The Triads may be considered amongst the most valuable and curious productions; preserved in the Welsh language. They contain a great number of memorials of the remarkable events which took place among the Ancient Britons. Unfortunately, they are entirely deficient with respect to dates; and, considered by themselves, are not well adapted to preserve the connection of history. Yet the collection of Triads, combined together, as they are, contain more information into a small compass than is to be accomplished perhaps by any other method. ConsequentIy such a mode of composition is superior to all others for the formation of a system of tradition. This is a system which was matured to the highest state of perfection under the bardic institution. It was applied to the purpose of transmitting every kind of knowledge and science.
These historical triads are not to be considered as the productions of any one individual, or of any one period of time; but an accumulation, formed successively, by national concurrence, as the various events appeared and became recognized in public observation. Therefore, some of them are extremely ancient; others record many things that happened within the scope of the ordinary track of history; and some even reach to as late a period as the twelfth century. Copies of these generally varying in the extent of the collections, abound in a great number of our old manuscripts; and, represent a variety of the readings, altered over time as one hero or location became more important, such as the case with King Arthur.
The most ancient of the Cambrian bards taught in
verse, and preserved the records through
the medium of rhyme and measure. Their verses
consisted of stanzas of three lines, called, Englyn Miliar,
or the Warrior's Triplet, each containing seven
syllables. The following stanza composed by a poet
and a prince in the beginning of the sixth century, will serve as a specimen:
Yr ystwfwl, a'r hwn draw,
Mwy gorddyvnaeal amdanaw
Elwch llu, a llwybyr anaw !
The buttress here, and not that one there,
More congenial round them would have been
The clamor of an army, and the paths of melody !
This shows the origin of triads for when laws were to be enacted and historic facts preserved, they were thrown into the triadic form. This was done to aid the memory in recitation, because in those times writing was but little practiced, and, as far as the peculiarities of the bardic system were concerned, it was absolutely forbidden.
After the triads, the Genealogies of the British Saints are to he considered as next in antiquity and worthy of attention, on account of the use they may be towards the elucidation of history.
The abbreviations used by her are:
The three tribes of the throne of the Isle of Britain.
The first is Caerllion upon Usk; and there Arthur has supreme authority, St. David son of Cunedda Wledig being chief bishop, and Maelgwyn of North Wales being chief elder.
Second, Celliwig in Cernyw*, and there Arthur has supreme authority, Bedwini being chief bishop, and Caradawg with the Brawny Arm chief elder.
Third, Edinburgh in the North; and there Arthur has supreme authority, Cyndeyrn Garthwys being chief bishop, and Gwrthmwl Wledig chief elder.
Three Tribal Thrones of the island of Britain:
Arthur as Chief Prince in Mynyw (= St David's), and Dewi as Chief Bishop, and Maelgwn Gwynedd as Chief Elder;
Arthur as Chief Prince in Celliwig in Cernyw*, and Bishop Bytwini as Chief Bishop, and Caradawg Strong-Arm as Chief Elder;
Arthur as Chief Prince in Pen Rhionydd in the North, and Gerthmwl Wledig as Chief Elder, and Cyndeyrn Garthwys as Chief Bishop.
(* Cernyw was not Cornwall in Arthur's time as assumed, but part of Glywysing which was merged into Gwent to form Morganwg, which later became Glamorgan.)
The three generous princes of the Isle of Britain:
Rhydderch the generous, son of Tudwal Tudclud;
Mordav the generous, son of Servan; and
Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt.
Their courteous dispositions were such, that they did not fail to grant any thing whatever to any person who solicited it of them, if they had it in their possession, or could obtain it by gift, loan, or present, whether the applicants were friends or foes, relatives or strangers.
Three Generous men of the Island of Britain:
Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt,
Mordaf the Generous, son of Serwan,
Rhydderch the Generous, son of Tudwal Tudglyd.
(And Arthur himself was more generous than the three.)
The three accomplished princes of the Isle of Britain:
Rhun the son of Maelgwn;
Owain, the son of Urien; and
Rhuvon the Fair, son of Dewrath Wledig.
Three Fair Princes of the Island of Britain:
Owain son of Urien,
Rhun son of Maelgwn,
Rhufawn the Radiant son of Dewrarth Wledig.
The three well-endowed men of the Isle of Britain:
Gwalchmai the son of Gwyar;
Llecheu son of Arthur; and
Rhiwallon of the Broom-brush-hair;
and there was nothing of which they did not know its material essence, and its property, whether of kind, quality, compound, coincidence, tendency, nature, or of essence, whatever it might be.
Three Well-Endowed Men of the Island of Britain:
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
and Llachau son of Arthur,
and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
The three pillars of the battle of the Isle of Britain:
Dunawd Fur son of Pabo the Pillar of Britain;
Gwallawg son of Lleenawg; and
Cynvelyn the Stumbler.
That is, they understood the order and necessary arrangements for battle better than any others that ever existed.
Three Pillars of Battle of the Island of Britain:
Dunawd son of Pabo Pillar of Britain,
and Gwallawg son of Lleenawg,
and Cynfelyn the Leprous (?).
The three bulls of battle of the Isle of Britain:
Cynvar Cadgadawg son of Cynwyd Cynwydion;
Gwendolleu son of Ceidaw; and
Urien son of Cynvarch;
because they rushed upon their foes like bulls, and it was not possible to avoid them.
Three Bull-Protectors of the Island of Britain:
Cynfawr Host-Protector, son of Cynwyd Cynwydion,
and Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw,
and Urien son of Cynfarch.
The three bull princes of the Isle of Britain:
Elmur the adopted son of Cibddar;
Cynhavel son of Argad; and
Avaon son of Taliesin, chief of the bards.
These three were bards; and they dreaded nothing in battle and conflict, but rushed forward, regardless of death.
Three Bull-Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
Elinwy son of Cadegr,
and Cynhafal son of Argad,
and Afaon son of Taliesin.
The three of them were sons of bards.
The three humble princes of the Isle of Britain:
Manawydan son of Llyr Llediaith, after Bran the son of Llyr, his brother, was carried into captivity;
Llywarch the Aged, son of Elidir, Llydanwyn; and
Gwgon [Gwrgi] the hero, the son of Eleuver [Eliffer] with the Mighty Retinue.
These three were bards; and after they had attached themselves to song, they sought not for dominion and royalty, but no one could debar them from it. On this account, they were called the three humble princes of the Isle of Britain.
Three Prostrate Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
Llywarch the Old son of Elidir Llydanwyn,
and Manawydan son of Llyr Half-Speech,
and Gwgon Gwron son of Peredur son of Eliffer of the Great Retinue.
(And this is why those were called 'Prostrate Chieftains': because they would not seek a dominion, which nobody could deny to them.)
The three princes of the court of Arthur were
Goronwy son of Echel of Vorddwydtwll;
Cadraith, son of Porthor Godo;
Vleidur Vlam son of Godo.
That is to say, they were princes possessing territory and dominion, but not withstanding this, they prefered remaining as knights in Arthur's court, judging that to be superior to all honour and dignity; and they went by the name of the three just knights.
Three Chieftains of Arthur's Court:
Gobrwy son of Echel Mighty-Thigh,
Cadr(i)eith ('Fine-Speech') son of Porthawr Gadw,
and Fleudur Fflam ('Flame').
The three chiefs of Deira and Bernicia:
Gall the son of Dysgyvedog,
Difedel the son of Dysgyvedog; and
Ysgavnnel the son of Dysgyvedog.
These three were the sons of bards, and after they had attached themselves to song, the sovereignty, the sovereignty of Deira and Bernicia was bestowed upon them.
Three Chieftains of Deira and Bernicia:
Gall son of Disgyfdawd,
and Ysgafnell son of Disgyfdawd,
and Diffydell son of Disgyfdawd.
The three of them were sons of bards.
The three bards of the Isle of Britain who tinged spears with blood:
Tristvardd, son of Urien Rheged;
Dygynnelw the bard of Owain son of Urien; and
Avan Verddig, bard of Cadwallon son of Cadvan.
These three were sons of bards, and they could not be separated.
Three Red-Speared Bards of the Island of Britain:
Tristfardd, bard of Urien,
and Dygynnelw, bard of Owain son of Urien,
and Afan Ferddig, bard of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan.
The three vain bards of the Isle of Britain:
the first was Arthur;
the second was Cadwallawn son of Cadvan;
the third was Rhyhawd the adopted son of Morgant of Glamorgan.
Three Frivolous Bards of the Island of Britain:
and Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
and Rahawd son of Morgant.
The three supreme servants of the Isle of Britain:
Caradog, the son of Bran, the son of Llyr Llediath;
Cawrdav, the son of Caradog with the Brawny Arm; and
Owain, the son of Macsen Wledig.
They were so called because all the men of the Isle of Britain, from the prince to the peasant, became their followers at the need of the country, on account of the invasions and tyranny of the foe. And wherever these three marched to war, there was not a man on the Isle of Britain but who would join their armies, and would not stay at home. And these three were the sons of bards.
Three Chief Officers of the Island of Britain:
Caradawg son of Bron,
and Cawrdaf son of Caradawg,
and Owain son of Maxen Wledig.
The three fleet-owners of the Isle of Britain:
Geraint the son of Erbin;
Gwenwynwyn the son of Nav; and
March the son of Meirchion.
Each of these admirals had one hundred and twenty ships, and one hundred and twenty sailors in each ship.
Three Seafarers of the Island of Britain:
Geraint son of Erbin,
and Gwenwynwyn son of Naf,
and March son of Meirchiawn.
The three roving fleets of the Isle of Britain:
the fleet of Llawr son of Eidriv;
the fleet of Divwg son of Alban; and
the fleet of Dolor (Solor) son of Mwrchath, king of Manaw.
Three Roving Fleets of the Island of Britain:
The Fleet of Llawr son of Eiryf,
and the Fleet of Divwng son of Alan,
and the Fleet of S(D)olor son of Murthach.
The three strong crutched ones (shepherds)of the Isle of Britain:
Rhineri the son of Tangwn;
Tinwaed the crutched; and
Pryderi son of Doler of Deira and Bernicia.
Three Powerful Shepherds of the Island of Britain:
Riueri son of Tangwn.
and D(u)nawd the Shepherd,
and Pryder (= Care) son of Dolor (= Grief) of Deira and Bernicia.
The three banded families of the Isle of Britain:
the family of Caswallawn with the Long Hand;
the family of Rhiwallon, son of Urien; and
the family of Belyn of Lleyn.
They were so called, because they were not subjected to either head, or sovereign, as it respected the ranks of their families and power, but owed submission only to the voice of the country and the nation.
The three golden-banded (golden-fettered) ones of the Isle of Britain:
Rhiwallon with the Broom Hair;
Rhun, the son of Maelgwn; and
Cadwaladyr the Blessed.
That is, they were permitted to wear golden bands about their arms, their necks and their knees; and with these were granted the privilege of royalty in every country and dominion in the Isle of Britain. (Because of their size there was no horse that could fit them, so they wore golden fetters around their legs)
Three Fettered Men of the Island of Britain:
Cadwaladr the Blessed,
and Rhun son of Maelgwn,
and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
(And this is why those men were called Fettered: because horses could not be obtained that were suited to them, owing to their size; so they put fetters of gold around the small of their legs, on the cruppers of their horses, behind their backs; and two golden plates under their knees, and because of this the knee is called 'knee-pan'.)
The three battle-knights (horsemen) of the sovereign of the Isle of Britain:
Caradog with the brawny arm;
Llyr the Bellipotent; and
Mael, the son of Manwaed* of Arllechwedd (cantref of Gwynedd, west Conwy Valley).
And with reference to these, Arthur composed the poem:
These are my three battle knights,
Mael the Tall, and Llyr the Bellipotent,
And Caradog the pillar of the Cambrians.
That is to say, they were the bravest heroes of all battle-knights, and therefore royalty was granted them, and what they wished of power; and their courtesy was such, that they would do nothing but what was judicious and right, in whatever country they came.
* (Menwaed is possibly the same as Menw son of Teirgwaedd (see Triad (27)) being a concatenation of Menw and Teir-gwaedd).
Three Battle-Horsemen of the Island of Britain:
and Menwaedd of Arllechwedd (cantref of Gwynedd, west Conwy Valley),
and Llyr of the Hosts.
(WR) Three Favourites of Arthur's Court, and Three Battle-Horsemen: they would never endure a penteulu* over them. And Arthur sang an englyn:
These are my Three Battle-Horsemen:
and Lludd of the Breastplate,
and the Pillar of the Cymry, Caradawg.
* penteulu , specifically the head of 24 court officials, being the captain of the warband.)
The three resolute minded praised-ones of the Isle of Britain i.e Greidiawl ( enemy-subduers):
Envael the son of Adran,
(one missing) and
Trystan, the son of Tallwch;
for they had the privilege of going wherever they wished in the Isle of Britain without opposition, unless they went unlawfully.
Three Enemy-Subduers of the Island of Britain i.e Greidiawl (Enemy-Subduers):
son of Envael Adrann (rather Envael son of Adrann),
Gweir of Great Valour,
and Drystan son of Tallwch.
The three blood-stained ones of the Isle of Britain:
Morgan the Greatly Courteous,
and Rhun, the son of Beli.
When they marched to war, no one could stay at home, so greatly were they beloved; and in every war and battle, they were victorious, where there were neither treachery, nor ambush.
Hence rose the proverb: "There were three heroes who obtained men wherever they marched: Arthur, Morgan the Greatly Courteous, and Rhun the son of Beli;
and there were three armies who obtained soldiers wherever they marched; the soldiers of Arthur, the soldiers of Morgan the Greatly Courteous, and the troops of Rhun, the son of Beli."
Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
and Rhun son of Beli,
and Morgant the Wealthy.
(WR)Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
Rhun son of Beli,
and Lleu Skilful Hand,
and Morgant the Wealthy.
But there was one who was a Red Ravager greater than all three: Arthur was his name. For a year neither grass nor plants used to spring up where one of the three would walk; but where Arthur went, not for seven years.
The three frontlet ones of the battle of the Isle of Britain:
Trystan, son of Tallwch;
Huail, son of Caw of Prydyn, lord of the vale of Cawlwyd; and
Cai, son of Cynyr with the Shining Beard.
And there was one frontlet wearer above the other three, who was Bedwyr, the son of Pedrawg.
Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain:
Drystan son of Tallwch,
and Hueil son of Caw,
and Cai son of Cenyr of the Fine Beard.
And one was diademed above the three of them: that was Bedwyr son of Bedrawc.
The three obstructors of slaughter of the Isle of Britain:
Their principle was, not to retreat from battle and conflict, but upon their biers, after they were unable to move either hand or foot.
(Three brothers who lived at the close of the 5th century.)
Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain, three sons of Haearnwedd the Wily:
(WR)Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain:
They would not return from battle except on their biers. And those were three sons of Gleissiar of the North, by Haearnwedd the Wily their mother.
The three arrogant ones of the Isle of Britain:
Sawyl the lofty headed;
Pasgen the son of Urien;
and Rhun the son of Einiawn.
Their arrogance was most arrogant above every other arrogant thing, by means of which they brought anarchy in the Isle of Britain; and those who were influenced by this anarchy, united with the Saxons, and finally became Saxons.
Three Arrogant Men of the Island of Britain:
and Pasgen son of Urien,
and Rhun son of Einiawn.
Three Slaughter-Blocks of the Island of Britain:
Gilbert son of Cadgyffro,
and Morfran son of Tegid,
and Gwgawn Red-Sword.
The three grave slaughterers of the Isle of Britain:
Selyv son of Cynan Garwyn;
Avaon son of Taliesin; and
Gwallawg son of Lleenawg (alternate: Urien son of Cynfarch).
They were called grave slaughterers because they were able to avenge their wrongs from their graves.
Three Battle-Leaders of the Island of Britain:
Selyf son of Cynan Garrwyn,
and Urien son of Cynfarch,
and Afaon son of Taliesin.
(This is why they were called aeruedogeon*: because they avenged their wrongs from their graves.)
* (aeruedogeon - have the right to rule)
The three powerful swineherds of the Isle of Britain:
the first was Pryderi son of Pwyll Pendaran of Dyved, who kept his father’s swine whilst he was yet in Annwn; and he kept them in the vale of Cwch in Emlyn.
The second was Coll son of Collvrewi, who kept the sow of Dallwaran Dalben that came burrowing as far as Penrhyn Penwedig in Cornwall; and then going on the sea, she came to land at Aber Tarogi in Gwent Iscoed. And Coll son of Collvrewi kept his hand in her bristles wherever she went, whether by land or sea. And in Maes Gwenith, in Gwent, she deposited three grains of wheat and three bees, and on that account the best wheat and honey are in Gwent. From Gwent she proceeded to Dyved and deposited a grain of barley and a little pig at Llonio Llonwen; and on this account the best barley and swine are reared in Dyved. After this she proceeded to Arvon, and deposited a grain of rye in Lleyn; and therefore the best rye is raised in Lleyn and Eivionydd. Upon the skirt of Rhiwgyverthwch she deposited a wolf’s cub and a young eagle, and Coll gave the eagle to Brynach the Irishman, and he gave the wolf to Menwaed lord of Arllechwedd (See Triad 29 (18)); and was there much talk about the wolf of Brynach and the eagle of Menwaed. From there she went to Maen Du in Arvon where she deposited a kitten, and Coll son of Collvrewi threw it into the Menai; and this was the glossy smooth cat (Palug’s Cat) that became a molestation to the Isle of Anglesea.
The third was Trystan son of Tallwch who kept the swine of March son of Meirchion, whilst the swineherd went on a message to Essyllt to desire an interview with her.
And Arthur, Marchell, Cai, and Bedwyr were the four who looked for an opportunity, but they could not obtain so much as one pig either by gift, purchase, deceit, violence or theft.
They were, therefore, called the three powerful swineherds, because it was not possible to gain or prevail over them for one swine which they kept; for they restored them with their full increase to their owners.
Three Powerful Swineherds of the Island of Britain:
Drystan son of Tallwch, who guarded the swine of March son of Meirchiawn, while the swineherd went to ask Essyllt to come to a meeting with him. And Arthur was seeking (to obtain) one pig from among them, either by deceit or by force, but he did not get it;
And Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, who guarded the swine of Pendaran Dyfed in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn;
And Coll son of Collfrewy, who guarded Henwen, the sow of Dallwyr Dallben, who went (when) about to bring forth, to Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall, (and there she went into the sea). And at Aber Tarogi in Gwent Is Coed she came to land. And Coll son of Collfrewy with his hand on her bristles wherever she went, whether by sea or by land. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee; and therefore that place is the best for wheat and bees. And from there she went to Llonion in Pembroke, and there she brought forth a grain of barley and a bee. From thence she made for the Hill of Cyferthwch in Eryri; there she brought forth a wolf-cub and a young eagle. And Coll son of Collfrewy gave the eagle to Bre(r)nnach the Irishman of the North, and the wolf he gave to Me(n)waedd son of ... of Arllechwedd; and these were (the Wolf of) Me(n)waedd and the Eagle of Brennach. And from thence she went to the Black Stone in Llanfair in Arfon, and there she brought forth a kitten; and Coll son of Collfrewy threw that kitten into the Menai. And she was afterwards Palug's Cat.
(W)Three Powerful Swineherds of the Island of Britain:
Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, tending the swine of Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. These swine were the seven animals which Pwyll Lord of Annwfn brought, and gave them to Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. And the place where he used to keep them was in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn. And this is why he was called a Powerful Swineherd: because no one was able either to deceive or to force him;
And the second, Drystan son of Tallwch, tending the swine of March son of Meirchyawn, while the swineherd went with a message to Essyllt. Arthur and March and Cai and Bedwyr were (there) all four, but they did not succeed in getting so much as one pigling - neither by force, nor by deception, nor by stealth;
And the third, Coll son of C(o)llfrewy, tending the swine of Dallwyr Dallben in Glyn Dallwyr in Cornwall. And one of the swine was pregnant, Henwen was her name. And it was prophecied that the Island of Britain would be the worse for the womb-burden. Then Arthur assembled the army of the Island of Britain, and set out to seek to destroy her. And then she set off, about to bring forth, and at Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall she entered the sea, and the Powerful Swineherd after her. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee. And therefore from that day to this the Wheat Field in Gwent is the best place for wheat and for bees. And at Llonion in Pembroke she brought forth a grain of barley and a grain of wheat. Therefore, the barley of Llonion is proverbial. At the Hill of Cyferthwch in Arfon she brought forth a (wolf-cub) and a young eagle. The wolf was given to (M)ergaed and the eagle to Breat, a prince of the North: and they were both the worse for them. And at Llanfair in Arfon under the Black Rock she brought forth a kitten, and the Powerful Swineherd threw it from the Rock into the sea. And the sons of Palug fostered it in Mon, to their own harm: and that was Palug's Cat, and it was one of the Three Great Oppressions of Mon, nurtured therein. The second was Daronwy, and the third was Edwin, king of Lloegr.
Three Enchanters of the Island of Britain:
Coll son of Collfrewy,
and Menw son of Teirgwaedd,
and Drych son of Kibddar.
The three illusive and half-apparent men of the Isle of Britain:
Math son of Mathonwy, who showed his illusion to Gwydion son of Dôn ;
Menw the son of Teirgwaedd, who revealed his secret to Uthyr Pendragon;
and Rhuddlwm the giant, who revealed his secret to Eiddilic the dwarf, (which he taught to) Coll son of Collvrewi, his nephew.
Three Great Enchantments of the Island of Britain:
The Enchantment of Math son of Mathonwy (which he taught to Gwydion son of Don),
and the Enchantment of Uthyr Pendragon (which he taught to Menw son of Teirgwaedd) **,
and the Enchantment of Gwythelyn the Dwarf* (which he taught to Coll son of Collfrewy his nephew).
* (The White Book of Rhydderch has Rudlwm the Dwarf, but Grudlwyn Gorr is a different person as shown in Culhwch and Olwen,
thus correct form is Gwyddolwyd Gorr from Culhwch and Olwen.)
** (Note the reversal of Menw and Uthyr showing the first set to be superior.)
The three loyal tribes (war-bands) of the Isle of Britain.
The tribe of Cadwallawn the adopted son of Cadvan, who were with him seven years in Ireland, and during that time they demanded neither pay, nor reward, lest they be obliged to leave him, and he should not be able to make the compensation to which they were entitled.
Second, the tribe of Gavran son of Aeddan, when the loss by disappearance took place, who went to sea in search of their lord.
Third, the family of Gwendolleu son of Ceidiaw, who maintained the battle for forty six days after their lord was slain.
The number of each of the tribes was twenty one hundred heroic men, and so great was their courage that they could not be vanquished.
Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
The War-Band of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan, who were with him seven years in Ireland; and in all that time they did not ask him for anything, lest they should be compelled to leave him;
And the second, the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, who went to sea for their lord;
And the third, the War-Band of Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw at Arfderydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month after their lord was slain.
The number of the War-Band of each of those men was twenty-one hundred men.
(WR)Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
The War-Band of Cadwallawn, when they were fettered;
and the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, at the time of his complete disappearance;
and the War-Band of Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month after their lord was slain;
The number of each one of the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men.
The three disloyal tribes (war-bands) of the Isle of Britain.
The tribe of Goronwy the Fair from Penllyn, who refused to stand instead of their lord to receive the poisoned javelin from Llew Llaw Gyfes by the Stone of Goronwy before Cynvel, in Ardudwy.
Second, the tribe of Gwrgi and Peredur who deserted their lords in the fortress of Crau, where there was an appointment for battle the next morning with Ida the Great Knee, and they were both slain.
The third were the tribe of Alan Morgan, who returned back from their lord by stealth, leaving him and his servants to march to Camlan, where he was slain.
Three Faithless War-Bands of the Islands of Britain:
The War-Band of Goronwy the Radiant of (Penllyn), who refused to receive the poisoned spear from Lleu Skilful-Hand on behalf of their lord, at the Stone of Goronwy at the head of the Cynfal;
and the War-Band of Gwrgi and Peredur, who abandoned their lord at Caer Greu, when they had an appointment to fight the next day with Eda Great-Knee; and there they were both slain;
And the War-Band of Alan Fyrgan, who turned away from him by night, and let him go with his servants to Camlan. And there he was slain.
(W)The number of each of the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men.)
The Three generous hosts of the Isle of Britain:
the host of Belyn (Melyn) son of Cynvelyn, in the warfare of Caradawg ap Bran;
the host of Mynyddawg Eiddin in the battle of Cattraeth; and
the host of Drywon son of Nudd the Generous, in the defile of Arderydd in the North.
That is, every one marched at his own expense, without waiting to be summoned, and without demanding either pay or reward of the country, or the prince; and because of this they were called the three generous hosts.
Three Noble Retinues of the Island of Britain:
The Retinue of Mynyddawg of Eiddyn,
and the Retinue of Melyn son of Cynfelyn,
and the Retinue of Dryon son of Nudd.
(WR)Three Noble Retinues of the Island of Britain:
The Retinue of Mynyddawg at Catraeth,
and the Retinue of Dreon the Brave at the Dyke of Ar(f)dery(dd),
and the third, the Retinue of Belyn of Llyn (in) Erethlyn in Rhos.
The three bards who committed the three beneficial assassinations of the Isle of Britain:
The first was Gall, son of Dysgyvedawg, who killed the two brown birds of Gwendolleu, the son of Ceidiaw, that had a yoke of gold about him, and that daily devoured two bodies of the Cambrians for their dinner and two for their supper.
The second was Ysgavnell, the son of Dysgyvedawg, who killed Edlfled king of Lloegria, who required every night two noble maids of the Cambrian nation, and violated them, and every morning he killed and devoured them.
The third was Difidel, the son of Dysgyvedawg, who killed Gwrgi Garwlylwyd, that had married Edlfled's sister, and committed treachery and murder in conjunction with Edlfled upon the Cambrians. And this Gwrgi killed a Cambrian male and female every day and devoured them, and on the Saturday he killed two males and two females, that he might not kill on the Sunday.
And these three persons, who performed these beneficial assassinations, were bards.
Three Men who performed the Three Fortunate Assassinations:
Gall son of Dysgyfdawd who slew the Two Birds of Gwenddolau. And they had a yoke of gold on them. Two corpses of the Cymry they ate for their dinner, and two for their supper;
And Ysgafnell son of Dysgyfdawd, who slew Edelfled king of Lloegr;
And Diffydell son of Dysgyfdawd who slew Gwrgi Garwlwyd ('Rough Grey'). That Gwrgi used to make a corpse of one of the Cymry every day, and two on each Saturday so as not to slay on Sunday.
The three infamous assassinations of the Isle of Britain:
The assassination of Aneurin of flowing muse and monarch of the bards, by Eiddin the son of Einygan;
the assassination of Avaon, the son of Taliesin, by Llawgad Trwm Bargawd; and
the assassination of Urien, the son of Cynvarch, by Llovan Llaw Dino.
They were three bards who were assassinated by these three men.
Three Unfortunate Assassinations of the Island of Britain:
Heidyn son of Enygan, who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, Prince of Poets;
and Llawgad Trwm Bargod Eidyn ('Heavy Battle-Hand of the Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon son of Taliesin,
and Llofan Llaw Ddifo (literal: 'Severing Hand') who slew Urien son of Cynfarch.
(W)Three Savage Men of the Island of Britain, who performed the Three Unfortunate Assassinations:
Llofan Llaw Ddifro who slew Urien son of Cynfarch,
Llongad Grwm Fargod Eidyn (literal: 'the Bent of the Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon son of Taliesin,
and Heiden son of Efengad who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, daughter of Teyrnbeirdd - the man who used to give a hundred kine every Saturday in a bath-tub to Talhaearn. And he struck her with a woodhatchet on the head.
And that was one of the Three Hatchet-Blows.
The second (was) a woodcutter of Aberffraw who struck Golydan with a hatchet, on the head. And the third, one of his own men struck upon Iago, son of Beli, with a hatchet, on the head.
The three infamous blows with the axe of the Isle of Britain:
the axe-blow of Eiddin, the son of Einygan, on the head of Aneurin of flowing muse;
the axe-blow of Cadavael the Wild, on the head of Jago, the son of Beli; and
the axe-blow upon the head of Golyddan the bard, because of the stroke which he gave Cadwaladyr the Blessed with the palm of his hand.
Three Unfortunate Hatchet-Blows of the Island of Britain:
The Blow of Eidyn on the Head of Aneirin,
and the Blow on the Head of Golydan the Poet,
and the Blow on the Head of Iago son of Beli.
There were three combined expeditions that went from the Isle of Britain.
The first was that which went with Ur, the son of Erin, the Bellipotent of Scandinavia; and he came to this island in the time of Gadial the son of Erin, to solicit aid, under a condition that should not obtain from every principal fortress, a greater number than he should bring to it. To the first fortress he only came himself with a servant Mathata Vawr, and from there he obtained two, from the second four, from the third eight, from the next sixteen, and thus in like proportion from every other fortress, until that in the last the number could not be procured throughout the whole Island. He took with him 63,000, and he could not obtain a greater number of effective men in all the Island, and none but children and old men were left behind. And Ur the son of Erin the Bellipotent was the most complete levier that ever existed. It was through inadvertency that the tribe of the Cambrians gave him this permission under an irrevocable stipulation; and in consequence of this, the Coranians found an opportunity to make an easy invasion of this Island. Of the men who went, none ever returned, nor any of their progeny, nor descendants. They went on a warlike expedition as far as the sea of Greece, and remaining there in the land of Galas and Avena unto this day, they have become Greeks.
The second combined expedition was conducted by Caswallawn the son of Beli, and grandson of Manogan, and Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, the sons of Lliaws, the son of Nwyvre and Arianrhod the daughter of Beli, their mother. Their origin was from the border declivity of Galedin and Siluria, and from the combined tribes of the Boulognese; and their numbers were three score and one thousand. They marched, with their Uncle Caswallawn, after the Caesareans, unto the land of the Gauls of Armorica, who were descended from the primitive stock of the Cambrians. And none of them, nor of their progeny, returned to this Island, for they settled in Gascony among the Caesareans, where they are at present; and it was in revenge of this expedition that the Caesareans came first into this Island.
The third combined expedition was marched out of this Island by Elen Bellipotent and Cynan her brother, lord of Meiriadog, to Armorica, where they obtained lands, power and sovereignty by the Emperor Maximus for supporting him against the Romans. These men were from the land of Meiriadog, Siluria, and from the land of Gwyr and Gorwennydd; and none of them returned again, but settled there in Ystre Gyvaelwg, where they formed a common-wealth. On account of this armed expedition, the tribe of the Cambrians became so deficient in armed men, that the Irish Picts invaded them; and therefore Vortigern was forced to invite the Saxons to expel the invasion. And the Saxons, observing the weakness of the Cambrians, treacherously turned their arms against them, and by combining with the Irish Picts and other traitors, they took possession of the lands of the Cambrians, and also their privileges and their crown.
These three combined expeditions are called the three Mighty Presumptions on the tribe of the Cambrians, and also the three Silver Armies, because they took away from the Island all gold and silver they could obtain by deceit, artifice and injustice, besides what they acquired by right and consent. They are also called the three Unwise Armaments, because they weakened the Island so much, that an opportunity was given for the three Mighty Invasions; namely the Coranians, the Caesareans, and the Saxons.
There were three primary tribes of the Cambrians: The Gwentians, or the Silurians; the Ordovices, including both the north Walians and Powysians; and the tribe of Pendaran of Dyved See Triad 101 (26)), including the people of Pembrokeshire, Gower and Cardiganshire. To each of these belongs a classical dialect of the Welsh language.
Three Levies that departed from this Island, and not one of them came back:
The first went with Elen of the Hosts and Cynan her brother,
The second went with Yrp of the Hosts, who came here to ask for assistance in the time of Cadial son of Eryn. And all he asked of each Chief Fortress was twice as many (men) as would come with him to it; and to the first Fortress there came only himself and his servant. (And it proved grievous to have given him that.) Nevertheless that was the most complete levy that ever went from this Island, and no (man) of them ever came back. The place where those men remained was on two islands close to the Greek sea: those islands are Gals and Avena.
The third levy went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Lliaws son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And those men came from Arllechwedd (cantref of Gwynedd, west Conwy Valley). They went with Caswallawn their uncle across the sea in pursuit of the men of Caesar. The place where those men are is in Gascony. And the number that went in each of those Hosts was twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts: they were so called because the gold and silver of the Island went with them. And they were picked men.
(R) When a Host went to Llychlyn.
An army (of assistance) went with Yrp of the Hosts to Llychlyn. And that man came here in the time of Cadyal of the Blows(?) to ask for a levy from this Island. And nobody came with him but Mathuthavar his servant. This is what he asked from the ten-and-twenty Chief Fortresses that there are in this Island: that twice as many men as went with him to each of them should come away with him (from it). And to the first Fortress there came only himself and his servant. (And that proved grievous to the men of this Island.) And they granted it to him. And that was the most complete levy that ever departed from this Island. And with those men he conquered the way he went. Those men remained in the two islands close to the Greek sea: namely, Clas and Avena.
And the second (army) went with Elen of the Hosts and Maxen Wledig to Llychlyn: and they never returned to this Island.
And the third (army) went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwennwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Lliaw son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And (it was) from Erch and Heledd that those men came. And they went with Caswallawn their uncle in pursuit of the men of Caesar from this Island. The place where those men are is in Gascony.
The number that went with each of (those armies) was twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts of the Island of Britain.
There were three mighty invasions of the Isle of Britain that united in one, and by this means the invaders took from the Cambrians their rank, their crown and their lands.
The first was that of the Coranians, who united with the Caesareans until they became one.
The second of the three were the (replace Caesareans with the Gwyddyl Ffichti - the Irish on the western shores).
The third were the Saxons, who united with the two others against the Cambrians. And God permitted this for the purpose of chastising the Cambrians for their three Mighty Presumptions, because they were carried into effect by injustice. (similar)
There were three invading tribes that came to the Island of Britain and who never departed from it.
The first were the Coranians (Coraniaid) that came from the country of Pwyl. (Mentioned as the first plague in Mabinogion Lludd and Llefelys.)
The second were the Irish Picts who came to Alban by the North Sea.
The third were the Saxons.
The Coranians were settled about the River Humber, and the shore of the German Ocean; and the Irish Picts are in Alban about the shore of the Sea of Denmark. The Coranians and the Saxons united, and by violence and conquest brought the Loegrians into confederacy with them; and subsequently took the crown of the monarchy from the tribe of the Cambrians. And there remained none of the Loegrians that did not become Saxons, except those that are found in Cornwall, and the commot of Carnoban in Deria and Bernicia. In this manner the primitive tribe of the Cambrians, who preserved both their country and their language, lost the sovereignty of the Isle of Britain on account of the treachery of the refuge-seeking tribes, and the pillage of the three invading tribes.
Three oppressions that came to this Island, and not one of them went back:
One of them (was) the people of the Coraniaid, who came here in the time of Caswallawn (= Lludd?) son of Beli: and not one of them went back. And they came from Arabia.
The second Oppression: the Gwyddyl Ffichti. And not one of them went back.
The third Oppression: the Saxons, with Horsa and Hengist as their leaders.
The three concealments and disclosures of the Isle of Britain.
The first was the head of Bran the Blessed, the son of Llyr, that Owain the son of Ambrosius had concealed in the white hill in London; and while it remained in that state, no injury could happen to this Island.
The second were the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed, which were buried in the principal ports of the Island, and while they remained there, no molestation could happen to this Island.
The third were the dragons which were concealed by Lludd the son of Beli in the fortress of Pharaon among the rocks of Snowdon.
And these three concealments were placed under the protection of God and his attributes, so that misery should fall upon the hour and the person who should disclose them. Vortigern revealed the dragons out of revenge for the opposition of the Cambrians towards him, and he invited the Saxons under the semblance of auxiliaries to fight with the Irish Picts; and after that, he revealed the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed out of love for Rowena the daughter of Hengist the Saxon. And Arthur revealed the head of Bran the Blessed, the son of Llyr, because he scorned to keep the Island but by his own might; and after these three disclosures, the invaders obtained the superiority over the Cambrian nation.
Three Concealments and Three Disclosures of the Island of Britain:
The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was buried in the White Hill in London. And as long as the Head was there in that position, no Oppression would ever come to this Island;
The second: the Bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed, which were buried in the Chief Ports of this Island;
The third: the Dragons which Lludd son of Beli buried in Dinas Emrys in Eryri.
(R)Three Fortunate Concealments of the Island of Britain:
The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was concealed in the White Hill in London, with its face towards France. And as long as it was in the position in which it was put there, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island;
The second Fortunate Concealment: the Dragons in Dinas Emrys, which Lludd son of Beli concealed;
And the third: the Bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed, in the Chief Ports of this Island. And as long as they remained in that concealment, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island.
And they were the Three Unfortunate Disclosures when these were disclosed.
And Gwrtheyrn the Thin disclosed the bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed for the love of a woman: that was Ronnwen the pagan woman; And it was he who disclosed the Dragons;
And Arthur disclosed the Head of Bran the Blessed from the White Hill, because it did not seem right to him that this Island should be defended by the strength of anyone, but by his own.
Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
Slender Grey, horse of Caswallawn son of Beli,
Pale Yellow of the Stud, horse of Lleu Skilful-Hand,
and Host-Splitter, horse of Caradawg Strong-Arm.
Three Chief Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Tall Black-Tinted, horse of Cynan Garrwyn,
and Eager Long Fore-Legs, horse of Cyhored son of Cynan,
and Red... Wolf-Tread, horse of Gilbert son of Cadgyffro.
Three Plundered Horses of the Island of Britain:
Cloven-Hoof, horse of Owain son of Urien,
and Long Tongue, horse of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
and Bucheslom, horse of Gwgawn of the Red Sword.
Three Lovers' Horses of the Island of Britain:
Grey Fetlock, horse of Dalldaf son of Cunin Cof,
and Spotted Dun, horse of Rahawd son of Morgant,
and Pale White Lively-Back, horse of Morfran son of Tegid.
Three Lively Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Grey, horse of Alser son of Maelgwn,
and Chestnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai,
and Roan Cloven-Hoof, horse of Iddon son of Ynyr Gwent.
Three Pack-Horses of the Island of Britain:
Black, horse of Brwyn son of Cunedda,
and Huge Yellow, horse of Pasgen son of Urien,
and Dun-Grey, horse of Rhydderch Hael.
Three Horses who carried the Three Horse-Burdens:
Black Moro, horse of Elidir Mwynfawr, who carried on his back seven and a half people from Penllech in the North to Penllech in Mon. These were the seven people: Elidir Mwynfawr, and Eurgain his wife, daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd, and Gwyn Good Companion, and Gwyn Good Distributor, and Mynach Naomon his counsellor, and Prydelaw the Cupbearer, his butler, and Silver Staff his servant, and Gelbeinevin his cook, who swam with his two hands to the horse's crupper - and that was the half-person.
Corvan, horse of the sons of Eliffer, bore the second Horse-Burden: he carried on his back Gwrgi and Peredur and Dunawd the Stout and Cynfelyn the Leprous(?), to look upon the battle-fog of (the host of) Gwenddolau (in) Ar(f)derydd. (And no one overtook him but Dinogad son of Cynan Garwyn, (riding) upon Swift Roan, and he won censure (?) and dishonour from then till this day.)
Heith, horse of the sons of Gwerthmwl Wledig, bore the third Horse-Burden: he carried Gweir and Gleis and Archanad up the hill of Maelawr in Ceredigion to avenge their father.
Three Prominent Oxen of the Island of Britain:
and Chestnut, Ox of Gwylwylyd,
and the Speckled Ox.
Three Prominent Cows of the Island of Britain:
Speckled, cow of Maelgwn Gwynedd,
and Grey-Skin, cow of the sons of Eliffer of the Great Warband,
and Cornillo, cow of Llawfrodedd the Bearded.
Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
Slender-Hard, horse of Gwalchmai,
and Thick-Mane, horse of Gweddw,
... horse of Drudwas son of Tryffin,
and Chestnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai.
Three Coursing Horses of the Island of Britain:
Broad-Belly and Coal, the two horses of Collawn son of Teichi,
and Swift-Roan, horse of Dinoga(d) son of Cynan (Garwyn).
Three Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Gwirian Groddros, horse of Ga(rw)y the Tall,
Gwegar, horse of Elinwy,
... horse of Ellwyd,
... horse of the son of Matheu.
The three men who exposed themselves and their progeny to disgrace and loss of privilege, so that they could never recover the rank but that of bondman.
The first was Mandubratius (Afarwy) son of Lludd, who first invited the Romans to this Island, with the army of Julius Caesar their commander, and who gave them land in the Isle of Thanet.
The second was Vortgern, who first invited the Saxons to this island that they might support him in his tyranny, and who gave them land in the Isle of Thanet, and misery came upon him for giving landed property in this Island to strangers. He married Rowena the daughter of Horsa, and the son he obtained by marriage he called Gotta; and he gave him the usurped rank of the monarchy of the Isle of Britain. On this account the Cambrians lost the monarchy of the Isle of Britain.
The third was Medrawd son of Llew, son of Cynvarch, who obtained the sovereignty of the Isle of Britain in trust, while Arthur fought the Romans beyond the Alps, because they wished to invade this Island again; and there Arthur lost the flower of his troops. When Medrawd heard of the circumstances, he united with the Saxons, and caused the battle of Camlan, where Arthur and all his men were slain, three excepted. Upon this, the Saxons violently usurped the sovereignty of the Isle of Britain, and murdered and cruelly used every person of the Cambrian nation who would not join them; and all those of the nation who desired to oppose the Saxon invasions, obtained only the country of Cambria. The Romans also confirmed the privilege and the lands to the Saxons, as if the invading nation were forming a close alliance with the other, until the Romans were visited in such a manner, that envy burnt their possessions and the black intrusion came upon themselves.
Three Dishonoured Men who were in the Island of Britain:
One of them: Afarwy son of Lludd son of Beli. He first summoned Julius Caesar and the men of Rome to this Island, and he caused the paymant of three thousand pounds in money as tribute from this Island every year, because of a quarrel with Caswallawn his uncle.
And the second id Gwrtheyrn the Thin, who first gave land to the Saxons in this Island, and was the first to enter into an alliance with them. He caused the death of Custennin the Younger, son of Custennin the Blessed, by his treachery, and exiled the two brothers Emrys Wledig and Uthyr Penndragon from this Island to Armorica, and deceitfully took the crown and the kingdom into his own possession. And in the end Uthyr and Emrys burned Gwrtheyrn in Castell Gwerthrynyawn beside the Wye, in a single conflagration to avenge their brother.
The third and worst was Medrawd, when Arthur left with him the government of the Island of Britain, at the same time when he himself went across the sea to oppose Lles, emperor of Rome, who had dispatched messengers to Arthur in Caerleon to demand (payment of) tribute to him and to the men of Rome, from this Island, in the measure that it had been paid (from the time of) Caswallawn son of Beli until the time of Custennin the Blessed, Arthur's grandfather. This is the answer that Arthur gave to the emperor's messengers: that the men of Rome had no greater claim to tribute from the men of this Island, than the men of the Island of Britain had from them. For Bran son of Dyfnwal and Custennin son of Elen had been emperors in Rome, and they were two men of this Island. And they Arthur mustered the most select warriors of his kingdom (and led them) across the sea against the emperor. And they met beyond the mountain of Mynneu (= the Alps), and an untold number was slain on each side that day. And in the end Arthur encountered the emperor, and Arthur slew him. And Arthur's best men were slain there. When Medrawd heard that Arthur's host was dispersed, he turned against Arthur, and the Saxons and the Picts and the Scots united with him to hold this Island against Arthur. And when Arthur heard that, he turned back with all that had survived of his army, and succeeded by violence in landing on this Island in opposition to Medrawd. And then there took place the Battle of Camlan between Arthur and Medrawd, and was himself wounded to death. And from that (wound) he died, and was buried in a hall on the Island of Afallach.
Three Exalted Prisoners of the Island of Britain:
Llyr Half-Speech, who was imprisoned by Euroswydd,
and the second, Mabon son of Modron,
and third, Gwair son of Geirioedd.
And one (Prisoner), who was more exalted than the three of them, was three nights in prison in Caer Oeth and Anoeth, and three nights imprisoned by Gwen Pendragon, and three nights in an enchanted prison under the Stone of Echymeint. This Exalted Prisoner was Arthur. And it was the same lad who released him from each of these three prisons- Goreu, son of Custennin, his cousin.
The three fatal slaps of the Isle of Britain:
the slap of Matholwch the Irishman, on Bronwen the daughter of Llyr;
the slap which Gwenhwyfach gave Gwenhwyvar (Guinevere), and which caused the battle of Camlan; and
the slap which Golyddan the bard gave Cadwaladyr the Blessed.
Three Harmful Blows of the Island of Britain:
The first of them Matholwch the Irishman struck upon Branwen daughter of Llyr;
The second Gwenhwyfach struck upon Gwenhwyfar: and for that cause there took place afterwards the Action of the Battle of Camlan;
And the third Golydan the Poet struck upon Cadwaladr the Blessed.
The three tremendous slaughters of the Isle of Britain:
The first, when Medrawd went to Galliwig, he did not leave in the court meat and drink to support a fly, but consumed and wasted it all; and he pulled Gwenhwyvar from her throne, and committed adultery with her.
The second was, when Arthur went to the court of Medrawd, he left neither meat nor drink that he did not destroy; and killed everything in the hundred, both man and beast.
The third was, when the traitorous Aeddan went to the court of Rhydderch the Generous, he destroyed all the meat and drink in the court, without leaving as much as would feed a fly; and he did not leave either man or beast alive, but destroyed the whole.
These were called the three dreadful slaughters because the Cambrians were compelled, according to law and custom, to answer and redress for what was done in that irregular, unusual, and lawless manner.
Three Unrestrained Ravagings of the Island of Britain:
The first of them (occurred) when Medrawd came to Arthur's Court at Celliwig in Cornwall; he left neither food nor drink in the court that he did not consume. And he dragged Gwenhwyfar from her royal chair, and then he struck a blow upon her;
The second Unrestrained Ravaging (occurred) when Arthur came to Medrawd's court. He left neither food nor drink in the court;
And the third Unrestrained Ravaging (occurred) when Aeddan the Wily came to the court of Rhydderch the Generous at Alclud (= Dumbarton); he left neither food nor drink nor beast alive.)
Three Quests that were obtained from Powys:
The first of them is the fetching of Myngan from Meigen to Llansilin, by nine the next morning, to receive privileges from Cadwallawn the Blessed, after the slaying of Ieuaf and Griffri;
The second is the fetching of Griffri to Bryn Griffri before the following morning, to attack Edwin;
The third is the fetching of Hywel son of Ieuaf to Ceredigiawn from the Rock of Gwynedd to fight with (= on the side of?) Ieuaf and Iago in that battle.
The three wives of Arthur, who were his three chief ladies:
Gwenhwyvar (Guinevere) daughter of Gwythyr and son of Greidiawl;
Gwenhwyvar (Guinevere) daughter of Gawrwyd Ceint; and
Gwenhwyvar (Guinevere) daughter of Ogyrvan Gawr.
Arthur's Three Great Queens:
Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gwythyr son of Greidiawl*,
Gwennhwyfar daughter of Cywryd Gwent,
and Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gogfran the Giant.
* (Not related to enemy subduers (epithet: Greidiawl) in Triad 32 and Culhwch_and_Olwen used as an epithet)
This is a garbled Triad and is meant to state the her illustrious father and grandfather:
Three titles of Arthur's Great Queen:
Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gwythyr the Enemy-subduer (Greidiawl);
Gwennhwyfar the grand-daughter of Owain the Great of Gwent (Ogyrvan Mawr of Ceint)
Gwennhwyfar the great-grand-daughter of Urien of Gorre (Ogyrvan Gawr (Gower); Giant is ridiculous)
The three chief mistresses of Arthur:
the first was Garwen daughter of Henyn of Tegyrn Gwyr and Ystrad Tywy;
Gwyl daughter of Eutaw of Caerworgorn; and
Indeg daughter of Avarwy the Tall of Radnorshire.
And the Three Mistresses were these:
Indeg daughter of Garwy the Tall,
and Garwen ('Fair Leg') daughter of Henin the Old,
and Gwyl ('Modest') daughter of Gendawd ('Big Chin'?).
Three Amazons of the Island of Britain:
The first of them, Llewei daughter of Seitwed,
and Rore(i) daughter of Usber,
and Mederei Badellfawr ('Big Knee'?).
The three viragoes of the Isle of Britain:
Llewei daughter of Seithwedd Saidi;
Mederai daughter of Padellvawr; and
Rhorei the. Great, daughter of Usber Galed.
The three fatal counsels of the Isle of Britain:
First, the giving of permission to Julius Caesar and the Romans with him, to have a place for the hoofs of their horses in the cave of the verdant edge in the Isle of Thanet, because by this the Caesarians obtained a landing place to take possesson of the Isle of Britain, and to form a junction with the traitor Afarwy (Avaricus) the son of Lludd. Such permission was granted to the Caesarians because the Cambrians thought it contemptible to defend their country otherwise than through strength of arms, heroism, and the bravery of the people, where they had no suspicion of the treachery of Afarwy, the son of Lludd, with the Romans.
The second fatal counsel was that of permitting Horsa, Hengist and Rowena to return to the Isle of Britain, after they were driven over the sea to the country from whence they originated.
The third was to suffer Arthur to divide his men with Medrawd three times in the battle of Camlan, and through which Arthur lost the victory and his life, where Medrawd was united with the Saxons.
Three Unfortunate Counsels of the Island of Britain:
To give place for their horses' fore-feet on the land to Julius Caesar and the men of Rome, in requital for Meinlas;
and the second: to allow Horsa and Hengist and Rhonwen into this Island;
and the third: the three-fold dividing by Arthur of his men with Medrawd at Camlan.
Three Gate-Keepers at the Action of Bangor Orchard:
Gwgon Red Sword,
and Madawg son of Rhun,
and Gwiawn son of Cyndrwyn.
And three others on the side of Lloegr:
Hawystyl the Arrogant,
and Gwaetcym Herwuden,
Three Golden Corpses of the Island of Britain:
Madawg son of Brwyn,
and Cengan P(B)eilliawg,
and Rhufawn the Radiant son of Gwyddno (Gwynddnaw Garanhir).
They are so called because their weight in gold was given to deliver them from those who slew them.
Three Fettered War-Bands of the Islands of Britain:
The War-Band of Cadwallawn Long-Arm, who each one put the fetters of their horses on their (own) feet, when fighting with Serygei the Irishman at the Irishmens' Rocks in Mon;
And the second, the War-Band of Rhiwallawn son of Urien when fighting with the Saxons;
And the third, the War-Band of Belyn of Llyn when fighting with Edwin at Bryn Edwin in Rhos.
Three Bull-Spectres of the Island of Britain:
Three Spectre of Gwidawl,
and the Spectre of Llyr Marini,
and the Spectre of Gyrthmwl Wledig.
The three monster bulls of the Isle of Britain:
the monster of Gwidawl;
the monster of Llyr Merini, and
the monster of Gwrthmwl Wledig
Three Wild Spectres of the Island of Britain:
The Spectre of Banawg,
and the Spectre of Ednyfedawg the Sprightly,
and the Spectre of Melen.
The three wild monsters of the Iste of Britain:
the monster of Bannawg;
the monster of Melan; and
the monster of Ednyvedawg Drythyll.
The three free guests having origin in the court of Arthur:
Llywarch Hen son of Elidir Lydanwyn;
Heiddyn the Tall;
and these three were bards
Three Unrestricted Guests of Arthur's Court, and Three Wanderers:
Llywarch the Old,
The three chaste maids of the Isle of Britain:
Trywyl daughter of Llynghesawl with the generous hand;
Gwenvron daughter of Tudwal Tudclud; and
Tegau Eurvron, who was one of the three beauteous dames in the court of Arthur.
The three chaste wives of the Isle of Britain:
Arddun, wife of Catgor and son of Collwyn;
Eviliau, wife of Gwydyr Trwm; and
Emerched, wife of Mabon and son of Dewain the Aged.
Three Faithful Women of the Island of Britain:
Arddun wife of Cadgor son of Gorolwyn,
and Efeilian wife of Gwydyr the Heavy,
and Emerchred wife of Mabon son of Dewengan.
(Pen. 47)Three Faithful Wives of the Island of Britain:
Treul the Blameless daughter of Llynghessawc Generous Hand,
and Gwenfedon daughter of Tud(w)al Tudglud, and Tegau Gold-Breast.
And one more faithful than the three: Hemythryd daughter of Mabon son of Dyfynwyn.
The three golden shoe-wearers of the Isle of Britain:
Caswallawn son of Beli, when he went into Gascony to obtain Flur the daughter of Mygnach the Dwarf, who had been taken there clandestinely to the emperor Caesar by the person called Mwrchan the Thief, king of that country, and the friend of Julius Caesar; and Caswallawn brought her back again to the Isle of Britain.
Second, Manawydan son of Llyr Llediaith, when he went as far as Dyfed imposing restrictions.
Third, Llew Llaw Gyfes, when he went with Gwydion son of Dôn, seeking a name and purpose of Riannon his mother.
Three Golden Shoemakers of the Island of Britain:
Caswallawn son of Beli, when he went to Rome to seek Fflur;
and Manawydan son of Llyr, when the Enchantment was on Dyfed;
and Lleu Skilful-Hand, when he and Gwydion were seeking a name and arms from his mother Ar(i)anrhod.
Three Kings who were (sprung) from Villeins:
Gwriad son of Gwrian in the North,
and Cadafel son of Cynfeddw in Gwynedd,
and Hyfaidd son of Bleiddig in Deheubarth.
Three Defilements of the Severn:
Cadwallawn when he went to the Action of Digoll, and the forces of Cymry with him; and Edwin on the other side, and the forces of Lloegr with him. And then the Severn was defiled from its source to its mouth;
The second, the gift of Golydan from Einiawn son of Bedd, king of Cornwall;
And the third, Calam the horse of Iddon son of Ner from Maelgwn(?).
Three Fair Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain:
Urien son of Cynfarch and Arawn son of Cynfarch and Lleu son of Cynfarch, by Nefyn daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog their mother;
The second, Owain and Morfudd daughter of Urien and Anarun archbishop of Llydaw, by Modron daughter of Afallach their mother;
The third was Gwrgi and Peredur sons of (E)liffer of the Great Warband, and Arddun their sister, and ... (by Efrddyl?), and Cornan their horse and Grey-Skin their cow.
(PEN. 50)Three Fair Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain: Urien and Efrddyl, children of Cynfarch the Old, who were carried together in the womb of Nefyn daughter of Brychan their mother;
The second, Owain son of Urien and Mor(fudd) his sister who were carried together in the womb of Modron daughter of Afallach;
The third, Gwrgi and Peredur and Ceindrech Pen Asgell ('Wing Head'), children of Eliffer and the Great Warband, who were carried together in the womb of Efrddyl daughter of Cynfarch their mother.
The three amorous ones of the Isle of Britain.
The first was Caswallawn son of Beli, for Flur, daugter of Mygnach the dwarf, and he went for her as far as the land of Gascony against the Romans, and he brought her away, and killed 6,000 Caesarians; and in revenge the Romans invaded this Island.
The second was Trystan son of Tallwch, for Essyllt daughter of March son of Meirchion his uncle.
The third was Cynon, for Morvydd daughter of Urien Rheged.
Three Lovers of the Island of Britain:
Cynon son of Clydno (for Morfudd daughter of Urien);
and Caswallawn son of Beli (for Fflur daughter of Ugnach(?) the Dwarf);
and Drystan (son of Tallwch, for Essyllt, the wife of his uncle March).
(PEN. 267) Three Surpassing Bonds of Enduring Love which Three Men formerly in the time of Arthur cast upon the Three Fairest, most Lovable, and most Talked-of Maidens who were in the Island of Britain at that time;
that is (the bond) which Tristan son of Tallwch cast upon Essyllt daughter of (Culfanawyd) Pillar of Britain;
and (the bond) which Cynon son of Clydno Eiddyn cast upon Morfudd daughter of Urien Rheged;
and (the bond) which Caradawg Strong-Arm son of Llyr M(a)rini cast upon Tegau Gold-Breast daughter of Nudd Generous-Hand, king of the North.
And those were the Three Fairest, most Lovable, and most Talked-of Maidens who were in the Island of Britain at that time.
Three Stubborn Men:
E(i)ddilig the Dwarf,
and Gwair of Great Valour,
The three compeers of the court of Arthur:
Dalldav son of Cynin Cov;
Trystan son of March son of Meirchion; and
Rhyhawd son of Morgant son of Adras.
Three Peers of Arthur's Court:
R(a)hawd son of Morgant,
and Dalldaf son of Cunyn Cof,
and Drystan son of March.
Three who could not be expelled(?) from Arthur's Court:B Uchei son of Gwryon,
and Coledawg son of (Gwynn),
and (C)erenhyr son of Gereinyawn the Old.
The three lovely knights of King Arthur's court:
the best towards every guest and stranger: Gwalchmai son of Gwyar;
Garwy son of Geraint son of Erbin; and
Cadeir the adopted son of Seithin Saidai.
And no one could be denied what he sought from their courtesy, and so great was their generosity towards every person, that what they gained was the same as if a friend had obtained it on account of real friendship.
Three Men of the Island of Britain who were most courteous to Guests and Strangers:
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
and Cadwy son of Gereint,
and Cadrieith (Fine Speech) (son of) Saidi.
Three Violent(?) Ones of the Island of Britain:
Three Wanderers of Arthur's Court:
The three beautiful maids of the Isle of Britain:
Gwen daughter of Cywryd son of Crydon;
Creirwy daughter of Ceridwen; and
Arianrod daughter of Dôn.
Three Fair Maidens of the Island of Britain:
Creirwy, daughter of Ceridwen,
and Ar(i)anrhod daughter of Don,
and Gwen daughter of Cywryd son of Crydon.
Three Lively Maidens of the Island of Britain:
Angharat Tawny Wave (?), daughter of Rhydderch Hael,
and Afan, daughter of Maig Thick-Hair,
and Perwyr, daughter of Rhun of Great Wealth.
The three unchaste wives of the Isle of Britain were the three daughters of Culvynawyd Prydein.
The first was Essyllt Vyngwen the mistress of Trystan son of Tallwch;
the second was Penarwen, wife of Owain son of Urien; and
the third was Bun, wife of Ida the flame-bearer.
Three Faithless Wives of the Island of Britain. Three daughters of Culfanawyd of
Britain:b Essyllt Fair-Hair (Trystan's mistress),
and Penarwan (wife of Owain son of Urien),
and Bun, wife of Fflamddwyn.
And one was more faithless than those three: Gwenhwyfar, Arthur's wife, since she shamed a better man than any (of the others).
Three Saintly Lineages of the Island of Britain:
The Lineage of Joseph of Ar(i)mathea,
and the Lineage of Cunedda Wledig,
and the Lineage of Brychan Brycheiniog.
(C 18)Three Kindreds of Saints of the Island of Britain, by a Welsh mother:
The Offspring of Brychan Brycheiniog,
and the Offspring of Cunedda Wledig,
and the Offspring of Caw of Pictland.
There were three benignant guests of the Isle of Britain:
(St.) Padarn, and
St. Teilaw (St.Teilio) .
They were so called because they went as guests into the houses of the nobles, the yeomen, the native and the bondman, without accepting either gift or reward, food or drink; but they taught the faith in Christ to everyone without pay, or thanks, and to the poor and the destitute, they gave of their gold and their silver, their clothes and their provisions.
Three Blessed Visitors of the Island of Britain:
Three Bodies which God created for Teilo:
The first is at Llandaff in Morgannwg,
the second at Llandeilo Fawr,
and the third at Penalun in Dyfed, as the History tells us.
The three frivolous causes of battle in the Isle of Britain.
The first was the battle of Goddeu, which was caused about a bitch, a roe-buck and a lapwing; and in that battle 71,000 men were slain.
The second was the action of Arderydd, caused by a bird’s nest, in which 80,000 Cambrians were slain.
The third was the battle of Camlan, between Arthur and Medrod, where Arthur was slain with 100,000 of the choice men of the Cambrians.
On account of these three foolish battles, the Saxons took the country of Lloegria from the Cambrians, because there was not a sufficient number of warriors left to oppose the Saxons, the treachery of Gwrgi Garwlwyd, and the deception of Eiddelic the dwarf.
Three Futile Battles of the Island of Britain:
One of them was the Battle of Goddeu: it was brought about by the cause of the bitch, together with the roebuck and the plover;
The second was the Action of Arfderydd, which was brought by the cause of the lark's nest;
And the third was the worst: that was Camlan, which was brought about because of a quarrel between Gwenhwyfar and Gwennhwyfach.
This is why those (Battles) were called Futile: because they were brought about by such a barren cause as that.
The three chief courts of Arthur:
Caerllion upon Usk in Cambria;
Celliwig in Cornwall; and
Edinburgh in the North.
These were the three at which he kept the three chief festivals; that is to say Christmas, Easter and Whitsuntide.
Arthur's Three Principal Courts:
Caerleon-on-Usk in Wales,
and Celliwig in Cornwall,
and Penrhyn Rhionydd in the North.
Three Principal Festivals at the Three Principal Courts:
Easter, and Christmas, and Whitsun.
Three Knights of Arthur's Court who won the Graal, and it brought them to Heaven:
Galaad son of Lawnslot of the Lake,
and Peredur son of Earl Efrawg,
and Bort son of King Bort.
And the two first were virgin of body. And the third was chaste, for only once had he committed bodily sin; and that, through temptation, at the time when he won ... daughter of King Brangor, who was Empress in Constantinople, and from whom was descended the greatest race in the world. All three were sprung of the race of Joseph of Arimathea, and of the lineage of the Prophet David, as the History of the Graal testifies.
The three chief Christian bards of the Isle of Britain:
Merddin bard of Ambrosius (Merlyn);
Taliesin chief of the bards; and
Merddin son of Madawg Morvryn (Myrddin Wyllt son of St. Madog Morvryn).
Three Skilful Bards were at Arthur's Court:
Myrddin son of Morfryn,
The three beautiful ladies of the court of Arthur:
Dyvir with the golden coloured hair;
Enid daughter of Yniwl, the earl; and
These were the three excellent ladies of Arthur’s court.
Three Splendid Maidens of Arthur's Court:
Enid daughter of Earl Yniwl,
and Tegau Gold-Breast.
Three Things which conquered Lloegr:
Receiving Strangers (inviting the Saxons),
and the Gift of the Bald Man (St Austin encouraging the Massacre of the monks of Bangor Iscoed).
Three Perpetual Harmonies of the Island of Britain:
One was at the Island of Afallach,
and the second at Caer Garadawg,
and the third at Bangor.
In each of these three places there were 2,400 religious men; and of these 100 in turn continued each hour of the twenty-four hours of the day and night in prayer and service to God, ceaselessly and without rest for ever.
Three Perpetual Choirs of the Island of Britain:
One was at the Bangor Illtyd Farchog in Caer Worgan,
and the second at Cor Emrys at Caer Caradoc,
and the third at Bangor Wyrddin in the Isle of Avalon.
In each of these three places there were 2,400 religious men; and of these 100 in turn continued each hour of the twenty-four hours of the day and night in prayer and service to God, ceaselessly and without rest for ever.
Fabliaux or tales, abridged from French manuscripts of the XIIth and XIIIth centuries, Le Grand d'Aussy, Pierre Jean Baptiste (1815) Vol 2 and
Catechism of the history of the early Church in England and Wales, Robert Sewell (1847)
Llanilltud Fawr, now Llantwit Major (kml) in Glamorgan
Cor Emrys was a previous Choir of Ambrosius at Caer Caradoc (kml) in Mynydd y Gaer, Glamorgan under the remains of St. Peter's Church
Three Perpetual Choirs of the Isle of Britain:
Choir of Llan Illtyd Vawr Glamorganshire;
Choir of Ambrosius in Ambresbury; and
the Choir of Glastenbury.
In each of these three choirs there were 2400 saints; that is, there were a hundred for every hour of the day and night in rotation, perpetuating the praise and servive of God without rest or intermission.
Three Fearless Men of the Island of Britain:
The first was Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
the second was Llachau son of Arthur,
and the third was Peredur son of Earl Efrog.
Three Elders of the World:
The Owl of Cwm Cowlwyd,
the Eagle of Gwernabwy,
and the Blackbird of Celli Gadarn.
Three Men who specified their sufficiency from Arthur as their Gift:
Culhwch son of Cilydd son of Celyddon Wledig,
and Huarwor son of Aflawn,
and Gordibla of Cornwall.
Three Immense Feasts that were in the Island of Britain:
One of them was the Feast which Caswallawn son of Beli made in London, where twenty thousand cattle were slain, and a hundred thousand sheep, and fifty thousand geese and capons, and of wild and domesticated birds more than anyone might number. (G. Owain).
Three People who broke their hearts from Bewilderment:
Branwen daughter of Llyr,
and Caradog son of Bran,
and Ffaraon Dandde.
Three Wives whom Brychan Brycheiniog had. Their names were:
And his Offspring are one of the Three Kindreds of Saints of the Island of Britain. The second is the Offspring of Cunedda Wledig, and the third is the Offspring of Caw of Pictland.
There were three names given to the Isle of Britain from the first:
before it was inhabited it was called the Sea-girt Green Space (Clas Myrddin);
after it was inhabited, it was called the Honey Island (Y Vel Ynys); and
after the people were formed into a common-wealth, by Prydain the son of Aedd the Great, it was denominated the Isle of Britain.
And no one has any right to it but the tribe of the Cambrians, for they first took possession; and before this time there were no persons living on it; but it was full of bears, wolves, crocodiles, and bisons.
There were three primary divisions of the Isle of Britain:
Lloegria (England) and
and the rank of sovereignty belongs to each of the three. And under a monarchy and voice of the country they are governed, according to the regulations of Prydain, the son of Aedd the Great; and to the nation of the Cambrians belongs the right of establishing the monarchy by the voice of the country and the people, according to rank and primeval right. And under the protection of such regulation, royalty ought to exist in every country in the Isle of Britain, and every royalty ought to be under the protection of the voice of the country. Therefore it is said as a proverb: "a country is more powerful than a lord."
There are three pillars of the social state in the Isle of Britain:
the voice of the country,
according to the regulation of Prydain the son of Aedd the Great.
There are three pillars of the nation of the Isle of Britain.
The first was Hu the Mighty, who brought the nation of the Cambrians first to the Isle of Britain; and they came from the Summer Country, which is also called Defrobani (that is, where Constantinople now stands); and they came over the Hazy Sea to the Isle of Britain, and to Armorica, where they settled.
The second was Prydain the son of Aedd the Great, who first organized a social state of sovereignty in Britain; for before that time there was no justice but what was done by favour; nor any law, except that of superior force.
The third was Dyvnwal Moelmud, for he first made arrangements respecting the laws, maxims, customs, and privileges of the country and tribe.
And on account of these reasons, they were called the three pillars of the nation of the Cambrians.
There were three social tribes on the Isle of Britain.
The first was the tribe of the Cambrians, who came to the Isle of Britain with Hu the Mighty, because he would not possess a country and lands by fighting and pursuit, but by justice and tranquility.
The second was the tribe of the Lloegrians, who came from Gascony, and they were descended from the primitive tribe of the Cambrians.
The third were the Brython, who came from Armorica, and who were descended from the primitive tribe of the Cambrians.
These were called the three peaceful tribes because they came by mutual consent and tranquility; and these tribes were descended from the primitive tribe of the Cambrians, and all three tribes had the same language and speech.
There were three refuge-seeking tribes that came to the Island of Britain; and they came under the peace and permission of the tribe of the Cambrians, without arms and without opposition.
The first was a tribe of Caledonians in the north.
The second was the Irish tribe, who dwelled in the Highlands of Scotland.
The third were the people of Galedin, who came in naked vessels to the Isle of Wight, when their country was drowned, where they had land granted them by the tribe of the Cambrians.
They had no privilege of claim in the Isle of Britain, but they had land and protection assigned to them under certain limitations; and it was stipulated that they should not possess the rank of native Cambrians until the ninth of their lineal descendants.
There were three invading tribes that came to the Island of Britain, and who subsequently left it.
The first was the Scandinavians, who came here after Urb of the Mighty Host had taken away from the Island the flower of the tribe of the Cambrians. He took away with him 63,000 effective men, and steeds for war. At the end of the third age the Cambrians drove the Scandinavians over the sea into Germany.
The second were the troops of Ganval the Irishman, who came into Gwynedd and settled there for twenty nine years, until they were driven into the sea by Caswallawn son of Beli, son of Mynogan. More likely to be Cunneda son of Edeyrn son of Padarn Beisrudd, of the red robe. See Triad 12
The third were the Caesareans, who continued by violence on this Island more than four hundred years, when they returned to Italy to oppose the fierce contention of the black invasion; and they did not return again to the Island of Britain. Because the Cambrians marched with them, none were left in the Island but women and little children under nine years of age.
There were three treacherous invasions of the Island of Britain:
the first were the red Irishmen from Ireland, who came to Alban;
the second were the Scandinavians; and
the third were the Saxons. These last came to this Island in peace and by the permission of the tribe of the Cambrians, and in the protection of God and his truth, as well as in the protection of the country and of the tribe; and by treachery and mischief they opposed the tribe of the Cambrians, and were able to wrest from them the sovereign power of the Island of Britain, and they mutually confederated themselves in Lloegria and Alban, where they still reside. This happened in the age of Vortigern.
There were three disappearances by loss in the Isle of Britain.
The first were Gavran and his men, who went in search of the Green Islands of the floods, and were never heard of after.
The second were Merddin the bard of Emrys (G.M. Merlyn of Arthur), and his nine attendant bards, who went to sea in a house of glass, and the place where they went is unknown.
The third was Madog the son of Owain king of North Wales, who went to sea with three hundred persons in ten ships, but the place to which they went is unknown. (Legend of the Mandan tribes in the Americas.)
There were three oppressions that came upon the Isle of Britain, but which were brought to a termination:
first the oppression of the Horse of Malaen, which is called the oppression of the first of May;
second, the oppression of the dragon of Britain; and
the oppression of the half-apparent man.
That is, the first was from beyond the sea;
the second was from the madness of the country and the nation under the pressure of the violence and lawlessness of princes; but Dyvnwal Moelmud destroyed it, by forming just regulations between society and society, prince and neighbouring prince, and country and neighbouring country; and
the third was in the time of Beli the son of Manogan, which was a treacherous conspiracy, but he extinguished it.
(Resembles Mabinogion Lludd and Llefelys.)
There were three frightful plagues in the Isle of Britain.
First, the plague that arose from the corpses of the Irishmen who were slaughtered in Manuba, after they had oppressed North Wales for the space of twenty-nine years.
(The above is referenced in Triad 8. The use of Manuba sounds much like Manaw Gododdin where Cunedda came from and hints of a mass genocide.)
Second, the infection of the yellow plague of Rhoss, on account of the corpses which were slain there, and if any one went within reach of the effluvia he died immediately. Refers to the yellow plague that took the life of Maelgwn Gwynedd.
The third was the sickness of the Bloody Sweat, on account of the corn having been destroyed by wet weather in the time of the Norman invasion by William the Bastard.
There were three awful events in the Isle of Britain.
The first was the bursting of the Lake of Floods, and the rushing of an inundation over all the lands, until all persons were destroyed, except Dwyvan and Dwyvach, who escaped in an open vessel; and from them the Isle of Britain was peopled.
The second was the trembling of the fiery torrent, until the earth was rent to the abyss, and the greater part of all life was destroyed.
The third was the Hot Summer, when the trees and plants took fire by the burning heat of the sun, and many people and animals, various kinds of birds, vermin, trees and plants, were entirely lost.
There were three monarchs by the verdict of the Isle of Britain.
The first was Caswallawn the son of Lludd, son of Beli, son of Mynogan;
the second was Caradog, son of Bran (Caractacus), son of Llyr Llediaith(half speech); and
the third was Owain the son of Maximus.
That is, sovereignty was conferred upon them by the verdict of the country and the nation, when they were not elders.
There were three holy families in the Isle of Britain.
The first was the family of Bran the Blessed, ths son of Llyr Llediaith; for Bran was the first who brought the faith of Christ to this island from Rome. He was imprisoned through the treachery of Aregwedd Föeddawg, the daughter of Afarwy the son of Lludd. alternate: of Boadicea the daughter of Mandubratius the son of Lludd
The second was the family of Cynedda Wledig, who first gave land and privilege to God and the saints in the Isle of Britain.
The third was Brychan of Brecknockshire, who educated his children and grandchildren in learning and generosity, that they might be able to share the faith in Christ with the Cambrians, where they were without faith.
There were three treacherous meetings on the Isle of Britain.
First, there was the meeting of Afarwy the son of Lludd, and the traitors with him, who gave place for the landing of the Romans on the narrow Green Point, and not more; and the consequences of which was, the gaining of the Island by the Romans.
The second was the meeting of the Cambrian nobles and the Saxon Claimants upon Salisbury Plain, where the plot of the Long Knives took place through the treachery of Vortigern; for by his counsel, in league with the Saxons, nearly all the Cambrian nobility were slain.
Third, the meeting of Medrawd and Iddawg Corn Prydein [Rhonabwy's Dream later St.Iddew] with their men of Nanhwynian, where they entered into a conspiracy against Arthur, and by this means strengthened the Saxon cause on the Isle of Britain.
There were three arrant traitors of the Isle of Britain.
First Afarwy son of Lludd, son of Beli the Great, who invited Julius Caesar and the Romans into this island, and caused the invasion of the Romans. That is, he and his men gave themselves as guides for the Romans, and received a treasure of gold and silver from them every year. In consequence of this, the men of this Island were compelled to pay three thousand pieces of silver every year as a tribute to the Romans until the time of Owain the son of Maximus, who refused to pay the tribute. And under pretence of being content, the Romans drew from the Isle of Britain the most effective men who were capable of becoming soldiers, and marched them to Aravia and other far countries, from whence they never returned. The Romans who were in Britain went into Italy, and left only women and little children behind them; and, therefore, the Britons were so weakened, that they were not able to oppose invasion and conquest for want of men and strength.
The second was Vortigern, who murdered Constantine the Blessed, seized the crown of the island by violence and lawlessness, first invited the Saxons to the Island as his defenders, married Alis Ronwen (Rowena), the daughter of Hengist, and gave the crown of Britain to the son he had by her, whose name was Gotta; and on this account, the kings of London are called children of Alis. Thus, on account of Vortigern, the Cambrians lost their lands, their rank and their crown in Lloegria.
The third was Medrawd the son of Llew, the son of Cynvarch: for when Arthur left the government of the Isle of Britain in his custody, whilst he marched against the Roman emperor, Medrawd took the crown from Arthur by usurpation and seduction; and in order to keep it, he confederated with the Saxons; and, on this account, the Cambrians lost the crown of Lloegria and the sovereignty of the Isle of Britain.
The three secret treasons of the Isle of Britain:
First, the betraying of Caradog son of Bran, by Aregwedd Voeddawg, daughter of Afarwy, the son of Lludd, and delivering him up a captive to the Romans.
Second, the betraying of Arthur by Iddawg Corn Prydein, who divulged his designs.
The above in the Mabinogion tale The Dream of Rhonabwy is Rhonabwy's guide in the dream realm. It is he who caused the enmity between Arthur and Mordred, leading to the battle of Camlann.
And third, the betraying of Prince Llewelyn, son of Grufudd, by Madog Min. (Bishop of Bangor who caused the death of Llewelyn son of Gruffydd.)
By these three treacheries the Cambrians were completely subdued; and nothing but treachery could have overcome them.
The three heroic sovereigns of the Isle of Britain:
Caradog the son of Bran (Caractacus), and
because they conquered their enemies, and could not be overcome but by treachery and by plotting.
The three primary battle princes of the Isle of Britain:
Caswallawn the son of Beli,
Gweirydd the son of Cynfelyn Wledig, and
Caradog, the son of Bran, son of Llyr Llediaith.
There were three plebeian princes in the Isle of Britain:
Gwrgai, son of Gwrien in the North;
Cadavael son of Cynvedw in North Wales; and
Hyvaidd the Tall son of St. Bleiddan, in Glenmorgan.
That is to say, sovereignty was granted them on account of their heroic actions, and virtuous qualities.
The three conventional monarchs of the Isle of Britain.
The first was Prydein, son of Aedd the Great, when there was established a discriminating sovereignty over the Isle of Britain, and its adjacent islands;
second, Caradog, the son of Bran, when he was elected Generalissimo of all the Island of Britain to oppose the incursions of the Romans; and
Owain, the son of Macsen Wledig, when the Cambrians resumed the sovereignty from the Roman emperor, according to the rights of the nation. These were called the three conventional sovereigns, because they were raised to the dignity by the conventions of the country and the bordering country, within all the limits of the nation of the Cambrians, by holding a convention in every district, commot and hundred in the Isle of Britain and its adjacent islands.
The three blessed princes of the Isle of Britain.
The first was Bran the Blessed, the son of Llyr Llediaith, who first brought the faith of Christ to the Cambrians where he had been seven years as a hostage for his son Caradog, whom the Romans put in prison, after being betrayed through the enticement, deceit and plotting of Aregwedd Fôeddawg.
Second, Lleirwg, son of Coel, son of St. Cyllin, and called Lleufer the Great, who built the first church in Llandav, which was the first in the Isle of Britain, and who gave the privilege of the country and tribe, with civil and ecclesiastical rights, to those who professed faith in Christ.
The third was Cadwaladr the Blessed, who gave protection, within his lands and within all his possessions, to those who fled from the infidel and lawless Saxons who wished to murder them.
Three system formers of royalty of the Isle of Britain:
Prydein the son of Aedd the Great,
and Bran the son of Llyr Llediaith.
That is, their systems were the best systems of royalty of the Isle of Britain, and they were judged superior to all other systems which were formed in the Isle of Britain.
The three disgraceful drunkards on the Isle of Britain:
First, Ceraint, the drunken king of Siluria, who in drunkenness burned all the corn far and near over all the country, so that a famine for bread arose.
Second, Vortigern, who in his drink gave the Isle of Thanet to Horsa that he might commit adultery with Rowena his daughter, and who also gave a claim to the son that he had by her to the crown of Lloegria; and added to these, treachery and plotting against the Cambrians.
Third, the drunken Seithynin, son of Seithyn Saida king of Dimetia, who in his drunkenness let the sea over the hundred of Gwaelod so that all the houses and land which were there, were lost; where before that event sixteen fortified towns were reckoned there, superior to all the towns and fortifications in Cambria, with the exception of Caerllion upon Usk. The hundred of Gwaelod was a dominion of Gwydnaw Garanhir, king of Cardigan. This event happened in the time of Ambrosius. The people who escaped from the inundation landed in Ardudwy, in the country of Arvon, and the mountains of Snowdon, and other places, which had not been inhabited before that period.
The three fetter-wearing kings of the Isle of Britain:
Morgan the greatly Courteous of Glamorgan,
Elystan Glodrydd, between the Wye and the Severn, and
Gwathyoed, king of Cardigan.
They were called, because they wore fetters in all their primary functions of royalty in the Isle of Britain instead of frontlets or crowns.
The three frontlet-wearing kings of the Isle of BritainL
Cadell, king of Dinevor,
Anarawd, king of Aberfraw, and
Mervin, king of Mathravael.
They were called the three frontlet-wearing princes.
The three foreign kings of the Isle of Britain:
Gwrddyled of the conflict, Moriens with the Beard, and
Constantine the Blessed.
The three disgraceful traitors who enabled the Saxons to take th crown of the Isle of Britain from the Cambrians:
First was Gwrgi Garwlwyd, who after tasting human flesh in the court of Edekfled the Saxon king, became so fond of it that he would eat no other but human flesh ever after. In consequence of this he and his men united with Edelfled king of the Saxons; and he made secret incursions upon the Cambrians and brought young male and female whom he daily ate. And all the lawless men of the Cambrians flocked to him and the Saxons, where they obtained their fill of prey and spoil taken from the natives of this Isle;
The second was Medrod who with his men united with the Saxons, that he might secure the kingdom to himself, against Arthur; and in consequence of that treachery many of the Lloegrians became Saxons;
The third was Aeddan, the traitor of the north, who with his men made submission to the power of the Saxons.
On account of these these traitors the Cambrians lost their lands and their crown in Lleogria; and if it had not been for such treasons, the Saxons could not have gained the Island from the Cambrians.
The three over -ruling counter energies of the
Isle of Britain:
Hu the Mighty, who brought the Cambrian nation from the Summer Country, called Defrobani unto the Isle of Britain;
Prydain, the son of Aedd the Great, who organised the nation and established a jury over the Isle of Britain; and
Rbitta Gawr, who made a robe for himself of the beards of those kings whom he made captives, on account of their oppression and lawlessness.
The three beneficial harrassers of the Isle of
Prydain, the son of Aedd the Great, harrassing the dragon of oppression, which was the oppression of pillage and lawlessness, engendered in the Isle of Britain;
Caradog the son of Bran, the son of Llyr, harrassing the Roman invaders and
Rhitta Gawr, harrassing the oppression and pillaging pf dissolute kings.
The three benefactors of the Canbrian nation.:
First, Hu the Mighty, who first taught the Cambrians the way to plough when they were in the Summer Country, [that is, where Constantinople stands at present,] before they came to the Isle of Britain.
Second, Coll, the son of Collvrewi, who first brought wheat and barley to the Isle of Britain, for before that time there was nothing but oats and rye.
Third, Elldud, the holy knight of Theodosius, who improved the mode of ploughing land and taught the Cambrians better than was known before, and he gave them the system and art of cultivating lands as is used at present; for before that time land was cultivated only with the mattock and over-tread plough, after the manner of the Irish.
The three primary inventors of the Cambrians.
Hu the Mighty, who formed the first mote and retinue over the nation of Cambria;
Dyvnwal Moelmud, who made the first regulations of the laws, privileges and customs of the country and tribe; and
Tydain, the father of poetic genius who made the first order and regulation for the record and memorial of vocal song, and that which appertains to it. From this system, the privileges and organised customs, respecting the bards and bardism in the Isle of Britain, were first formed.
The three primary bards of the Isle of Britain:
That is, these formed the privileges and customs that appertain to bards and bardism, and therefore they are called the three primary bards. Nevertheless, there were bards and bardism prior to them, but they had not a licensed system, and they had neither privileges nor customs otherwise than what they obtained through kindness and civility, under the protection of the nation and the people, before the time of these three. (Some say that these lived in the time of Prydein, the son of Aedd the Great, but others affirm that they flourished in the time of Dyvnwal Moelmud's son; and this information they derive from ancient manuscripts which are entitled "Dyvnwarth the son of Prydein".)
The three beneficial sovereigns of the Isle of Britain:
First, Prydein, the son of Aedd the Great, who first formed a system of citizenship of the country and tribe, and the organisation of the country and the bordering country in the Isle of Britain.
Second, Dyvnwal Moelmud, who improved and extended the institutes, laws, privileges and customs of the Cambrian nation, so that equity and justice might be obtained by all in the Isle of Britain, under the protection of God and his tranquillity, and under the protection of the country and tribe.
Third, Howel the Good, son of Cadell, and grandson of Rhodri the Great, king of all Cambria, who improved the laws of the Isle of Britain, as the changes and circumstances which occurred among the Cambrians demanded, lest what was good might be effaced, and lest what was excellent might not succeed it, according to the conditions and effect of the organisation of the Cambrians.
And these three men were the best of legislators.
The three vigorous ones of the Isle of Britain:
Gwrnerth the sharp shot, who killed the greatest bear that was ever seen with a straw arrow;
Gwgawn with the mighty hand, who rolled the stone of Maenarch from the valley to the summit of the mountain, and which required sixty oxen to draw it there; and
Eidiol the Mighty, who, in the plot of Stonehenge, killed six hundred and sixty Saxons with a billet of the service tree, between sun-set and dark.
The three royal families that were conducted to prison from the great great grandfather to the great grandchildren, without permitting one of them to escape.
First, the family of Llyr Llediaiath, who were put into prison in Rome, by the Caesarians.
Second, the family of Madawg son of Medron, who were imprisoned in Alban, by the Irish Picts.
Third, the family of Gair son of Geirion, who were imprisoned in Oeth and Anoeth, by the verdict of the country and tribe. Not one of these escaped; and it was the most complete incarceration that was ever known, with respect to these families.
The three archbishopricks of the Isle of Britain.
First, Llandav, through the favour of Lleirwg son of Coel and grandson of Cyllin, who first gave lands and the privilege of the country to those who first dedicate themselves to the faith in Christ.
Second, York, through favour of the emperor Constantine; for he was the first of the Roman emperors who embraced the Christian religion.
The third was London, through favour of the emperor Maximus.
Afterwards there were Caerllion upon Usk, Celliwig in Cornwall, and Edinburgh in the North; and now there are St. David’s, York and Canterbury.
The three supreme thrones of the Isle of Britain:
second, Caerllion upon Usk; and
Triad 87 The three chief cities of the Isle of Britain:
Caerllion upon Usk in Cambria;
London in Lloegria and
York in Deira and Bernicia.
The three privileged ports of the Isle of Britain:
Newport in Monmouthshire,
Beaumaris in Anglesea, and
Gwyddnaw in Cardiganshire (lost by over-flowing by the sea).
The three most noted rivers of the Isle of Britain:
the Severn in Cambria,
the Thames in Lloegria, and
the Humber in Deira and Bernicia.
The three primary Islands attached to the Isle of Britain:
At a subsequent period the sea broke through the land, and Anglesea became an Island; and in a like manner the Orkney Isle was broken, and many Islands were formed in consequence, and other parts of Scotland and Cambria became Islands.
The three golden-corpses of the Isle of Britain:
Madawg the son of Brwyn;
Ceugant Beilliawg; and
Rhuvon the Fair, son of Gwyddnaw Garanhir.
They are so called because their weight in gold was given to deliver them from those who slew them.
The three forward ones of the Isle of Britain:
Eiddilic the dwarf;
Trystan the son of Tallwch; and
Gweirwerydd the Great;
because nothing could divert them from their designs.
The three men who escaped from the battle of Camlan:
Morvran son of Tegid who, being so ugly, everyone thought he was the devil from hell and fled before him;
Sandde Angel-aspect, who having so fine a shape, so beautiful, and so lovely, that no one raised an arm against him, thinking that he was an angel from heaven; and
Glewlwyd with the Mighty Grasp, for so large was his size and mighty his strength, that no one could stand before him, and every one fled at his approach.
These are the three men who escaped from the battle of Camlan.
The three shepherd retinues of the Isle of Britain:
Benren the herdsman in Gorwennydd, who kept the herd of Caradawg son of Bran and his retinue, and in which herd there were 21,000 milch cows.
Second, Gwydion son of Dôn, who kept the cattle of the tribe of North Wales above the Conway, and in that herd were 21,000.
Third, Llawvrodedd the knight, who tended the cattle of Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt, and in that herd were 21,000 milch cows.
The three mighty achievements of the Isle of
raising the stone of Ceti;
erecting Stonehenge; and
heaping the pile of Cyvrangon.
The three renowned astronomers of the Isle of
Idris the giant;
Gwydion son of Don; and
Gwyn son of Nudd.
Such was their knowledge of the stars, their natures and qualities, that they could prognosticate whatever was wished to be known onto the day of doom.
The three beneficial artisans of the Isle of Britain:
Corvinwr the bard of Ceri of the long white lake, who first made a ship with sail and rudder for the Cambrian nation;
Morddal the man of the white torrent, the artist of Ceraint son of Greidiawl, who first taught the Cambrians to work with stone and lime (at the time the emperor Alexander was subduing the world); and
Coel son of Cyllin, grandson of Caradog, and great grandson of Bran, who first made a mill of round and wheel for the Cambrians; and these three were bards.
The three inventors of song and record of the
Gwyddon Ganhebon, who was the first in the world that composed vocal song;
Hu the Mighty, who first applied vocal song to strengthen memory and record; and
Tydain the father of poetic genius, who first conferred art on poetic song and made it the medium of record.
From what was done by these three men, originated bards and bardism, and the privilege and institutes of these things were organised by the three primary bards, Plennydd, Alawn, and Cfwron.
The three primary youth-trainers of the Isle of Britain:
Tydain the father of poetic genius;
Menw the Aged; and
Gwrhir bard of Teilaw in Llandav; and these three were bards.
The three primary and extraordinary works of
the Isle of Britain:
the ship of Nwydd Nav Neivion, which brought in it a male and female of all living things when the lake of floods burst forth;
the horned oxen of Hu the Mighty, that drew the crocodile from the lake to the land so that the lake did not burst forth anymore;
the stone of Gwyddon Ganhebon, upon which all the arts and sciences in the world are engraven.
The three happy youth-trainers of the Isle of Britain:
Catwg son of Gwynlliw in Llangarvan;
Madawg Morvryn in the choir of Illtyd; and
Deiniol Wyn in North Wales.
These three were bards.
The three sprightly maids of the Isle of Britain:
Anghared Tonvelen daughter of Rhydderch the Generous;
Anan daughter of Maig Mygedwas; and
Perwyr daughter of Rhun Ryseddvawr.
The three golden-tongued knights of Arthur's court:
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar;
Drudwas son of Tryphin; and
Eliwlod son of Madog son of Uthyr.*
They were the wisest of all the wise of their time; and so fair and gentlemanly was their deportment, and so mellifluous and eloquent in all their addresses, that no one could refuse to grant them what they desired.
* See Arthur and the Eagle
The three wise counselling knights of Arthur's court:
Cynon son of Clydno Eiddin;
Arawn son of Cynvarch; and
Llywarch Hen son of Elidir Lydanwyn.
Prosperity always followed their counsels, if they were attended to, and misfortune happened wherever their counsels were neglected.
Tbe three just dispensing knights of Arthur's
Bias son of the prince of Llychlyn (by the common law);
Cadawg son Gwnlliw the warrior (by the law of the church and the ordinances of God); and
Padrogyl the spear-splinterer, son of the king of India (by law of arms).
The dispositions of these were to defend all feeble ones, orphans, widows, virgins, and all who had placed themselves under the protection of God and his tranquility, and all the poor iand weak, without exception, and to save them from violence, injury and oppression. And they acted neither from respect, nor fear, nor from love, nor hatred, nor from passion, nor from complaisance, nor from anger, nor from mercy of any kind, but only because it was just and right, according to the law of God the nature of goodness, and the demands of justice.
The three kingly knights of Arthur's court:
Morgan the Greatly Courteous son of Adras;
Medrawd son of Llew son of Cynvarch; and
Howel son of Emyr of Amorica.
It was their disposition to be so placid and mild, and pure in their discourse, that it was difficult for any person to refuse what they wanted.
The three privileged knights of Arthur's court:
Eithew son of Gwrgawn;
Colledawg son of Gwyn; and
Geraint the Tall son of Cymmamon the Aged.
They were plebeians, and the sons of vassals; but their word and their disposition for honesty, urbanity, gentleness, wisdom, bravery, justice, mercy, and every praiseworthy quality and science, either in peace, or in war, were so good, that the court of Arthur and its privileges were free for them.
The three knights of Arthur's court who guarded the Greal:
Cadawg son of Gwynlliw;
Illtud the sainted knight; and
Perdur son of Evrawg.
The three continual knights of Arthur's court who guarded the Grael:
Cadawg son of Gwynlliw;
Illtud the knight; and
Bwrt king of Llychlyn.
That is, not one of them would commit a carnal sin, nor would they form any matrimonial connection, nor have any connections with women, but chose to live as bachelors and to conduct themselves by the law of God and tbe Christian faith.
The three royal domains which were established
by Rhodri the Great in Cambria:
the first is Dinevor;
the second Aberfraw; and
the third Mathravael.
In each of these three domains there is a prince wearing a diadem; and the oldest of theie three princes, whichever of them it might be, is to be sovereign; that is, king of all Cambria. The other two must be obedient to his commands, and his command is imperative upon each of them. He is also chief of law and of eldership in every collective convention and in every movement of the country and the tribe.