Tren, near Eisteddva Gurig.
Td a Tren yn y Trydonwy. — Llywarch Hen,
Caer Dren, Stafford. (Thos, Williams.) Tren, a town in Powysland.
AmuBcai Tren tref i dad. — Llywarch Hen,
Caer Dren. {Thos, Williams,) See Tren, a river, and Trennig. Trennio, q. d. Little Tren, a river which falls into Gwy. See Tren.
Treuddyn, a gentleman's seat. Wynne's. {J, D.) Tal y Treuddyn, a gentleman's seat.
Treul (n. f.). Treul Difefyl, daughter of Llynghesawl Llaw- hael, noted for her chastity. {Tr, 54.)
Treyr: vid. Tredeyr.
Teiades, a British book in MS. quoted by Camden in Shrop- shire, endeavouring to prove Caradoc Freichfras to be the famous Caractacus in the time of Claudius Caesar ; and also in his dis- course on the manners of the Britons, to prove three great armies raised in Britain, one of which was settled on the Grse- cian Sea, after destroying a great part of Europe. And yet Mx, Camden runs counter to every[thing] eke said in that
ancient book.
Mwy i arial na Da'r Moroedd
Maint ei rym ai antur oedd. — Tudur Aled,
Du'r Moroedd is mentioned in the Triades.
Trigfylchau, or Treigl Fylchau (B, Llwyd), a mountain near Llanberis in Eryri.
Trillo Sant. Llandrillo, in the deanery of Edeymion, Powys. Llandrillo'n Ehos is called also Duneurth ; a house hard by there of the name of Duneurth, vulgo Dinerth. Qu. whether the same with Troilus ?
Trin (fl.), Trent. (R Llwyd)
Trinio or Trunio Sant. Llandrinio in the deanery of Poole.
Llandrunio Uwyn derw anial. — D. LI,
Tristfardd, Bardd Urien, one of the three red-speared poets. {Tr. 17.)
Tristram (n. pr. v.), by Camden falsely wrote for Trystan or Drystan ap TaUwch. He says he knows not whether the first of this name was not christened by^ King Arthur's fabler, and yet owns Tristan is a name used in France. But if he had seen the Triades, a book which he himself yet quotes in his Britan- nia, he would have seen that Trystan was an officer of King Arthur^s, or said to be so by an author 1,200 year old.
Tro, Troia, and Troea, Caerdro, and Caerdroia, the city of Troy in Phrygia; TPOIA. The ancient tradition among the Britons is that tliey descend from some Trojans that wandered
here after the destruction of Troy ; and even the shepherds on the mountains in Wales to this day cut in the ground the form of the walls of Troy, which is a kind of a regular labyrinth. The Britons had also a kind of play which they called gware gioyr TrOy i.e., the play of the men of Troy, performed by boys with their officers, etc.
The city now called London was at first called Tro Newydd, or New Troy, and by Latin writers Trinovantum ; it being cus- tomary with the wandering Trojans, wherever they settled, to call their chief town Troy, so great an aflTection had they for their ancient Troy.
The publisher of the Laws of Edward the Confessor, who was the predecessor of William the Conqueror, says that there was a court in London called the Hustings, erected in memory of the ancient Troy, and kept according to the custom of Troy. The Troy weights, etc., kept in that court, seem to favour that opinion. But whether that ancient tradition be true that a colony of Trojans under one Brutus or Prydain, or some such name, ever came here, is not at all material or to the honour of the nation ; yet since our ancient writers, the Triades, Taliesin, Nennius, Tyssilio, etc., all say that they came, we must abide by what they say tiU. we can derive ourselves better.
Spelman says the passage before Edward the Confessor's Laws breathes of Galfrid of Monmouth, which, perhaps, is not a very- fair remark till it can be proved that it was wrote after the time of Galfrid, whose book did not appear for near a hundred years after the time of Edward the Confessor. This is the passage speaking of the court of Hustings held in London : — " Fundata enim erat olim et aedificata ad instar et ad modum et in memoriam veteris magnae Trojae et usque in hodiemum diem leges et jura et dignitatem libertates regiasque consuetudines antiquae magnae Trojae in se continet", etc. "And nobody hath a claim to this island except the Cambrian nation, the remains of the Britons who came formerly from Caer Dro/' {Tt. 6.) See Caerdro.
Tro ^WNTDT>,Nova Troja, or Trenovantum, i.e., " urbem novan- tem". (H. Llwyd, Brit. Descr., p. 25.) This is the Trinobantum of Caesar, called afterwards Llundain, London. See Llundain.
Tkodwydd, fl. {Llywa/rch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan) ; in Mordents Map, Trothy, qu. ?
Troverth, a gentleman's seat. {J, D.) Wynn's,
Trowyn, a gentleman's seat. {J. D.)
Trum, the top of a house or mountain. Trum Paethnant, a mountain near Pkimlumon. Also the name of a place in Ire- land. Wrote also Trim. Trum Tryri, the top of Snowden; hence Drum Albin, Drum Connor, Dromore in Ulster ; Drum- bender in Scotland.
Mae ty ar drum y tir draw. — Tudur Aled, Tretad i tithan yw Trum Tan Qastell teg i Ystum.
lolo Oochf to Sir Rog. Mortimer, E. of March. Mor oer a thram Eryri. — H, D. ojp leuan ap Rhys.
Trwyx, used ip the composition of names of places, and sig- nifies a nose, as the Saxon ness in Totness^ Sheerness, eta^ as English antiquaries say. Trwyn Garddwr or Garwddwr; Trwyn y Balog ; y Trwyn Du ; Trwyn y Gogarth [the promontory feuding Priesholme Isle on the Carnarvonshire side. See Tvdno. — TT.I?.]; Trwyn Caergybi
Trwyndwn. lerwerth Drwyndwn (Jt trwyn and twrC).
Trydelig. Cadwgan Tiydelig ; in some copies, Ehydhelyg.
Trydonwy, fl. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.) See Dyfrdonwy and Onwy.
Tryfrwydr, appellative, q. d. Tfwyfrwydr. Meurig Tryfrwydr ap Tegonwy.
Trypfin ap Drem o Frecheiniog.
Tryffon ap Mervyn ap Bhodri Mawr.
Trygan or Trygam (n. L), Caernarvonshire.
Trygarn Sant. Llandrygam Church, Anglesey. • Tryphin (n. pr. v.). Tryphin, father of Drudwas. {Tr. 82.) PwU Tryphin, near Holyhead, Anglesey.
Egin Tryphin wyt Bnffadd. — 0. ap LI, Mod.
Trythin or Tryphin Chapel belongs to Mold Church, Flint- shire.
Trystan Hwland.
Trystan ap Tallwch, un o'r tri galofydd. {Tr, 24.) Wrote also Drystan. Taleithiawc cad. {Tr, 26.)
TUBRAWST (gwraig Elgiid ap Cadfarch) o'r Tathlwyniaid.
TuDAU ap Tyfodedd ap Gwylvyw.
TuDCLTD Sant ; church at Penmachno.
TuDFYL verch Brychan.
TuDNO Sant ; hence Llandudno, on Trwyn y Gogarth. Mab Ithel Hael o Lydaw. (MS.) Hogcden Tiidno Tudclyd was one of the thirteen rarities of Britain, kept in the Museum at Caerllion; i,e,y Tudno^s whetstone. A coward that whetted his weapon upon it would never sharpen it, but it would immediately bring a man of courage's weapon to an edge. See Eluned.
TuDUR (n. pr. v.). Latinized commonly Theodoras. But these real British names have been abused by the too great affectation of the provincial Britons to imitate their Soman masters. Tudur is no Latin or Greek name, but signifies literally steel side, or side of steel, as Ironside was used by the English. So the name should have been Latinized Tvdurus. This would have saved much confusion which hath happened in history by taking one person for another. Camden says the Welsh Britons cor- ruptly call Theodore Tydder; but they know of no such name. I know that about the year 980 a nobleman in South Wales^ from an affectation to follow foreign names, named one of his sons Tewdor or Theodore, who was afterwards called Tewdwr Mawr, whose son was Rhys ap Tewdor, Prince of South Wales afterwards ; but this proves nothing in relation to Tudur, for it is not .the same name^ and he was at liberty to caU his own son
what he pleased.
Aer drud ar Bys ap Tndnr
Ergyd pell ar y gwaed pur. — Inco Brydydd,
See Arthur, larddur^
TuDUB Aled, a poet, an. 1490. He lived at Garth Geri in Ohwibren^ in the parish of Llansannan. {E. Uwyd,)
TUDWAL ap Credic ap Dyfnwal.
TuDWAL Gloff, one of the sons of Ehodri Mawr, who had this surname from a wound in his knee, got in the battle with the Saxons and Danes at Conwy, called Gwaith Cymryd Conwy, or Dial Bhodri ; and for his bravery had lands given him by his brother Anarawd, the reigning Prince, A.D. 880. He was half- brother to the Prince.
TuDWAL Tytclud, father of Ehydderch Hael and of Gwen- fedon the Chaste. (TV. 54.)
TwDWG Sant. Llandudwg.
TuDWEN Santes, qu. ? Llandudwen Chapel in Ueyn.
TUEDD (fl.), the Tweed, a river rising in Scotland. {E, Llwyd)
TuFYD ap Tangno ap Tstrwyth ; qu. whether Divitiacus 1
TuKAM, the ancient name of the river Severn before it was called Hafren. (TyssUio.)
Tweed, river. See Tuedd.
TwLET, Toledo {Dr, Davies), Toledo {E. Uwyd).
TwN (fl.). Harri Dwn. Gruflf. Dwn.
TwNNA ap Ithel neu lethelL Porthdwnna.
TwNNOG. Bodtwnnog, a chapel in Ileyn.
TwB, an ancient Celtic root used in the names of places in Wales, etc., signifying a tower or castle. T Maendwr (n. L) sig- nifies the Stone Tower. Y Twr Moel, a gentleman^s seat. Yr Hendwr (n. L), — Madog o'r Hendwr, signifies the Old Fort, Meirion. Y Twr Gwyn, the White Tower ; i.e., the Tower of London. Mynydd y Twr, a mountain near Holyhead, from the fort on it in ancient times. Tre'r Twr. Twr Celyn, in Anglesey. Twr Branwen, the ancient name of Harlech, i.e., Branwen's Fort. And I suppose several of the fortified towns in Britain and Gaul, to whose name the Bomans have prefixed DuTo, were so called from TW, and not from Bwr, water ; as Durocornovium, Durocasses, Durolenum, DurocataJlauni,etc.,etc.
Twr Baldwyn : see Trefcddwyn.
Twr Tewdws, the Pleiades, q. d. Tewdos's Tower ; or, per- haps, Twrr or Pentwr tew.
TwRCELTN, a house at Llannerch y Medd in Anglesey, which gives njtme to one of the six commots of Anglesey, — Cwmmwd Twrcelyn. [Twr Cuhelyn yn Mon. (i. Dvm.) — W. JR.]
TwR Cynfael, CasteU Cynfael yn Meirion.
Twrf tonn torchawg hael— Twr Cynfael yn cwyddaw.
OynddelWf Ho. ap 0. Gwynedd.
TwR GWENOG. {leuan Tew,)
TwB MoEL, a gentleman's seat. (J. D.)
TwrcJh (n. pr. v,).
Nid adfer Twrch tref i dad. — Llywarch Hen.
See Tspaddaden,
TwRCH Trwyd (n. pr. v.).
— nith ddirblygwyd
— mael aer Twrch Trwyd.— Or. ah Mredydd^ qu. P
TwRCH, fl. {Llywarch Hen), a river in Caermarddenshire, falls into Cothi ; another Twrch falls into the Tawy below Ystrad Gynlais. [Another about Ilan Gadfan. — W. 2>.] ' TwRK, the Turk.
Tyrciaid, Turks, a nation about the Lake Moeotis, mentioned by Mela about 45 years after Christ, and by Pliny soon after. They revolted from the Saracens, and drove them to the East, and the Saracen name is now hardly known.
TWRLLACH. Ehyd y Twrllachau.
TwRLLACHiAiD or TwRLLACHiAD, a place near Dulas in Angles- ey ; wrote in the Prince's Extent Book, Turghlaiet.
TWROG Sant. Llandwrog in Caernarvonshire : hence Maen Twrog, a parish in Meirion.
TwYMLYN Llwyd ap Madog lAwyd ap Griflfri.
TWYSOG, a gentleman's seat in Denbighshire. Parry.
TwYTHWAL Merin (or, as another MS., Twythwal Werin) in Gorhoflfedd Gwalchmai, a place near Craig Freiddin, Montgome- ryshire. See Merin.
Ty Ddewi, village, St. David's, Penbrokeshire ; the see of the Archbishops of Wales formerly. Fairs here.
Ty Fry (Y), a house in Anglesey.
Ty Illtuo, an ancient monument of rude stones in Llanham- mwlch, Brecknockshire. {E. Llwyd.)
Ty Walwern, a castle in Cyfeiliog. Here was the eighth battle of Llewelyn ap lorwerth. See Cylch Llywelyn,
Dybnant dybyddan vydd
Dy Walwem drywern drefydd. See Walwem.
Ty Gwyn ar Daf, the first abbey or friar house in Wales
(after the destruction of Bangor is y Coed, which savoured not
of Eomish dregs) was this Ty Gwyn, called Whitland Abbey,
built anno Dom. 1146. (Humph. Lloyd, JVb/e on Claro^foc.) There are fairs kept here.
Tybio and Tibie (n. pr. v.). Llandybio, Caermarthenshiie. Fairs kept here.
Tydecho Sant ap Anun Dda, an Armorican Britain, had a church and a monastery at Mowddwy and Llandudoch about A.D. 530 or 540. His legend, according to Dafydd Llwyd ap Llewelyn ap Gruffydd, is this (Cywydd Tydecho Sant) : — ^That he resided at Mowddwy ; that he and St. Dogwel and St T^- war once lived together at Llandudoch (which lies in Penbroke- shire, on the river TeiiSi, below Cardigan town, where there hAs been a large monastery called St. Dogmael's) ; that he was an abbot, and a relation of King Arthur; that upon a quarrel between him and Emyr Uydaw (ie., Emyr, King of Armorica) he came over to Mowddwy and built a temple (teml) there, and kept a good house ; that his bed was the blvs rock on the side of the valley, and that he wore a hair coat (pais rawn), and was a confessor. Maelgwn Gwynedd, in the heat of his youth, sent his horses and dogs to be fed by his prayers. Tydecho turned them loose into the mountain ; and when they were fetched, though it had been cold winds and hoar frost, they were found fat and strong, and their white colour changed into a gold colour. Maelgwn Gwynedd, provoked at this, took away Tydecho's oxen; but the next day deer instead of oxen were found in his team aploughing, and a grey wolf drawing the harrow after them. Maelgwn came with a pack of white dogs to hunt to these rocks, and sat upon Tydecho's blue stone ; but when he endea* voured to get up, he found his backside was quite fastened to the stone that he could not stir, and so was obliged to make matters up with the saint. He sent back his oxen, and gave him for atonement the privilege of sanctuary for a hundred ages, so that neither man nor beast could be taken from his land ; no battles, or burning, or killing, to be admitted there. He cured the lame, blind, and deaf, etc. When Cynan the Prince stole St. Tegfedd, his sister, a nun, her ravishers were all struck bUnd, and she came home a maid; in satisfaction for which Cynan gave him the lauds of Garth Beibio. No mortu- aries, nor amobrage, nor other services, from these lands. The
Pope granted these privileges, and Howel ap Cadell corrobo- rated them. When an army of about 500 men once came npon his land, he miraculously conquered them without fighting, by enervating them, as the Devil is said to have done by the Friar Preachers formerly, as this author says :
Y modd y daliodd Diawl meddynt
Y Brodyr Pregethwyr gynt.
D. Llwyd cvp LI, ap Chruffydd, Thus endeth the legend :
Eled bawb o'r wlad y bo
I duchan at Dydecho. — B, U. ap LI, ap Oruffydd,
Tydiau verch Brychan, yn y tri Gabelogwar, qu. ?
Tydknwy : see Bhiw Dydmwy,
Tydweiliog, chapel dedicated to Gwy ven Santes. {Br, Willis.)
Tyfid ap Cadwgon : qu. Divitiacus ?
TYFODoa or Tywodog, river; i.e., sandy. Ystrad Dyfodog, Glamorganshire.
Tyfriog Sant liandyfriog.
Typrydog Sant ap Dingad. Ilandyfrydog Church in Anglesey. See Gir. Cambrensis in Itin. Cambr, A miracle done by this Saint. There is also a stone pillar in that parish, called Ileidr Tyfrydog, or Tyfiydog's Thief. The story is, that a thief rob- bing this Saint of his books, was turned by him into a piUar of stone with the books on his back ; and the bundle of books are seen as plain on his back as they were the day they were turned into stone.
Typyrdd, fl. (Zl. Hen in Marwnad Cyndylan.)
Tygai Sant. LlandygSi, Caernarvonshire.
Tygent or Tygen, a river mentioned by Ilywarch Hen in
Marwnad CadwaUon. Qu. in Powysland, the north side of Haf-
Llnest CadwaUon ar Havren
Ao o'r ta draw i Ddygen
A breiait yn Uosgi Meigen. — Llywarch Hen,
Tygwnning Sant. Llandygwning. Tyguy, wrote anciently for Tywy. {E, Llwyd) Tygwydd or Tygwy Sant. Llandygwydd, Cardigansliire. Tyngyr (n. pr. v.). Vid. Gwelygorddau Powys.
Tyngyrion, the people or tribe of Tyngyr ; as if yon would say the Campbells, the Hamiltons, or other clans, in Scotland* So from lorwerth comes lorwerthion ; from Madog, Madogion ; from Gwalchmai, Gweilchion, etc. See Gwelygorddau Powys. The land belonging to these tribes was afterwards called after their names : Tyngyrion, Gwrtheymion, Edeymion, Gwynogion* i.e., Swydd Wynogion,
Tyndaethwy, un 6 chwmwd M6n, or Dindaethwy.
Tyno Bydwal (n. L) {Cylchau Cyrn/ru)
Tyrnog, Lat. Tighemacus. (E, Llvryd,) Llandymog in Den- bighshire. Vid. Dymog.
Tyssul (n. pr. v.). Ilandyssul in Caermarthenshire [Cardi- ganshire]. The same with
Tyssilio Sant, son of Brychwel Tsgithrog, Prince of Powys, wrote a history of the Britons about the year 666, qu. ? But Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks 610, It was, I suppose, wrote in Latin, and carried over to France by the British refugees about that time. It was seen at the Abbey of Bee, in Normandy, by H. Huntingdon before Galfrid published his translation, — a very ancient copy. See Lambard. Out of Latin it was tran- scribed into the Breton language, or the language of the Bretons of Armorica. In that shape Walter Mappeus or Calenius, Arch- deacon of Oxford, found it in Armorica, and gave it to Galfrid Arthur, then Archdeacon of Monmouth, to translate into Latin, whose translation we have in print and MS., as also the Welsh translation of Walter Mappeus out of the Breton.
Canu i DyssiUo Sant. (Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr, apud Uyfr Coch Hergest. Arch, Brit,, p. 258.)
Uandyssil, in Cedewain, Powys; liandyssilio Church, An- glesey ; LlandyssiUo Gogo, Cardiganshire ; Liandyssilio yn lal, a church and parish ; Liandyssilio in the deanery of PooL
Tyssel ap Corun, Llandyssel.
Tyuiot, a river in Scotland. (Major, Hist, Scot)
Tywyn Meirionydd, a village.
Vadum Salicis, Willowford.
Vaga, the Latin name for Gwy, fl.
Vectukiones, the Picts of the Highlands of Scotland, or the North Picts ; the Southern Picts being Dicalidones, or Deau Gelyddion, South Caledonians, from Coed Celyddoa See Uchdir.
Venedotia and Gwynethia, Gwynedd, North Wales.
Venjlia, wife of Neptune ; in the Celtic, V'anwyl, or Gwen- ^yl, or Genhilles. See BrtU y Brenhin. and Gwalchmai.
Venus, the name of several women in the Boman history. It was made from Gwener, a Celtic Princess, and niece of Sadivm (Saturnus). There was also a daughter of the Celtic Prince lou of that name ; from whence the Britons call Friday (Dies Yenen8)Dydd Gwener, from the Celtic gwSn, a smile — ^the smiling goddess ; therefore Cicero^s derivation of Venus from veniendo, or her readiness to come to man, is ridiculous.
Verwic (Y) : see Ferwig and Aberwig.
Vesta : see Feda.
ViNVED, a river in Yorkshire, where Penda, King of Mercia, was slain in battle by Oswy, and the place called Winwidfield. (Bede, 1. iii, c. 24.) prnps^^ in the Saxon. Qu. whether a British name ? See Wynyet,
Vl Cassar. {Tr. 48.)
VoRGANiUM, the town of Morlais in Gaul, so called by Ptolomy and the ancient Gauls {Camden in Glamorgan) ; and frx)m hence he gathers that the county of Morganwg was so called from lying on the sea, as Morlais doth. Why, then, is not every country that lies on the sea called Morganwg ? And why must the ancient national tradition be laid aside for a modem guess ?
Vbghbichiad. Spelman's gloss in Adelingvs. See Oivrthry- (Mad,
Vrnuch: see Vmach.
Vrnach or Vrnuch. Caer Vmach {Nennius, qu. ?). Vmach {Triad) ; another copy, Vmas. (Usher, CataL) Caer Fumach, qu. whether Brynaich ?
VwcHFOELiAiD, Helvetii, the Switzers ; ie., Highlanders. {E. Llwyd.)
XJcHDlR, perhaps wrote for Uclieldir yr Alban, the Highlands ; and from thence might be formed Uchdirion, which the Romans turned to Veeturiones, the Northern Picts, who inhabited the Orcades and to the north of the Grampian Mountains.
UcHDRYD ap Edwin.
XJcHELDDiN, Lat. Axelodunum. It should be Ucheldunum. (K JUioyd)
UCHELDREF, a gentleman's seat, Anglesey. Another in Meir- ion, qu. Meyrick ?
UcHELGOED GWYNEDD, lands given by his brother Anarawd ap Rhodri to Tudwal Gloff, in reward for his valour at Gwaith Cymryd Conwy, commonly called Dial Rhodri, A.D. 880. (R, Vaughan^
UcHTRYD (a pr. V.) ; hence Hafod Uchtryd in Cardiganshire. Cwmmwd Mab Uchtryd in Cantref Mawr, Caermarthenshire. (Price, Descr,) Camden makes Uchtryd a German name, signi- fying high counsel ; but it is British, formed from t^, above, and drud, stout.
lach draw a dawn Uchtryd oedd. — D. L LI.
Udd Kesab. {B. Vaughan) Wlcaesar is common in Brut y Srenhinoedd, Ufydd. Llanufydd. Nefydd. Ull (n. pr. v.), Julius.
Rybn Ull Kessar. — Prydydd y Moch,
Unwrch ap Unarchen ap Mor, qu. ? See Traeth Maelgum. Unhwch or Ynhwch (n. pr. v.). Unhwch Unarchen : vid. Traeth Maelgvm. Hence Caer Ynhwch near Dolgelleu.
Dym kywarwyddiat Ynhwch.
LlywoTch Hen, in Mar. Yw. ap Urien.
Mr. Edward Uwyd is induced from this to think that this Un- hwch killed Ywein ap Urien ; but the Triades says that he was killed by Uofan Uawddino; some Saxon, it seems. [Llofan killed Urien, and not Owen his son. Vide Llywarch Hen. —
Urael (n. pr.).
Llew tip Buellt a'i Hnrael. — L. 01. Cothi,
Urbgen. This Dame in Nennius (who is said, with Ehydderch, Gwallawc, and Morgant, to have fought Hussa the Saxon Bang) is the XJrien Reged of Taliessin, Llywarch Hen, Aneurin, etc., who, and his sons, is also said by the same Nennins to have stoutly fought with Deodrw, son of Ida. {Nenn., c. 65.j
XJrful, enw lie. (Z. 01. Cothi.) Llanurful Ynghaereinion.
Uriconium : see Oiorygion.
Uriel (n. pr.), one of the seven archangels.
Mihangel, Unel yn arwain graddau
A dynn eneidiaa dan ei adain. — L. G. Cothi. See Oahriel.
TJrien Reged, or TJrien ap Cynfarch, called by Nennius Urb- gen ; so called because he was Prince of Reged in North Britain. He was son of Cynvarch Hen, and brother to Llew ap Cyn- farch, who married King Arthur's sister Anna. His son, Ywain ap Urien, was one of King Arthur's generals. He was cefn- derw of IJywarch Hen.
Gwae fy llaw lladd fy nghefnderw.
This Urien was killed by Llofan Llawddino {Tr. 38) : some Saxon, qu. ? His mother was Nefn, daughter of Brychan (Tr. 52), and his wife Modron verch Afallach. {Tr. 52.) On account of his great feats in the wars he was called "un o*r tri tharw cad'^. (Tr. 12.) Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks he was killed by Unhwch. (Arch. Brit., p. 259.) Camden says some learned Danes have told him Urian is the same with George, — a Greek name signi- fying a husbandman. He need not have gone further than the Triades (a MS. of the Britons which he quotes in his Britannia), and there he would have found that Urien ap Cynfarch was a Prince of Reged, in North Britain, in the time of Uthur Ben* dragon, about the time the Saxons came into Britain ; and that his son, Owain ap Urien, was a general under King Arthur. Would anybody go to Denmark, Sweden, Italy, or Greece, to search for the meaning of this name when he could find it at home ? But far fetched is best for ladies.
Urien, the 51st King of Britain.
Urp (n. pr. v.), a Teutonic name. Urp Luyddawc, UrpusBd-
licosusy Urp the Warlike, or Urp with the great army. This Prince came from Llychlyn to desire succours of the King of Britain (who the Triades calls) Cadyal mab Eryn, whom I take to be Cadell mab Geraint, the 43rd King after Brutua (About this time, perhaps, the second Brennus and Belgius spoiled Macedon and Greece, and ruined the Temple at Delphos.) This Urp Luyddog agreed with the King of Britain, for a certain sum of money, to have out of every one of his principal cities as many men as he would bring into it ; and there went into the first city but himself and his General, Mathutafwr, or Mathuta Fawr. But when the islanders understood what a bad bargain they had made, they were sorry, and yet were obliged to stand to it. This was one of the greatest armies, the Triades says, that ever went out of this island ; and none of them ever re- turned, but settled themselves in two islands on the coast of Greece, called Gals and Avena. {Tr, 40.) One of these, Mr. Edward Llwyd thinks to be Corfu. Camden, quoting the Triades, thinks they settled in Galatia.
This Urp, with his Cimbrians from the coast of the Baltic, or perhaps the Netherlands, may be the Belgius that joined with the second Brennus to invade the Romans, who then had laid a scheme for universal monarchy ; and if he was from Belgium, he might be called Urpus Belgius. The number of these British auxiliaries were 61,000 men. (Tr. 40.) Or it might be that army of Cumbrians that invaded Rome in Marius's time, A. Chr. 107.
There is a mistake here in the number of men, for 15 cities, in arithmetical proportion (getting two men out of the first city), will produce 65,536 men. But perhaps Urp was contented with 61,000, and would not be too hard upon people that he had out- witted.
Uksula (n. f.), said to be a British saint, a lady martjrred by Attila, King of the Huns, and daughter of Dianotus, King of Cornwall ; but we have no such name' as Ursula in the British History or MSS., and seems to have been coined by Galfrid, and foisted into his Latin translation of Tyssilio, or by the monks that transcribed him afterwards.
UsBEB (n. pr. v.), father of Rore.
XJsK, Monmouthshire, Vid. Wysg,
UsLOYN. Mjmydd Usloyn, Monmouthshire.
UssA ap Cynedda Wledig gave name to Maesuswallt, now Oswestry. (Price, Descr)
UsSA, son of Ilafyr. {Caradoc in Howel Dda.)
Uthur (n. pr. v.), Latinized Uter. XJthur, the son of Constan- tine, surnamed Uthur Bendragon, the 99th King of Britain after his brother Emrys (called by Latin writers Aurelius Ambrosius). Both brothers were brought up in Armorica in France, where they escaped from the hands of Gwrtheyrn, who killed their brother Constaus, whom he first made king from a monk, to make room for himself; and in his distress called in the Saxons to assist him. This was in the year 449. The lands of Witur mentioned in the Armorican writers as part of Little Britain, seems to belong to this Uthur. His father Constantin being brother to Aldwr, King of Britanny.
Hu(^ Uthur Bendragon, un o^r tri prif hud. (IV. 32.) This was Myrddin.
Camden says he was surnamed Pendragon because of his ser- pentine subtil ty. (Gibson's Camden, p. 298, 1st edit.) And yet nothing of that subtilty appears in history, except the battle which he fought at St. Alban's, and beat the Saxons, be reckoned such.
Uthur had two sons, Arthur and Madoc, and a daughter Anna. {Tr, 82.) See Fendragon.
UwcH Aeron, the country to the north of the river Aeron in Cardiganshire. See Aeron,
UwcH Cerdin : see Cerdin river.
UwcH Conwy.
UwcH CoEp, one of the commots of Cantref Iscoed in Gwent. (Price, Descr.)
UwLLYN, qu. ? LlanuwUyn, parish and church in Penllyn deanery, St. Asaph diocese. Some say from Uwch y Llyn, and Llanyccil. from Cil y Llyn (sed qu. ?), i.e., Llyn Tegid.
Uwch Mtnydd^ one of the commots of Cantref Elfel, between Wy and Severn.
Uwch Nant, a cantref in Powys Vadog, containing the com- mots of Merffordd and the two Maelors.
Waith. Ynya WaitL Vid. Owaith.
Wallia, the present Latin name of the country now called Wales. This is the name given it by most of the Saxon writers who had occasion to mention this country. Giraldus Cambrensis falls foul of Galfrid, in his translation of the British history, for his foolish etymology of Wales from Wallon, a general, or Wen- dolen, a queen ; and calls it false and fabulous, as there never were such persons in Wales ; nor is that passage to be found in the British original, which, no doubt, Giraldus knew when he called it a fable of Galfrid, which he had added as a flourish in his translation of the old British history. Giraldus insists that Wallia is a Saxon word signifying foreign, and therefore the Cambrians are called Wallenses, and the country Wallia. Poly- dore Virgil ignorantly claims this etymology as his own, or had not read Giraldus. I own that the Saxons called the Cambrians Weales, and even the North Britains Stradcluyd Weales, and the Cornish Comweales ; but how came TaKessin, who lived within a hundred years after the Saxons coming to Britain, and before they had any learning among them, to call this country Wallia ?
Eu tir a gollant Ond Gwyllt Wallia.
There was no such a letter in the Latin as W, therefore there could not be such a word as Wallia in Taliessin's time; for the Eoman language and learning flourished then among the Britons, as is well known to persons the least versed in the ecclesiastical his- tory of those times. And this word in Taliessin's poem must be wrote either Valia or Galia ; the latter rather, which, by the British grammar rules and nature of the language^ would be here wrote Gwyllt Alia, which afterwards, in imitation of the English, was wrote Wallia, or rather WaUa. G^lia was certainly, in the ancient British, the name of Gaul, and the people Gal- iaid. The Irish at this day call an inhabitant of France Gallta. Why might not the inhabitants of Wales (upon a supposition that they came originally from Gaul) be called Walians By the Saxons, and the country Walia, as the idiom of the English is to
turn Welsh words beginning with G into a W ? as Gwal, Wall ; Gwin, Wine ; Gwlan, Wool ; Gwynt, Wind ; Gwan, Want, i.e., pale ; Gair, Word ; Gwae, Woe ; Gwerth, Worth ; Gwjmn, White ; Gwaeth, Worse ; Gwaith, Work, etc., etc. Comugallia, the name of Cornwall, seems to be of the same origin, and Corn- weales was the Saxon name. John Major (Hist. Scot) calls it ValUa.
Walwern, a castle in Cyfeiliog : vid. Ty Walwem,
Watgin, Angl. Watkins : vid. Gwatcin.
Waun (Y), Chirk in Denbighshire, a church and parish and castle. Y Waun, in Glamorganshire. There are fairs kept here.
Wddyn. Uanwddyn. Vid. Gwydden.
Weir. Caer Weir [Triad), Caer Wair {Th. Williams), War- wick (Usher's CataL). Caer Gwrig is Warwick.
Welsh Poole : see Trallwng,
Wenni (Y) river runs by Llanha... and Wenni, and to Og- more Castle.
Wenallt (Y), a place in the lordship of Maesaleg in Mon- mouthshire, mentioned by Dafydd ap Gwilyn.
Nid oes bran yn y Wenallt
Ka bo*n wyrdd ei ben a*i wallfc. — B. Q,
A'u gangan yn an gyngerth Ai wn a'i bais yn un berth.
Wentset or Wentsland, the English name of the county of Monmouth. (Camden, Britannia.) In the British, Gwent and Casgwent and Castell Gwent.' Vid. Caerwent
Went. Caerwent [Triades) ; Usher, Caerwent ; Nennius, Caer Gwent; Chepstow in Monmouthshire, near the mouth of the river Gwy (Engl. Wye), the Venta Silurum of the Romans. Gwent is the name of the country thereabouts. Vid, Gwent Blaen Gwent, Monmouthshire, ch. and sch. Vid. Blaen Gwent,
Wen^yn ap IdnertL
Wen Ynys (Y), {TyssUio), Albion, according to Galfrid ; not in the Brut Tyssilio ; one of the ancient names of the isle of Britain.
l^ysgngettawr perchen y Wen Ynys. — Tyssilio.
See YFel Ynys.
Wbrddon (Y) : vii Ewerddon.
Wern (Y) : see Gwem.
Wern Ddu (Y), a gentleman's seat. Parry.
Ween Fawr (Y), a gentleman's seat. Parry.
Wern Goch (T). Maes y Wern Goch, Meirion.
Werthefin: vid. Gwerthejm.
Wewenhyr. Caer Wewenhyr. {Ystori K. op KUydd.)
Wic and Wick : see Oicig and Gwic.
WicwAiR neu Wickwair. Khys ap Cwnnws o Wicwair. A place in Dyffryn Clwyd, wLere Sion Tudur the poet lived, and had an estate of his own^ in Qaeen Elizabeth's reign. Qu. Wig y Gwair ?
WiDAWLWiR. Caer Widawlwir. {Triades.) In another copy, Wedawlwir ; qu. one of twenty-eight cities ?
WiLCOG ap Lly welyn ap Ywain.
Winifred, or Winifrid, or Gwenfrid as Camden will have it, is said to be a British name signifying fair and beautiful ; but we find it not in the British. By the Britons named Gwen- frewL Said to be Abbess of Gwytherin in North Wales. This is she that gave name to Holywell in Flintshire, Ffynnon Wen- frewi ; but we have nothing in our British history or MSS. that I have met with relating to that name, though this St Winifred, if ever there was such a person of that name, should have been mentioned by some writer since the time of Maelgwn Gwynedd, A.D. 540, about which time St Beuno, who is said by the legends to replace her head on. Her life, in Latin, is in the Cottonian Library, which seems to be ancient (Claud. A, 5) ; another, by Eobert Salopiensis, in the Bodleian Library at Ox- ford, wrote about 1140 ; another, said to be out of the Cottoi^ life, in Sir James Ware's library, — an abbreviation out of Bobert of Salop by John of Timnouth about 1366, afterwards transcribed by J.Capgrave. An account of her life in the Breviary of Sarum read like the Epistles and Gospels in churches. J. Capgrave's life of her was abbreviated by Lawrence Surius, a Carthusian, and from him abbreviated by a German monk. J. Capgrave's was also transcribed into M. Alford the Jesuit^s Annals^ and after- wards Englished by Cressy. Her life in English rhyme, about
A.D. 1300, in the Public Library, Oxon. (A. 72, fol. 189), and in prose in the English Legend. In 1635 one J. F., a Jesuit, trans- lated Eobert of Salop into English, which was reprinted in 1712, and published with Dr. Fleetwood's Notes, a.d. 1713.
Dr. Fleetwood seems to doubt whether there ever was such persons as Winifred, or Beuno that is said to have put her head on. But this is too stoical, and a bad way of reasoning. The monks have invented lies about St Winifred in order to get money ; therefore there never was such a person as Winifred. I find no church in Wales dedicated to her name, unless Llan- ddewivrewi be one, dedicated to her and Dewi. But the river is, perhaps, Brefi. And what is still more remarkable, of the many churches said to be erected or founded by Beuno, none of them bears his name, or are called Llanveuno.
Tudur Aled, about the year 1490, wrote the Legend of Gwen- frewi in verse, and mentions one Pennant, then Abbot of the Monastery near Holywell. Qu. whether at Sychnant? The time allotted by Alford and Cressy to St. Winifred is A.D. 660. See Gwenfrevri and Beuno,
WiNOC Sant : vid. Gvniniog.
Wlcaesar {Brvi y Brenhinoedd), Julius Caesar.
Wrexham : vid. Qwrecsam.
Wrw : vid. Erw.
Whygion. Caer Wrygion mentioned by Dr. Thomas Williams in his Catalogue of the British Cities, and by Usher in his Cata- logue. The word signifies to grow strong, to grow manly, from g%or, a man, and Caer Wrygion, the city of strong men. I take the place to be- the city called by the Eomans Uriconium, which is Wroxeter in Shropshire. Here was found an inscription on the tomb of an officer of the Legio Vicesima Victrix, which favours the meaning of the British name (if it was given after the Romans fortified it). I suppose the Caer Gorgorn in the Triades is the same, and also the Caire Guirigon of Nennius.
Wydigada, one of the four commots of Cantref Mawr in Caer- marthenshire. (Price, Descr,)
Wyddgrug (Yr), or Mold Castle in Flintshire, village, parish, and church, vulgo Yr Wyrgrug, a very strong fort of the Nor- mans in the year 1144, which had been often besieged but never
won. Taken by Owen Gwynedd after several assaults, and erased to the ground. (Caradoc.)
Wyddfa (Yb), or Y Widdfa, in English called Snowdon or Snowden, from whence the name of the Forest of Snowden was given to all that range of mountains by the natives called Creig- iau or Mynyddoedd Eryri, q. d. the Eagle Mountains. Eagles bred there in the memory of man. But the name Snowden was made from eiry, snow, q. d. the Snow Mountains, or Eiryriw, i,e,, EhiVr Eira. Vid. Bhiw.
Wygyb: vid. Gwygyr.
VfYLFA. (Yr), nomen loci, literally the watch-place, Pen'r Wylfa in Anglesey.
Wynstay, Rhiwabon parish, the seat of Sir Wat Williams Wynn, Bart.
Wynt. Caer Wynt. This is the Guint Guic of the lib. Cot- ton, of Nennius, and Gwentguic of the Lib. Cant, of Nennius, and Caer Wynt of the Triades, i.e., the Wind City, now Win- chester, properly Windchester.
Wynyaon. The castle of the sons of Wynyaon in Caradoc (in 0. Gwynedd, p. 220), is a mistake of the translator out of the Welsh for Mahwynion^ one of the cantrefs of Cardiganshire. See Mabwynion.
Wynyet and Wynnedd, a river where Oswydd Aelwyn killed Penda and thirty princes more. (TyssUio.) See Vinved.
Wyrangon. Caer Wyrangon {Triades) ; in Ifennius, Guricon ; in Usher, Caer Wrangon ; in Dr. Th. Williams, Caer Wrangon ; Worcester: in Latin, Vigomia, Brannogenium (-4in«TwrWyre Fach (Y) and Yr Wyre Fawr, rivers in Llansani&ed, Cardiganshire. Qu. Arwyre ?
Wysg, anciently wrote Vise, the name of a river in Wales, by the English called Usk. The meaning of this word in Irish is
water, from whence Mr. Edward Llwyd infers that our British ancestors, at their first coming and driving ofF the Gwyddelian Britons, being ignorant of their language, retained the word as a proper name of a river, as the Saxons, on the like case, have called some rivers by the name of Avon, which in British sig- nifies only river in general But Mr. Llwyd should have con- sidered that Visg or Visge did not signify a river, but was the word for water in general ; and by that way of reasoning they might have called a lake, or the sea, visg, as well as one river. But, says he, abundance of rivers in England were called by them, from that word^ by the name of Aifc, JEse, Isc, Ode, and Usk. It is very extraordinary that the same word should run through all the vowels. I am afraid it is too great a scope to take even in etymology. The English, he says, have partly retained these names afterwards, and partly varied [them] into Ax, Ex, Ox, Ux,
This hypothesis, which may be denied with the same confi- dence as it is asserted, doth not prove that our ancestors did not understand the language of the Gwyddelian Britains, or first inhabitants (see the word Llwch), for the very word visg with them had the same meaning with the word Vi or Wy with us, as appears in the names of rivers, Conwy, Elwy, Llugwy, etc. ; and in all waterfowl, gwydd, hwyad, gwylan, etc., etc. So that it might be but a difference of dialect. And as for Asc, Esc, Isc, and Osc, they may be accounted for otherwise, without that licen- tious liberty of changing all the vowels at our pleasure, which Mr. Baxter in his Glossary hath also been ridiculously guilty of.
Why should Mr. Llwyd attempt to bring Oxford (which was once Oxenford) fipom Ouskford, without proving that the Britons had a river called OiLsk, unless he had catched the infection from Mr. Baxter ? Mr. Llwyd very well knew that Ehydychen was the name in British which signifies the ford of oxen, and not ox J and this from very ancient times,
Yal, enw lie. Vid. lal
YcciL, qu. ? Llanyccil, church and parish in Penllyn. Some say from dl y llyn. YcH, river. Aberych.
YcHEN. Bodychen, yn sir F811. Ehydychen, jm Lloegr.
Ydon or Yddon, fl. {Llywarch Hen in Marwnad Cadwallon.) Llueat Gadwallon ar Ydon. [Ar Eithon, qiL avon Ystrad £nni, Maesyved ?— TF. JD.]
Yfed, qu. ? Pen Yfed, a gentleman's seat. {J. D) Gwemyfed in Brecknockshire. [Ednyfed, qu. ? — W. J),]
Ylched Sant, qu. ? Uechylched Chapel, M8a
Ynad, a judge. Yr Ynad Coch a'r Ynad Du. Adda ap yr Ynad Du. Cillyn Ynad.
Ynellan, qu. ? Rhisiart Mostyn o Fodynellan.
Yngharad, recti Angharad.
Yngnad, id. q. Ynad. Madog Yngnad.
Ynfyd, a cognomen. Cadavael Ynfyd [Cadavael Ynad, medd Syr S. Meyrig, ei ddisgynydd — W. D., 1842] ; qu. whether the Cadgubail of Nennius ?
Yniwl (n. pr. v.). Yniwl larll, father of Enid, one of the ladies in King Arthur's court.
Ynllj, wrote anciently for Enlli, Vid. Ynys Erdli,
Ynwch (n. pr. v.). Oaer Ynwch, near Dolgelleu. Tudur Fychan o Gaer Ynwch ; but rightly Unhwck Vid. Traefh Mad- gym and Ewch,
Ynyr (proprium nomen viri) putatur significare veteribus agricolem. Heb. nur, arare. Nvr, ager cultus. (B. VattgJuin,) A nephew of King Cadwaladr (according to Tyssilio), whom he sent with Ivor his son to Britain with auxiliaries obtained of Alan, King of Uydaw, i.e., Armorica, when he himself, like a wise Prince, thought himself safer at Borne. Caradoc, in his Chronicle, seems to make Ivor a son of Alan, and Ynyr a nephew of Alan ; but our ancient British MSS. say that Cadwaladr had three sons, Ivor, Alan, and Idwal Iwrch, which is the most pro- bable story ; for Ivor might be of years fit to be a general, and Alan also a youth in the army; but Idwal so young that he left him in the care of Alan, King of Armorica. This Ivor, Caradoc says, is he who the Saxon writers call Ive apd lew. King of the West Saxons, that reigned after Cedwall. A MS. of John Castor or Blever, quoted by Dr. PoweU {Caradoc, p. 16), makes both Ivor and Hcnyr to be sons of the daughter of Cadwaladr, King of Britain, and that they came over from Ireland ; and
makes Inas, King of West-Sex, to oppose them, and that this Inas laid siege to the Castle of Snowdon (perhaps Penmaen Mawr), and took
Ynyr, King of Gwent (according to Buchedd Beuno) gave Beuno a gold ring and crown, and became a monk and a disciple under Beuno, and gave him three estates in £uas, and the people, with their goods and chattels, in those divisions. See Iddon ap Ynyr.
Ynyk Fychan ; hinc family of Byners or Ab Yn)rr.
Ynts is a most ancient Celtic word prefixed to the names of places, and signifies an island or spot of ground surrounded by water. Old orthography, enes ; in the Greek, nesos; lAt, insula; Cornish, ennis; in the Armoric, enezen; in Irish, innshe; in the Scotch Irish \insh\ Hence Totness, Cathness, Sheerness, etc., and not from nose.
The Isle of Britain had these names in ancient times : —
1, Clas Merdin (TV.).
2, Ynys Fel (Tr.), Y Fel Ynys.
3, Ynys Prydain (Tr.) and Ynys Bryt.
4, Ynys y Cedyrft (Prov.), the Isle of Heroes.
5, Y Wen Ynys (Tyssilio), or Albion (Gal/rid).
The three islands once belonging to North Wales were —
1, Mon, Anglesey, called also Yr Ynys DowelL
2, Manaw, the Isle of Man.
3, Ynys Wair, Lundey Isle.
Tair rhag ynys tir Gwynedd :
Ynys F6n, Ynys Fanaw
Ynys Wair dros Ddendr draw. — L, 0, Cothi.
The adjacent islands of Mon :
1, Ynys Seiriol, Priestholm Island.
2, Ynys Llygod, or Ynys Moelvre.
3, Ynys Gadam, against Dulas.
4, Ynys Amlwch, East Mouse.
5, Ynys Badrig, Middle Mouse.
6, Ynys Bigel, West Mouse.
7, Ynys y Moelrhoniaid, Skerry Isle.
8, Ynys Gybi, makes Holyhead Harbour.
9, Ynys Arw, North Stack.
10, Ynya Lawd, South Stack.
11, Ynys y Gwylyn.
12, Ynys WeUt.
13, Ynys y Meibion.
The adjacent islands of Caernarvonshire : —
1, Ynys Enlli, Bardsey.
2, Ynys y Gwylyn.
3, 4, Ynjrsoedd Tudwal, i.e., St. Tudwal's Islands.
On the coast of Meirion : — ^Ynys y Brawd, at the entrance of
Abermo. On the coast of Cardiganshire : — ^Ynys Aberteifi. On the coast of Penfro : — Ynys Hyrddod, Eamsey Isle, and its
adjacent islands :
1, Esgob.
2, Bhosson.
3, Deufych.
4, Emskym.
5, Eilin a'r Canonwyr.
Y Scarlas, at Solvach ; St. pride's Isle, at Goldtop ; Walis or Gresholm ; Skomar ; Skokam ; Ynys Pyr, or Caldey, at Tenby ; Ynys Arddon on the coast of Wales (Buchedd Or, wp Cyrum)
Ynys Adar, Skerries {Eurrvph. Lloyd) ; Edron Nesos of Pto- lomy.
Ynys Dowell (Yr), Anglesey.
Nos da fo i'r Ynys Dowell
Ni wn oes un ynys well. — L, 01, Coihi,
Yr Ynys Dowell cell cerdd
Y gelwid Mdn wegilwerdd. Vid. Mdn.
Ynys Greigiog, a gentleman's seat (/. D.) in Cardiganshire, Here [was bom] the famous Edward Ilwyd, Keeper of the Ash- molean Museum, and author of Archceologia Britannica and Li(hop\hylacii Britannici Ich/nographia], His mother was Mary Pryse of Ynys Greigiog, a branch of the Pryses of Gogerthan ; and his father was Charles Lloyd of Llanvorda, an extravagant young fellow, who sold Llanvorda to Sir W. Williams.
Ynys y Maengwyn, a gentleman's seat in Meirionydd.
Ynys Waith, the Isle of Wight. See Choailh.
Yrth, the surname or cognomen of several persons, supposed
by Mr. H. Bowlands to mean urddy or honourable ; but I believe
not, for the poets took care to pronounce it TrtK See Oyrth in
Brycban Yrth brelchiau nerthawg. — T). op Owih/m,
Einion Yrth was son of Cunedda Wledig, a Prince of the. north of Scotland, drove from thence by the Scots. Hence Caer Einion Yrth in Montgomeryshire. Vid. CuTicdda Wledig.
Yrwith, of Caerllion, a courageous Briton, that defended it against the forces of Henry IL {Camden in Monmouthshire.) Qu, whether lorwerth ?
Yrybi {Tho8, Williams), recti Eryri or Eiiyri, which see.
YsBWTS ap Cadrod Calchfynydd.
YsBYDDADOG, cuw lie. Ifan Llwyd o Ysbyddadog.
YscAR, river, qu. ? Aberysker on the river Wysg. (Mor- den's Map.)
YscEWYN. Perth Yscewyn Yngwent {Tr. 5), one of the three principal ports in Britain, now Newport, or the mouth of the river Wysc. Qu. why they are called principal ? See Forth Wygyr, and Forth Wyddno^ By Camden, Perth Skeweth ; by Marianus, Perth Skith. Yid. Skeweth.
YsGAPNELL, mab Dysgyfedawc, killed Edelfred brenin Uoegr, i.e., King of Loegria.
YsGEiFiOG, a place in Flintshire ; another in Anglesey, Llan- vihangel Ysgeifiog. Probably from ysgaw, i.e., a place of elders.
YsGETHiN river, near Abermaw, Meirion.
YsGOTTiAiD, or Ysgwydiaid, or Yscottyeit, Ysgodogion, Irish or ancient Scots.
Ysgodogion dynion lledfiTer. — MeUir.
YsGODOG, a Scot.
Gwyddyl diefyl dnon Ysgodogion dynion lledffer.
MeUir Brydydd, i Drahaem, about 1100 qn. ?
An opprobrious name, from their hiding in wood, or cysgod, shade.
YsGOR Gadvan. (Cynddelw, i H. ap 0. Gwynedd.) Qu. whe- ther Dol Gadvan ? [Esgair Gadfan.— W. R]
•YsGROETH, one of the sons of Glam Hector, Prince of the Irish Scots, who took Dalrievda, which I suppose to be Argile. It is probable Cunedda Wledig was of these parts, or near Clwyd. Vid. Glam Hector.
YsGWYDiAD, a people of North Britain and of Ireland, sup- posed to be colonies of Scythians ; so called from their wearing ysffwyd, a shield Others derive Scythians from saethu, to shoot The Scots of Argyle was the first colony of Scots that came from Ireland to North Britain ; from whom North Britain, which the old Britains called Prydyn, came to be called Scotland ; and by the Britains JEsgottland, as it is called in the British copy of Tyssilio. See EsgoUlond and Ysgodog.
YsGWYN ap Llywarch Hen : vid. Hwysgtayn.
YsGWYTTiit, or Ysgottlond, Scotland. (E, IMoyd) Vid. EsgoU- lond [BnU y Brenhinoedd).
YsGYRYD Fawr (Z. GL Cothi), a mountain in Monmouthshire.
YsGYTHROG (n. L). Pentre Ysgythrog, in Ilansanffred parish, a place in Brecknockshire. \^rote also Ysgithrog. Hence, pro- bably, Brychwel Ysgythrog. Vid. Brychwel.
YsPADDADEN (n. pr. v.). Yspaddaden Ben Cawr o'r Gogledd, a chief Prince of North Britain in the time of Uthur Bendragon, father of Olwen, which see.
YsPYS : see Coed Yspys, the Wood or Forest of Yspys.
YsPYTTY Ieuan. There are several places of this name, where the Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem resided, the Church of Bome's militia. In the deanery of Bhos, in Denbighshire, a church and parish. Yspy tty Cynwyn ; Yspytty ar Ystwyth ; Yspytty Ystrad Meyrig. Vulgo SpUty.
YsTRAD, an ancient Celtic word in the composition of the names of places, and signifies a road in a valley or plain between hills. See Street and Strath. Boads for marching of armies along rivers caused those plains to be called Ystrad {k ys and traed).
YsTRAD Enni, in Radnorshire. [Llanddewi Ystrad Enni, near Llandrindod. — W, i>.]
YsTRiD PErTHYLL, a castlc of the Normans near Aberystwyth, A.D. 1116, which Gruff, ap Rhys took, and slew all within. {Powel in Gr. ap Rhys.) See FeithylL
TsTRAD Ynoc, Llanidloes.
YsTKAD Cennen, or Ystrad Cyngan, a castle taken by Eys ap GruflFydd, A.D. 1152.
Ystrad Marchell, one of the three commots of Ystlyc Hun- dred, and part of Powys Wenwynwyn. (Price, Descr,) An Abbey ih the parish of Gnildsfield, Strata Marcdla^ built by Yw. Cyf- eiliog. (»/. D) Vid. MarchelL
Ystrad Dyfydog, Glamorganshire.
Ystrad Gynlas, Glamorganshire.
Ystrad Wi^lltau, Brecknockshire.
Ystrad Meuryg (filio Eoderii Magni Cambriaa Principis de- nominata, qui in fluvio Meuryg fuit submersus, unde et fluvius ipse postea Amnia Meuryg dictus), a village in Cardiganshire, and a castle which Gilbert, Earl of Strigill, had built at that place, and held in the year 1116 by his Normans. (PoweL) Here Ileweljm ab lorwerth fought his sixth battle. (Vid. Ci/lch Lleiv- elyn.) This Castle was on the narrow pass between Aberyst- wyth and Bos Fair, and commanded all that coimtry.
Ni safei rhagddyn rwych pell
Nac aer na chaer na chastell. — Gylch Llewelyn.
Ystrad (Cantref), one of the five cantrefs of Berfeddwlad, containing the commots of Hiraethog and Cynmeirch. (Price^ Descr.)
Ystrad Altjn, one of the three commots of Cantre'r Ehiw in Powys Vadog, now part of Flintshire. (Price, Descr,)
Mwy gofal Ystrad Alyn
Ym maen a dwr am nn dyn. — J. op Howel.
Ystrad Yw, one of the three commots of Cantref Canol, Brecknockshire. (Price, Descr,)
Ystrad Gwyn, near Maes y Pandy, in Meirion. In a bog here a gilt coffin of wood with an extraordinary large skeleton in it, was found in the year 1684. (E. Llwyd, Notes on Camden.)
Ystrad Fflur, a monastery formerly of Cluniac monks. This Abbey was in Henry VII's time under the same Abbot with Ystrad Marchell and Aberconwy, one Davydd ap Owain Abbot.
Ystrad Clwyd, a country in Scotland, on the river Clwyd,
where the Britons kept their ground till about the year 880, when they were allowed by Anarawd to dispossess the Saxons of the country between Chester and Conwy. These are called in Asser Menevensis, a.d. 875, Stradcludenses and Strecle- denses ; in the Saxon Chronicle, StraBcled Weales and Stretled Weales. Vid. Ystrad Meuryg. YsTKAD YsTWYTH, now Called Cwm Ystwyth.
Llwyth Ilewdir Ystwyth Ystrad. — Oylch Llijwelyn,
This was Lly welyn's fifth battle.
YsTBAD Carmaig, the place where Dyfnwal Frych (Domnal Brec) was killed in battle by Hoan, King of the (Northern) Britains. {Ogygia, p. 478.)
Ystrad Ychen, Ikenild Street, or Stratum Icenorum, one of the four ancient roads made by Dyfnwal, and perfected by L^li, King of Britain, afterwards called Eoman Ways ; the other three being Ystrad WaedUng, Watling Street; Ystrad Ffos, Fosse ; and Ystrad Ervin, Erminge Street. They are mentioned in the Laws of Edward the Confessor, c. 12.
Ystrad Tywy contains several cantrefs, — Hirfryn, Mallaen, Maenor Bydvey, etc. Rightly Tywi or Towi.
Ystrywaid, a street in Brecon.
YGrog —
Y sydd draw yn Ystrywaid
Ystor awch ben cor i caid.— iTi/we? Dafydd.
YsTRWYTH river. Aberystrwyth, Glamorganshire, qu. ? [Aber- ystrwyth is in Monmouthshire. — JF. D.]
YsTRWYTH ap Marwystl ap Marchweithian.
YsTUM, the bend or turn of a river, etc.
YsTUM Anner, deanery, Merioneth, one of the three commots of Cantref Meirion. (Price, Descr,)
YsTUM Cegid.
YsTUM Tyhen, or Tuan. YSTUM Llaeth.
YsTUMDWY. Llanystumdwy (vulgo Ystindwy), Caernarvon- shire.
YsTUM GwiLi, Caermardenshire.
YsTUM Wallon, a gentleman's seat. (/. D)
YsTUMLLYN, Caernarvonshire.
YsTUM Llwynarth, a castle in South Wales, near or in Qwyr land, A.D. 1215. (Powel, Oaradoc, p. 272.) [Ystum Llwynarth is on Nedd river, not far from Gwyr in Glamorgan. — /. M,]
TsTWYTH river, the Stuccia of Ptolomy. Hence Aberystwyth, a town and castle in Ceretica ; Lat. Aberistyvium, (Ainswortlt.) There falls many small rivers into Ystwyth, as Diliw, etc.
YsTYPHANT, Stephanus.
YsTYWYTH ap Ednywain ap Gwrydr.
YwAiN, Ywgain, Iwgein, and Ewein (n. pr. v.), wrote also Owain ; by the modems, Owen ; it is Latinized Eugenius and Audeonus [Audoenus — W, D.], Owenus.
CjWAiN AP Urien Reged was one of King Arthur's generals, and famous for his exploits in war. (Tr. 9.) Owen ap Urien a fu rhwng y porth a'r fig He rhoes Eluned ei modrwy iddo iw giiddio, ac felly y diengis. (Z). J,) {Ystori larlles y Ffynnon.) See IJlu- ned. See Reged,
Yw^AiN Brogyntyn.
YwAiN ap Gruffydd y gelwir Gwyn ap Gruffydd yn iawn enw. • {Llyfr Ache, fol. 114)
YwAiN Danwyn.
YwEiN TuDUR : see Owain.
YwAiN Cyfeiliog, lord of what hath been since called Powys WenwjTiwyn. He was son of Gniffudd ap Mredydd ap Bleddyn. J. He was an excellent poet and as great a warrior. He married
Gwenllian, daughter of Ywain Gwynedd, King of North Wales. We have [some] of his works extant, as also of his brother-in- law, Howel ap Owain Gwynedd. ij Ywain Cyfeiliog founded the Monastery of Ystrad Jtf archell.
{MS.) He had a son called Gwenwynwyn, from whom Powys Wenwynw3m took its name. He, in the year 1163, took the
Castle of Carreg Hova from In the year 1166 took part
of Powys from lorwerth Goch. In 1167 Owen Gwynedd and Ehys, Prince of South Wales, drove 0. Cyfeiliog out of his lands, and gave them to Owen ap Madog ap Mredydd ; but soon ^ after Owain returned with Normans and English to recover his
country, and took Castell Caer Eneon. In 1170 Ehys, Prince
of South Wales, subdued Owen Cyfeiliog, and took pledges of him. He died A.D. 1196.
YwEiN Glyndwfr wrote his name, in his letter to the^Velsh, Yweiu ap Gruffuth, Lord of Glyn Dwfrdwy.
YwEiN, mab Macsen Wledig, one of the tri Cynweisiad Ynys Prydain. {Tr. 19.)